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P\r 






,?\H^ 



The American 
Review of Reviews 



AN INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW 



Volume XXXVII. January-June, 1908 



THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY 
NEW YORK: 13 ASTOR PLACE 



i 



-i 






.! 



COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS CO. 



INDEX TO THE THIRTY- SEVENTH VOLUME OF 

THE AMERICAN 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



JANUARY-JUNE, 1908. 



Abyssinia : Raid on Italian posts in, 154. 

Advertising, Magazine, 608. 

Aerial navigation : Conquest of the air, 58. 

Africa. South, East, and West, Notes on, 154, 278. 

Airships. See Aerial navigation. 

Alaskan, Awakening of the, 177. 

Allen. William 11. Better business methods for 

cities, 11)5. 
American, Temper of the, 234. 
Anarchism vs. socialism, 538. 
Anarchist, Problem of the, 538. 
Animals, Actions of, during earthquakes, 104. 
Animals, Restoration of lost parts in, 743. 
Appalachian.s, National forests in the, 450. 
Arbitration. Progress of, 658 ; treaties in the 

Senate, 410. 
Argentine Republic, Economic advance of, 733 ; 

dictatorship in, 403 ; prosperity in, 4<>4. 
Arkansas capitol frauds, 65(». 
Art season in New York, 423. 
Arts and crafts in America, 5(n. 
Asquith, Herbert Henry, English Premier, 700. 

Bagdad railway. Question of the, 222. 

Balkans, New economic era in, 407-8 ; rivals for 
supremacy in, 482. 

Banks : See under Financial affairs. 

Bigelow, John, New York's first citizen, 421. 

BjBrkman, Edwin. William James, the man and 
the thinker, 45. 

Bjorkman, Frances Maule. The new anti-va- 
grancy campaign, 206. 

Books, The New, 112, 252, 380, 507, <>30, 753. 

Brown, C. B., San Francisco two years after, 682. 

Brown, Dr. John, 638. 

Brownsville colored troops affair, 6-7, 304. See 
also under Political Affairs. 

Bryan, William J., explained, 500. 

Bryce, Ambassador, Visit of, to Ottawa, 277. 

Busch, Wilhelm, the German caricaturist, 41)2. 

Business conditions in the West and the South- 
west, 715. 

Business leadership, 308. 

Business man, European, in retirement, 65. 

Business questions, 275. 

Business recovery. Outlook for, 135, 290. 

Canada : 

Affairs in, 529, 662. 

Immigration policy of. 350. 

Industrial peace legislation in, 100. 

Japanese immigration question in, 277. 

Parliament, Opening of, 18. 

The new nation to the north, 557. 

Treaties between United States and Canada, 
New, 529. 
Cannon. Joseph G., as a Presidential possibility, 

720. 
Carlos. King, of Portugal. Assassination of, 280. 
C-armen Svlva (Queen of Boumania), 619. 
Carnegie Institution, Magnetic work of the, 321. 
Cartoons of the Month, 32, 161, 289, 416, 544. 

670. 
Casson. Herbert N. New American farmer, 598. 
C»8tro, the ungrateful, 606. 



Catholic centenary in New York, 659. 
Central American conference. 17, 611. 
Chapman, Arthur. In the land of the sheep 

barons, 305. 
China : 

Foreign relation.s' of. 149. 

Germany's civilizing work in, 627. 

Germany, United States, and China — Are they 
natural allies? 372. 

Japan, Relations with, 408. 

Language question in, 213. 

Law reform in. Need of. 218. 

Railroad progress in, 149. 

Russia and Japan, China versus^ 536. 

Tatm Maru affair, 408. 
Chinese exclusion, Si)irit and letter of, 603. 
Christ's death. The date of, 488. 
Cities, Better business methods for, 195. 
Civil service at Washington, 221. 
Cleveland's three-cent street railway fares, ti55. 
Coal-mine disasters. 142, 225, 349. 
Comets, Is the world to be destroyed by? 241. 
Communal ownership and co-operation in 

Sweden, 232. 
Congo, Official Belgian statement on, 154. 
Congress. Affairs in : 

Arbitration treaties in the Senate, 410. 

Aldrich financial bill, 132-3, 400. 

Appalachian and White Mountain forest re- 
serves bill, 044-5. 

Brownsville colored troops affair, 6-7, 394. 

Central Bank proposition, 133. 

Chronological record of proceedings, 27, 156, 
284. 411, 539, 6()5. 
Congressional methods, Inefficacy of, 520. 

Criticisms of Congress, (550-2, 518. 

Employers' liability bill. 522-3. 

Fowler financial bill, 132-3, 400. 

House,— What it failed to do, 518. 

Naval expenditures. 649-.50. 

Naval question in. 515-517. 

President's message on convening of Congress. 
Comment on, 10. 

President's message of Januarv 31. Comment 
on. 2(»8-9. 

Speaker, The, and his power, 519. 

Wood pulp tariff question, 649. 
Conventions and other gatherings, 657, 719. 
Cooley, Alford W. An improved naturalization 

system, 464. 
Corpora tion.s. Industrial, in President Roosevelt's 

message, 11.. 
Corporations in modern business, 628. 
Cortelyou, George B., as Presidential possibility, 

720. 
Cosmopolitan clubs in American university life, 

317. 
Cuba, American mission of peace in. 261. 
Cuba, Civic progress in, 144-146. 
(^iban problem, — How it might be solved, 65. 
Cummins, Governor, as a Presidential possibil- 
ity, 9. 
Curacao a really successful tropical colony, 230. 
Currency reform : A central bank, 35. 

Danish-American university exchange, 625. 
De Boigne, Countess, 638. 



IV 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl/IEWS. 



Dering, Jackson K., a leader in the coal industry, 
726. 

Detroit River tunnel, 227. 

Dodd, Samuel C. T., the master builder of Stand- 
ard Oil, 355. 

DuPuy, William Atherton. The awakening of 
the Alaskan, 177. 

Eidmonds, R. H. A national inventory, 593. 
Educating our boys : the cost, 374. 
Eggs, Nutritive capacity of, 743. 
Electricity, the renewer of youth, 732. 
Electricity*s recent triumphs, 41). 
Embassies, Our, and their needs, 521-22. 
Encyclopedias, past and present, 311. 
England, George Allan. International socialism 

as a political force, 577. 
Entomology, Bureau of, at Washington. (JH4. 
Europe, Northern, Fixing the status of, 0(53. 

Fairbanks, Charles W., as Presidential possi- 
bility, 721. 
Farmer, The new American, 508. 
Financial : See also under Congressional Affairs. 

Bank deposits, (guaranteeing, 134, 340, 345. 

Banker, country. The, 353. 

Banker, Value of, 249. 

Banking system and the panic, 12. 

Bond buyers. Cautions for, 375. 

Bond or mortgage? 375. 

Bonds, Buying, 501. 

Bonds, E}quipment, Extra income from, 751. 

Bonds. (lilt-edged, selling cheap, 108. 

Business depression. Calculating the, 504. 

Crisis, our, A German economist on. 98. 

Currency reform : a central bank, 35. 

Experts declare their confidence, 24(3. 

Financial warnings, 378. 

(5ood cheer for 1JM)8. 377. 

High income with peace of mind, 502. 

If you can afford to take a chance, 107. 

Investment securities, 10(5. 

Legislation, Necessity for, 13. 

Making money work, 247. 

Mining propositions for the small investor, 
632. 

Money hoarders during the panic, Story of, 82. 

Panic, End of, 131. 

Panic, Remedies for, 132. 

Panics, — How they come and go, 131. 

Pennsylvania Railroad, (533. 

Public utilities and the investor, (531. 

Railroad stocks. Problem of, 5(>5. 

Speculation and gambling, 109. 

Speculation, T'se and abuse of, 748, 750. 

Signs of the times, 250. 

Trustee, Rules for a, 035. 

Watching trade barometers, 110. 
Foraker, Joseph B., as Presidential possibility, 

721. 
Forbes-Lindsay, C. H. The work of the K«^ep 

Commission, 190. 
Foreign relations touched on in President Roose- 
velt's message, 15. 
Forest protection in France and Japan, 735. 
Forest reserves : Supreme Court decision limit- 
ing the private owner. (54(5. 
ForGst.s, The fight for the, 87. 
France : 

Army, Fighting value of, 223. 

Commerce, State aid to, 152. 

Financial prosperity of the French people, 152. 

Military and naval forces. Decrease of, 152. 

Political affairs in, 279. 

Population question in, 361. 

Social problems in, (5(53. 
Fuel waste, Question of. 94. 

Gary, Elbert H.,.of the Steel Trust, 354. 
Gems, artificial. Making, (530. 
Geniuses, What they eat and drink, 370. 
Georgia, Prohibition in, 666. 
Germany : 



China, The United States, and Germany, — Are 
they natural allies? 372. 

Colonial system. Weakness of, 237. 

Commerce, German, Have we been unfair 
to? 99. 

England and Germany, — The friendship of, 486. 

Constitutionalism in, 20-21. 

Financial problems of, 151, .535. 

Polish lands, Expropriation of, 21. 400-7. 

Political affairs in, 20-21. 

Problems of, 20. 

Prussian suffrage right, 151. 
(lOld flood and its problems, 77. 
(iold. Mechanical handling of world's stock of, 

220. 
GoKlfield, Nevada : Miners' strike at, 1(5. 
(ireat Britain : 

Agriculture, English. Is it to revive? 278. 

Asquith. Premier, P](iuipnient of, 532, 700. 

Budget, The, presented, (J(52. 

Economic problems of, 278. 

(Jermany and Fiigland. — The friendship of, 486. 

Home riile in Parliament. 5.3.3-.534. 

Law reform in, Need of, 744. 

Liquor, legislation, 405. 

Ministry, New, 5.3(%531-532. 

Parliamentary affairs, 404-5. 

Politics in, 1.53. 

Trade Conditions in, 15.3. 

Tweedmouth, Lord, The Kaiser's letter to, 4(Xj. 

Unemployment in, 489. 

Haiti, Revolt in. 403. 

Harris, G. W. (4eorge Meredith at eighty, 18.3. 

Hearst; a political problem, ,582; see also under 

Political affairs. 
Hill. David .Tayne ; Episode connected with his 

appointment to Berlin, 522. 
Hindu in America, <504. 
Horse vs. health, (52.3. 

Howard, L. ()., (iovernraent Enloniologist, «»84. 
Hudson tnnnf'ls connecting New York and New 

Jersey, 425. 
Hughes. Charles E., (Jovernor of New York, Work 

of, .527-8; see also under Political Affairs. 
Human race — Is it degenerating? 029. 

Ibsen's development, Danish interpretation of, 
020. 

Iglehart, Ferdinand Cowle. Tlie nation's anti- 
drink crusade, 4(58. 

lies. George. Electricity's recent triumphs. 49. 

Immigration for fiscal year 19<m;-7. 1(5-17, 3S7. 

Indian, The, as laborer and agrir-ulturist, 728. 

Industry, army of, " Red (^ross " for, 201. 

International Bureau of American Republics, 
Building of. dodicated. (».")S. 

International Law, American Society of. (557. 

Ireland, Awakening of, (502. 

Irrigation : (Government's great storage dams, (589. 

Italy, Problem of ro-migration in. 19. 

Ireton, Robert Emmett. Currency reform : A 
central bank. .35. 

Jackson. Lui.s. Railroad freight rates, 707. 
James, William, the man and the thinker, 45. 
Jaj)an : 

Aoki, Ambassador, Recall of, 25. 

Canada and South America, Japanese in, 224. 

China, Relations with, (5(54. 

Coolie emigration, 28.3. 

Elections in, 064. 

Exposition in Tokio in 1912, 239. 

Financial troubles, 410. 

Immigration question. 25-20. 

Ministry, Crisis in, 148. 

Naval progress since Russo-.Tapanese War. 731 

United States, Feeling toward, 25, 147, 2(5(5* 
392-3. 
Jew, twentieth-century, ('omedy in the tragedy oj 

Jewish Church, " Modernist " crisis in, 103. 
Jewish farmers, 617. 



INDEX TO yOLUME XXXyil. v 

Jews in New York City, 389. Methodist quadrennial conference at Baltimore 

Jones, Ernest La Rue. Conquest of the air, 58. and its work, 6G0. 

Josiah V. Thompson, a leader in the coal indus- Michelsen. Prof. Albert A., awarded Nobel prize 

try, 720. for science, 42. 

Jury, trial by — Should it be abolished? 007. Missouri owned the railways, When, 1)0. 

Mitchell, Guy Elliott. To farm America's 

Keep Commission, Work of the, 190. swamps, 438 ; Checking the waste of our na- 

Kellogg, Arthur P. The man out of work, 330. tional resources, 585. 

Kelvin, Lord, 57; America's interest in work of, Moore, Lsabel. Portugal in the family of na- 

171. tions, 325. 

Kentucky, Tobacco war in, 10. Morocco, Affairs in, 154, 279. 

Knaufft, Ernest. Arts and crafts in America, Municipal affairs : Cleveland's three-cent fares, 

501 ; The art season in New York, 423. 055. 




Kommissarzhevskaya, Madame Vyera Feodo- 

rovna, 305. National inventory. A, 593. 

Natural resources. Our, 401, 524, 593; White 

Labor : House conference on, ()42-4. 

Combinations of, 398-9. Naturalization reform, 391, 404. 

Hatter's case. Supreme Court decision in, 399. Navy : 

Influence of, 524. Atlantic fleet's cruise to the Pacific, 88, 147, 

Pacific Coast labor market, 392. 2(»0, 270, 402, 450, 529, 001), 0(U. 

l^abor markets. Ebb and flow of, 387. Our ships under criticism, 207. 

I^abor questions in President Roosevelt's mes- Naval affairs, 137. 

sage, 14. . ^ , Naval matters in President Roosevelt's mes- 

Labor wars. State intervention in, 740. sage to Congress, 15. 

Unemployed, The. of to-day, 330, 489. Navy, Shall we maintain a? 515-17. 

La Follette, as Presidential possibility, 722. Value of our naval power, 207. 

Lane, Franklin K. Railroad capitalization and Nebraska experiment in saloon regulation, 057. 

federal regulation, 71J. Negros, American, Clannishness among, 394. 

Laszlo (Philip) and his portrait of President Nettleton, Gen. A. B. Shall bank deposits be 

Roasevelt, 550. guaranteed? 340. 

Latitude, Variations in, 737. Newspaper and the forest. The, 71. 

Laut, Agnes C. Canada, the new nation, 557. New York City : 

Leading Articles of the Month, 87, 220, 348, 477, Abeam cai>e. The, 141. 

003, 720. Charter Revision Committee's preliminary re- 

Lem^nager, Henri V. The government's great port, 141. 

storage dams, 689. Electric tunnels in, 140. 

Life cycles. Curious, 245. Health conditions in, 390. 

Liquor problem: Jews in, 390, 391. 

Alcoholism in the French Army, 3(K1. Foreign elements in, 388, 389, 390. 

Anti-liquor legislation in Great Britain, 405. Political improvement in, 391. 

Georgia, Prohibition in,, 650. Transit progress, 390. 

Legislation all over the world, 153. New York State : Legislative situation, 055, 

The nation's anti-drink crusade, 408. 527-8 ; Anti-race track gambling legislation, 

War on alcohol in Russia, 499. 142, 528. 

Nebraska experiment in saloon regulation, 057. Nitrogen and the food supply of the human race, 

Literary invasion. American, of Europe, 740. 741. 

Lobingier, Charles Sumner. Need of law reform North Sea question, 281. 

in China, 218. Nobel priie for American science, 42. 

Lochner, Loui.s. Cosmopolitan clubs in American North, Arthur Walbridge, 030. 

university life, 317. Norton, J. Pease. The gold flood and its prob- 
lems, 77. 

MacDowell, Edward, an American genius, 301. Norway's neutrality, Europe's guarantee of, 101. 
Magdalena Bay, Story of, 477. 

Magnetic work of the Carnegie Institution, 321. Obituary, 31, 100, 288, 415, 543, 009. 

Maps and diagrams : Opium, War on, (i05. 

Alaska's reindeer stations, 177. Oregon's referendum, 050. 

American literary invasion of Europe, 741. Oscar IL, Sweden's democratic monarch, 38. 

Balkans, New railroads in, 482. 

Canada's economic possibilities, 559. Panama, Progress at, 143. 

Central America, Independent states of, 17. Paper manufacture and wood pulp, 71. 

Oalilee, magnetic survey yacht, cruises of, 323. Parker, Capt. John H. How the Cuban problem 

Government's storage dams, Shoshone, Path- might be solved, (55. 

finder, and Roosevelt, 689, 091, 093, 097. Persia, Affairs in, 282. 

Haiti and San Domingo, 403. Philippine representatives at Washington, 2<)5. 

Hudson Tunnel, New York City, 420. Philippines, Secretary Taft's report on, 202-204. 

Magdalena Bay, California, 478. I*hotography, Color, 240. 

Newspapers and periodicals. Annual increa.'^e in Photography, Long-distance, 307. 

consumption of, in United States, 73. ^ Plant-growing under electric light, 020. 

New York Citv Department of finance and its Political affairs : 

functions, 198, 199. Brownsville affair as an issue, 394-5; 054. 

Route of Atlantic fleet from Hampton Roads Bryan's good chances, 053-4. 

to Magdalena Bay, 460. Convention, National, How it is reported, 725. 

Swamp lands of United States, 434. Corporation failure in politics. 271. 

Wood pulp area of United States, 73. Cortelyou movement, The, 8-9. 

McCulloch- Williams, Martha. The tobacco war Cummins, Governor, as a Presidential possi- 

in Kentucky, 168. bility, 9. 

Marquis. Albert Nelson, 639. Delegates, Seeking for, 138. 

t Mars, What it is like, 242. Democratic Presidential candidates, 527. 

G^Mereditb, George, at eighty, 183. Democratic discord, 526. 



VI 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS, 



Democratic Party — Has it a future? 723. 

Denver selected for Democratic convention, 9. 

Electoral process, Our, 5. 

Gray, Judge, as Presidential passibjlity, 10. 

Harmony, A season of, (i43. 

Hearst : A political problem, 582. 

Hearst's new party, 31>(>-7. 

Hughes. Governor, of New York, Work of, 8, 
527, 528. 

Hughes movement. The, 271, (»55. 

Johnson, John A., as Presidential possibility, 10. 

La Follette's position. 307. 

Money in the preliminary canvass, 395. 

New York delegation to Republican National 
convention, 272. 

New York State Democratic convention, 527. 

Political notes, 273-274, 525. 

President, Nominating a, 331. 

Presidential prospects, 305. 

Prohibition and politics, 300. 

Republican candidates for Presidential nomi- 
nation, 720. 

Republican convention. Who will run the? 053. 

Roosevelt third-term movement, 3-5. 

Taft and Foraker, 0. 

Taft candidacy. The, 7, 525, (;52. 

Taft, Is federal patronage used for? 271. 
'* Polish Mother of Schools," Work of the, 238. 
Polish question in the (4erman Reichstag, 22-23. 
Porto Rico, American mission in, 202. 
Portraits : 

Aerenthal, von. Baron, 483. 

Aldrich, Nelson W., 132, 275. 

Alexandra, Queen, of England, 22. 

Alexis, C'zarewich of Russia, 730. 

Allen, William H., 107. 

Alphonse XIII., of Spain, 22. 

Amaral, Ferreira do.. Rear- Admiral, 280. 

Anderson, Don Luis, (HI, 012. 

Andrews, Bishop K. (»., 100. 

Atasel, Martin F., (iov., 048. 

Arrhenius, Svante. 750. 

Asquith, Mrs. Herbert II., 703. 

Asquith, Rt. Hon. Herbert Henry, 405, 514, 
530, 701. 

Austurias, Prince of the, .5,30. 

Augusta, Kaiserin, of (iermany, 22. 

Ault, J. P., 322. 

Bacon, Robert, 012. 

Bancroft, George, 753. 

Bamum, William M.. 428. 

Batres-Jfturegui, Antonio, 012. 

Beveridge, Albert J., 051. 

Bigelow, John, 421. 

Billington, Miss. 48.5. 

Blanchard, Newton C, (Jov., (548. 

Bonilla. Policarpe, 012. 

Bonner, Hugh. 414. 

Brewer, David J., 401. 

Brockhaus, 315. 

Brownson, Admiral, 137. 

Brudno, Ezra, 359. 

Bru^^re, Henry, 190. 

Bryan, William J., 274, (540. 

Bryan, William James, 157. 

Buchanan, William I., 012. 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 120. 

Burton, Sir Richard, 115. 

Busch, Wilhelm, 493. 

Calvo, Joaquin B^. ()12. 

Camoens, Luis, 370. 

Campbell-Bannerman. Sir Henry, 532. 

Canfield, Dorothy. 125.^ 

Cannon, Joseph (i.. 275. 

(^arlos. King of Portugal, 90. .325. 

Carnegie. Andrew. (HO. 

Cavendish, Spen<»er Compton. 534. 

Central American Peace Conference, 012. 

(Churchill. Winston. 7(«. 

Claude, Monsieur, 511. 

Cleveland, Frederick A., 190. 

Conger, Kenyon B., 481. 

Conway, Moncure D.. 20. 



Cook, Frederick A., 510. 

Cooley, Alford W., 392. 

Corbin, John, 750. 

Corea, Luis F., 012. 

Coronulas, L. A., 155. 

Crane, William Murray, 52(5. 

Creel Enrique C, 012. 

Cromer, Lord, 508. 

Cummins, Albert B., 9. 

Curtin, .Jeremiah, 2513. 

Cutler, .John C, (iov.. (548. 

D'Amade, General. 153. 

Danby, Frank, 7(;(5. 

Davidson, .Tames O., Gov., (548. 

Davidson, Thomas, 113. 

Davies, J. Vipond, 429. 

Day, William R., 401. 

De Morgan, William, 708. 

Deueen, Governor, of Illinois, (345. 

Dering, .lackson K., 727. 

Devonshire, Duke of, 534. 

Diderot, Denis, 31.3. 

Dix, Morgan, Rev. Dr., (5(59. 

Dodd, Samuel C. T., 350. 

Dodd, William E., 380. 

Donald, Robert, 510. 

Doyle, William T. S., 012. 

Eastman, Dr. Charles A.. 117. 

Edison, Thomas A., .380. 

Edward VII., King of England. 22. 

Elizabeth, Queen, of Rounumia, (519. 

Ellis, llavelock, 7.58. . 

Emory. William H., 4(51. 

Evans, Rear-Admiral Robley I)., 2, 5, 457. 

Farnian, Henri. (>4. 

Fessenden, William Pitt, 114. 

Fiallos, E. Constantino, 012. 

Finley. John II., 389. 

Fisk, Pliny, 428. 

Folk, Joseph W., Gov., (;45. (5.54. 

Foraker, Joseph B.. 7, 274. 

Fort, John F., (4ov., (548. 

Fowler, Charles N.. 13. 

Franco, .loaquin, 19. 

Fuller, Melville W., 401. 

Fulton, Robert. 253. 

(Jale, Zona, 128. 

(iallegos, Salvador,, 012. 

Garfield, .Tames R.. 190. 

Gary, Elbert H., 354. 

Gary, Frank B., 410. 

Glenn, Robert H., (Governor, (547. 

(;odov. Joso F.. (512. 

(ioethals, (Jeorge W., 14.3. 

(Joodsell. Daniel A.. Bishop. (5(50. 

(}ore, Thomas F., 1.57. 

Grandfield, Charles P., 285. 

(}rant. Gen. Fred. I)., (5. 

(Jray, (leorge. .527. 

(iriliparzer, Franz, 114. 

Hall. (Mmrles Cuthbert, .543. 

Hamilton, (Jen. Alexander. .31. 

Ilansbrough, Henry Clay, 1.3.3. 

Harlan, John M.. 4()1. 

Harmon, .Tudson, 0(55. 

Haskell, Charles N., 1.34. 

Hearst, William Randolph, 397. 

Hepburn, William P.. 13(5. 

Ilerrarte. Tjuis Toledo, (512. 

Hill. David .Tayne. 523. 

Hill, James J., (54(5. 

Hitchcock, Frank II.. 192, 395. 

Hoch. Edward W., 1.34. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 401. (547 

Ilotta, Vi.scount, (5(>4. 

Houston, Sam. 122. 

Howard, T-.. ().. (585. 

Howard, (ien. Oliver Otis, 2.5.3. 

Hughes, Charles E.. 272. 

.Tackson, Sheldon, 182. 

Jacobs, Charles M.. 429. 

.lames, William, 47. 

.Tohnson, John A., Gov., 10, 413, (54.5, 054. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXV II. 



vu 



Jordan, David Starr, 383. 

Keep, Charles A., 191. 

Kelvin, Lord, 57, 173, 175. 

Kennedy, Charles Rann, 757. 

Kenny, Miss Annie, 485. 

Knox, Philander C, 273. 

Koch, Robert, Dr., 556. 

Kokovtzov, M., 229. 

Komiakov, Nicholas, 92. 

Kommissarzhevskaya, Madame, 365. 

La Follette. Robert M., 398. 

Laszlo, Philip A., 550. 

Latang, John H., 508. 

Lawrence, Mrs.' Pethwick, 485. 

Lea, Gen. Homer, 768. 

Legarda, Benito, 265. 

L^ger, J. N., 117. 

Lemieux, Rodolphe, 277. 

I^upp, Francis E., 729. 

Lewis, T. L., 286. 

Lieber, Franz, 316. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 424. 

Littlefield, Charles E., 524. 

Lloyd-George, Rt. Hon. David, 531. 

Logue, Cardinal, 659. 

Low, Seth, 519. 

Madriz, Jose, 612. 

McAdoo, William G., 427. 

Mac Dowell, Edward, 301. 

McKenna, Joseph, 401. 

McKenna, Rt. Hon. Reginald, 533. 

Magoon, Charles E., 144. 

Manuel II., King of Portugal, 258. 

Mascart. Prof. E., 175. 

Mason, A. E. W., 122. 

Maxwell, William H., 389. 

Mehmed Ali Bey, 155. 

Mejia, Federico, 612. 

Mejia, Jos^ Maria Ramon, 574. 

Meredith, George, 184. 

Mertyn, H. E., 322. 

Meyer, George von L., 517. 

Meyer, Hans, 315. 

Michelson, Albert A., 42. 

Milton, Hail, 539. 

Milyukov, Paul, 150. , 

Mitchell, John, 646. 

Moody, William H., 401. 

Mulai Hafid, 279. 

Munroe, Charles E., 143. 

Miinsterberg, Hugo, 614. 

Murray, Lawrence O., 16, 192. 

Nathan. Ernest, 20. 

Neill, Charles P., 16. 

New, Harry S., 4. 

Noel, E. F.; Governor, 645. 

Norway, Queen of, 22. 

Oakman, Walter G., 428. 

O'Brien, Thomas J., 283. 

Ocampo, Pabk), 265. 

Osborne, Thomas M., 723. 

Oscar, King of Sweden, 39. 

Owen, Robert L., 157. 

Palmer, Alice Freeman, 754. 

Peckham, Rufus W., 401. 

Penna, Affonso, President of Brazil, 147. 

Peter, King of Servia, 236. 

Peters, J. C, 322. 

Pillsbury, Capt. John E., 128. 

Pinchot, Gifford, 193, 644. 

Pizarro, 123. 

Portugal, Carlos, King of. 90. 

Portugal, Crown Prince Luiz Filipe, 326. 

Portugal, Queen of, 22. 

Portugal, Manuel II., King of. 258. 

Portugal, Queen Maria Amalia of, 327. 

Price. Overton, 194. 

Procter, Redfield, 386. 

Purdy, Milton D., 392. 

Putnam- Weale, B. L.. 509. 

Randall. James R., 286. 

Ran«3e]l, Joseph E., 14. 

Redmond, John, 534. 



Rheinbaben, Baron von, 151. 
Robins, Elizabeth, 761. 
Rodriguez, Salvador, 612. 
Roosevelt, President, 2, 5, 551. 
Root, Elihu, 612. 

Russia, Czarewich of, Alexis, 730. 
Ryan, Thomas F., 135. 
Sakurai, Tadayoshi, 115. 
Sanchez-Ocaua, Victor, 612. 
Sedgwick, Anne Douglas, 120. 
Sellers, Coleman, 175. 
Servia, King Poter of, 236. 
Sheldon, George L., (iovernor, 645. 
Shibusawa, Baron, 148. 
Smellie, William, 314. 
Smith, Charles Emory, 158. 
Smith, Charles Sprague. 139. 
Smith, Herbert Knox, 16. 
Smith, .John Walter, 539. 
Smith, William Alden, 400. 
Socialist Congress at Amsterdam, 755. 
Spain, King and Queen of, 22. 
Spain, Son of the King and Queen of, 536. 
Spears, John R.. 507. 

Sperry, Charles S., Rear-Admiral, 463, 661. 
Stead, William, Jr., 495. 
Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 130. 
Stevens, Durham W., 536. 
Stewart, John W., 538. 
Stimson, Frederic J., 511. 
Stoddart, James Henry, 29. 
Supreme Court Justices, 401. 
Swanson, Claude A., Governor, 645. 
Sweden, King and Queen of, 23. 
Sweden, King Oscar of, 39. 
Sydow, Reinhold, 535. 
Taft, Charles P., 396. 
Taft Henry W 6 

Taft! William H., 6, 139, 263, 396, 677. 
Tetrazzini, Luisa, 154. 
Thomas, Charles M., 4a3. 
Thompson, Josiah V., 727. 
Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin), 57,173,175. 
Toledo, Luis, 155. 
Tower, Charlemagne, 521. 
Turrettini, Col. Th., 175. 
Tweedmouth, Lord, 487. 
Ugarte, Angel, 612. 
Unwin, Prof. W. C, 175. 
Urussov, Prince, 381. 
Vanderlip, Frank A., 295. 
Van Eeden, Frederic, 616. 
Victoria, Queen of Spain, 22. 
Voltaire. 314. 
Vorys, Arthur I., 140. 
Ward, William L., 525. 
Wells, Mrs. Borman, 484. 
Wenzell, A. B., 127. 

White House Conference on Natural Re- 
sources, group portrait, 642. 
White, Edward D., 401. 
Whyte, William Pinkney, 415. 
Wiley, Harvey W., 553. 
Wilflev, Lebbeus R., 409. 
Wilhelm II., Emperor of Germany. 22. 
Williams, Clark, 528. 
Williams, John Sharp, 520. 
Williman, Claudio, 574. 
W^illson, A. E., Governor, 645. 
Winder, John H., 727. 
Wister, Owen, 613. 
Woodford, Stewart L., 271. 
Woodford, Walter R., 727. 
Zamenhof, Dr., 358. 
Zelaya. Jos4 Santos, 496. 
Portugal : 

Affairs in, 404. 

Assassination of King Carlos, 279. 

Colonies of — What they might be, 745. 

Dictatorship in, 18, 403. 

Elections. The, 536. 

Manuel II., the new king, 281. 

Political conditions in 89, 280. 



VUI 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 



Portugal in the family of nations. .*i2r». 

Tortugal in the work of civilization, I50S). 
Pastal savings hanks and parcels i>08t plans, 517. 
I'roctor, Senator K*'(lfield, the late, :W(». 
Progress of the World, X l.'U, 25J), ;W7, r»15, (^43. 
Prohibition and politics, .'ilM). 

Prohibition in the South, Moral dignity of, 47J). 
l»rothero, (J. W., VyiM. 

Quebec Tercentenary, 402. 
Queen, Future, Training* a, <)18. 

Uace problems of America, 3J)4. 
Radio-<-ulture, (520. 
Kailroads : 

Accidents and the color sense, 481. 

Anthracite* roads anil the II(>i)burn act. 13(5. 

(■apitalization and federal regulation. 711. 

Employees. Death and disability roll of, 1)5. 

Finances of, 13r». 

Freight rates too low, 707. 

Missouri owned the railroads. When. 00. 

Power of, in the State, 3-l.S. 

President'.s mes.sajie. Kailroad <piestions in, 
10-11. 

Public ov<'rsight of. Need for, 130. 
Record of Current Events, 27, 150, 2S4, 411, 5.3'.), 

(;i;5; 
" Red Cross " work for the army of industry. 201. 
Reeve, Arthur B., Why not a " Red Ooss " for 

the army of industry? 201. 
Resources, national, 'Che<'king the waste of, 5S.5. 
Robinson Crusoe's land, 730. 
Rome, Hebrew mayor of, (Ernest Nathan), 

10-20. 
Rome, Making a seaport of. .3(>2. 
Roomer, l*roblem of the. 24.3. 
Roosevelt, President : 

BittenMvs against, 2(;0-270. 

First me.ssage to Sixtieth (Congress, Comment 
on. 10-15. 

Message of .January 31 to Congn*ss, Comment 
on, 2CiS. 

Third-terra movement, .3-5. 
Root, Elihu. Work of, in the (\ibinet, 2«i4-.5. 
Rosewater. Victor. Nominating a President. 1^31. 
Rossiter, W. S. The newspaper and the forest, 

71. 
Ru.ssia : 

Affairs in, 2S2. 

Budget for 11K>S, 22J). 

Duma, The, a real parliament, <M».3. 

Duma, the third. Meeting of, 24-25. 

Dumas, Finst two. and the ])rospects of the 
third. 01. 

Labor leadi'r on the revolution in, (>24. 

Milyukov, Paul, a constructive statesman, 140. 

Naval bill defeated. 407. 

Reaction in full swing. .3.52. 

Revolution. The, (Jenesis of, 150. 

Russia's •* return to Europe," 720. 

Ru.ssia, the greater. What will it be? (;22. 

liusso-Turkish relations, 2S2. 

Santo Domingo. American policy toward, 2(>2. 
San Francisco two years after the fire, (582. 
Schurz, Mrs. Carl, (5.30. 
Scientific achievement, American, Paucity of, 

(51.3. 
Servia's e(*onomic prosperity. 23(5. 
Shaw, William B. John Bigelow, New York's 

first <ritizen, 421. 
She<'p barons. In the land of, .*M>.5. 
Shepherd. William R. Educnti<»n in South 

America, 570. 
Sherman anti-trust law, Proiwsed modification 

of, .308. ^„ 

Sienkiewicz'g appeal against l^rusaia, 490. 
Smith. Edwarcl Snell. Dr. Wiley, government 

chemiHt, .'>52. 
Smyth, Newman, (>40. 



Socialism, International, as a i>olitical force, 577. 

South America, Education in, .570. 

Spain, Affairs in, 404. 

Spain in the work of civilization. 300. 

Spanish- American War anniversaries and prog- 
ress since, 2.50. 

Speare, ('harl(>^ F. Busin(v<R conditions in the 
West and the Southwest, 715; Frank A. Van- 
derlip, banker-journalist, 203. 

Si)eech, an international, — Is it needed? 357. 

Springer, .1. F., America's interest in the work 
of Lord Kelvin, 171. 

Stead, William, .Ir., 404. 

Stead, W. T. The real Mr. Asquith, 700. 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 130. 

Steel-making in the United States, Cost and 
profits of, 480. 

Stevens, Durham W., Assassination of, 537. 

Suffragettes, English, ("ampaign of, 484. 

Supreme Court of the I'nited States, 401. 

SwamiSs of America, Reclamation of, 433. 

Swan, Howard. China and the language ques- 
tion, 21.3. 

Sweden, (^ommunal ownership in. 232. 

Sweden, New King of, (iustav Adolf V., 23. 

Taft, William Howard : See also under Political 

Affairs. 

As Presidential candidate, (575, 722. 

Development of, as a statesman, 2(54. 

Training for Presiden<*y, (57.5. 

Philippine report, 2(52-2(54. 

l*eacemaker in Panama, 
Tariff and revenue nmtters in President Roose- 
velt's message, 1.3-14. 
Tariff commission, Projjased, 1.37. 4<X). 
Tetrazzini, Madam Luisa, in New York. 155. 
Theater, Peoi)le's. at St. Petersburg, 3(i6. 
Tramps, how Poughkeepsie deals with, 211. 
Tridon, Andre. The European business man in 

retirement, H.5. 
Tripoli, What is to be the future of? 304. 
Toi»ac<'0 war in Kentucky, 1(58. 
Tuberculosis. Recent progrt\ss in curing, 105. 
Tunnels in New York, 140. 

I'nited States, (iermany, and China — Are they 

natural allies? .372. 
Cnited States in Spanish La tin- America, 260-262. 

Vagrancy, Anti-, campaign. The new, 20(5. 

Vanderlip, Frank A., banker-journalist, 203. 

Van, Eeden, Frederic: author, mystic, socialist, 
(51.5. 

Van Norman, Ixiuis E. The achievement of the 
Hudson tunnels. 425: How science fights the 
insect enemies of our crops, (584. 

Venesuela, American claims against, and Presi- 
dent Castro's reply, 520-.^). 

Wade, Herbert T. A Nobel prize for American 
science. 42; The magnetic work of the Car- 
negie Institution, .321. 

War. Tlie hell of, 4!>7. 

Water supply. Securing new, for an Australian 
capital. (tS)8. 

Waters, navigable. Future of our, 0(5. 

Watson, H. C. Outlook for business, 2JH). 

Wellman, Walter. Taft, trained to be Presi- 
dent, (575. 

Wiley, Harvey W.. (iovernment Chemist. .5.52. 

Willfey, Judge Ix»bbeu« R.. Exoneration of, 400. 

Will Thoma« Elmer. National forests in the 
Apimlachians, 450. 

Winder, John H., organizer of the coal industry 
in the South. 72(5. 

WMndmflller, Ix>ui8. Encyclopedias, ]»ast and 
present, 311. 

Wolff, Heniy Drummond, 6:^7. 

Woodford, Walter H., of Pittsburg Coal Co., 726. 

World — Is it to be destroyed by comets? 241. 

SSelaya, the menace of Central America, 496. 



r\\ 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1908, 



The Commanders - in - Chief cf the 

Navy and of the Fleet Frontispiece 

The Progress of the World— 

The Third-Term Movement 3 

Mr. Roosevelt's Position 3 

The Latest Statement 4 

The Electoral Process 5 

Taft and Foraker 6 

The Emergence of Governor Hughes.. 8 

Mr. Cortelyou in the Limelight 8 

Denver for the Democrats 9 

. Johnson and Gray 10 

The President's Great Message 10 

On the Railroad Question 10 

The Question of Industrial Corporations 11 

The Money Question 12 

The "Strike" of the Banb 12 

Tariff and Revenue Matters 13 

Labor Questions in the Message 14 

The Public Domain and the People 14 

The Army and Navy < 15 

A Million and a Quarter Immigrants 16 

The Central American Agreement 17 

Opening of the Canadian Parliament 18 

The Dictatorship in Portugal « . . 18 

Re^misration Troubling Italy 19 

The Hebrew Mayor of Rome 19 

Pressing German Problems 20 

An Exciting Session of the Reichstag 20 

Expropriation of Polish Lands 21 

A New KiM[ in Sweden 23 

The Duma Repudiates the Autocracy 24 

The Premier Affirms Autocracy 25 

A Struggle Over the Budget 25 

The Recall of Ambassador Aoki 25 

Settling the Immigration Question 25 

Earthquakes in Persia 26 

With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 

Record of Current Events 27 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Some of the Recent Cartoons 32 

Currency Reform: A Central Bank.. 35 

By Robert Emmett Ireton. 

Oscar II., A Democratic Monarch 38 

By A Swedish- American. 
With portrait. 

A Nobel Prize for American Science 42 

By Herbert T. Wade. 
With portrait of Albert A. Michelson. 

William James, Man and Thinker . . 45 

By Edwin Bjorkman. 
With portrait. 



Electricity's Latest Triumphs 49 

By George lies. 

With Illustrations. 

Lord Kelvin (portrait) 57 

The Coming Conquest of the Air 58 

By Ernest La Rue Jones. 

With Illustrations. 

• 

How the Cuban Problem Might Be 
Solved 65 

By Captain John H. Parker, U. S. A. 

The Newspaper and the Forest 71 

By W. S. Rossiter. 

The Gold Flood and Its Problems. . . 77 

By J. Pease Norton. 

The Story of the Hoarders 82 

By William Justus Boies. 

The European Business Man in 
Retirement 85 

By Andre Tridon. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

The Fight for the Forests 87 

The True Significance of the Pacific Cruise . 88 

The Political Crisis in Portugal 89 

The First Two Russian Dumas and the Pros- 

pecU of the Third 91 

Two Centers of Real Municipalization 93 

The Question of Fuel Waste 94 

^ Death Roll of Our Railway Employees 95 

When Missouri Owned the Railways % 

The Futur&of Our Navigable Waters 96 

A German Economist on Our Financial Crisis.. 98 

Have We Been Unfair to German Commerce ? 99 

Industrial Peace Legislation in Canada 100 

Europe's Guarantee of Norway's Neutrality. . 101 

••Modernism" and the Church of Israel 103 

How Animals Act During Earthquakes 104 

Recent Progress in Curing Tuberculosis 105 

Wltb portraits and other illustrations. 

Leading Financial Articles — 

Investment Securities 106 

If You Can Afford to Take a Chance 107 

Gilt-Edged Bonds Selling Cheap 108 

Holding on to Stock Bargains 109 

The Line Between Speculation and Gambling. 109 

'Watching Trade Barometers 110 

The New Books 112 

Witli portraits and other illustrations. 

The Novels of the Season 120 

with portraits and other illustrations. 



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THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE NAVY AND THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 
OF THE FLEET. 

President Roosevelt and Rear-Admiral Evans, who commands the American fleet on its cruise 

to the Pacific 

(Pholagrsphril on the ilofffloiter et nampton Roads on the momlDg ol the departure. Decemtx^r IG.) 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

Vol. XXXVII. NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1908. No. 1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

j^^ The movement to force a third ^^ But Mr. Roosevelt all his life has 
TMrd'Term term upon President Roosevelt Roosevelt's been a close student of American 
ouemen . j^^j begun to assume not only a ^^'^ ^"' political history. And he has 
great and swelling volume, but also an or- never for a moment wished or intended to 
ganized and definite character, when it was go counter to the established tradition that 
checked and probably thwarted by a formal forbids a third consecutive term. His dec- 
announcement from the White House on laration on election night in November, 1904, 
December 11. In the vicinity of New York was a mature and convincing statement that 
City, it is true, there were many who be- the country fully accepted. Unquestionably, 
lieved that Mr. Roosevelt's popularity was that statement has helped to give strength and 
fast waning, and that the third-term senti- weight to the President's policies ; for no one 
ment could not have carried the national Re- has been able to say that he was acting with 
publican convention even if the President had reference to a control of the next convention 
given it his tacit encouragement. But this in his own interest. But although the Presi- 
Wall Street notion that the President's dent's own personal position has been clear 
strength with the people was abating did and unambiguous, it is not strange that the 
not have much evidence to support it. Sev- third-term movement should have seemed for 
eral of the States were preparing for very a time to have been beyond any possible check- 
early Republican conventions, in which dele- ing or control. Hundreds and thousands of 
gates pledged to President Roosevelt were to the most experienced political observers in the 
have been chosen by way of example to the country were sa/ing in private, if not in pub- 
rest of the country. Attempts to fasten upon lie, that the next iii tional convention would 
the President a culpable responsibility for the beyond doubt 'be stampeded for the President ; 
financial panic had only resulted in the clear that he would be nominated and elected in 
bringing to light of a contrary opinion ; for spite of himself, and that he could not on any 
It became more and more evident that Re- proper ground decline to take the oath of 
publicans and Democrats alike throughout the ofHce and serve as President if the electoral 
length and breadth of the land were disposed college chose to continue him in the White 
to lay all the blame for the country's financial House for four years more, 
difficulties upon the managers of great cor- 
porate and financial interests. Undoubtedly ^,^ This feeling was due to several 
public opinion went much too far in pro- Unequaied causes. First of all was the Presi- 
nouncing its verdicts of guilt upon Wall "^"^ ' dent's marvelous popularity, re- 
Street and upon trusts and corporations in gardless of party lines, .and the eager convic- 
general. Everybody had helped to build up tion of the masses of plain people that Mr. 
the great edifice of expanded credit, and the Roosevelt is the real leader for our times, and 
reaction in some form or other was bound to that he is needed for the further development 
come. But here our question is. How was of his policies. Second, and closely akin, was 
the reaction affecting the political strength the feeling on the part of State and local poli- 
of President Roosevelt ? And the answer is, ticians that with no other name at the head 
according to the best evidence we can gather, of the ticket could they so easily carry their 
that the country was standing with the Presi- States and secure Republican victories in all 
dent very solidly, and was overwhelmingly their local contests. Thus there was a belief 
anxious to keep him in office. even among Democratic politicians that, be- 



4 THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REyiEiVS. 

sides carrying the safely Republican States, been issued. At this point it may well be 

Mr. Roosevelt could carry Virginia, Ken- recorded that the nominating convention will 

tucky, Tennessee, and Alissouri (which he be held in Chicago on June l6. Mr. Harry 

carried in 1904 by 30,000 majority), and that S. New, of Indiana, succeeds Mr. Cortelyou 

he would have even a good chance in North as chairman of the National Republican 

Carolina. Distinguished Democrats in At- Committee for the period in which conven- 
lanta have intimated tliat Mr. Roosevelt 



might also carrj' (leorgia. It is easy to s 

then why local Republican politicians, wish- ]] Ij 

ing to elect State and county tickets, should |i 

have clung to the hope that Mr. Roosevelt 1. 

could be induced to take the nomination, j , 

Further than that, there are many federal , 

ofliccholders who have been appointed hy the 1 
President, and who would on all grounds be J 
glad to have tJicir chief remain at the head ' 
of the Government. If some of these office- '. 
holders had not participated in the third-term !i 
talk, their reserve would have been "ithout ■ 
precedent in the history of politics. In a-i- 1 
swer to criticisms launched against the undue ; 
activity of some of these officials, it is enough 
10 say th.it the third-term movement, in so ' 
far as it had strength, was genuine and spon- 
taneous, and that it was neither helped nor ; 
hindered appreciably by anybody's schemes or 

designs. Some wrecks ago President Roose- || 

vclt had been informed that certain office- \' 

holders were openly advocating his renomi- li 

nation, and he issued orders that Government j! || 

employees must not enter district or State con- I' ._- --- __-^- — — J | 

ventions with a view to forcing him into the ''i"'i«"i>'i i" '■>''' "'"■■■ f- im- 
position of a candidate. ""^'- "'^""i' s. new. 

iChulrmun ot Ihe ' llcpuUlcan Xatloaal Committee.) 
f^. Still another reason for the great 
Latest strength and persistence of the ''01 arrangements are to be made. It is 
statimint. (hj^d-tcrm movement was the customary for purposes of the campaign itself 
lack of any other name to conjure with, that the Presidential candidate should name 
Even,'body was ready to admit that the Re- the chairman of the committee. On the I ith 
publican partj' possessed a number of men of December there was issued from the 
who would make good Presidents, but there White House a statement as follows: 
seemed to be no one as yet who had appealed ]„ view of the issuance of the call ot the 
to the popular mind and heart, and there- Republican National Commiitee for the con- 
fore it was a serious question whether any- "i-niion, the President makes the following 

bodv but Roosevelt could beat Brj-an. When o?'thi"„i«t„ f. 1 .- r .'u ,. 

.L n LI- V ■ I r' ■ ^" '"^ night aticr election I made the fol- 

the Kepublican National Committee met at lowing announeemcni : 

Washington in the first week of December to " 1 am deeply sensible of the honor done me 

choose a place for the holding of the con- ^y ^j"f Amtrican people in thus expressing their 

ventlon and to do other work of a nrellm- '^""™="';e ■« ^'n?' I have done and have tried 

lention and to do other work ot a prelim to do. I appreciate to the full the solemn re- 

mary sort, the political atmosphere was over- sponsibility this confidence imposes upon me. and 

charged with rumors. When the committee i shall do all that in my power lies not to for- 

visited the White House to pay its respects ?'" "■ '^" "?'^ f"""'; of March next I Ehall 

,. Ti -1 ■ 1 !■ 1 L . nf nave served three and a half years and this 

to the President, it was believed that Mr. „,„, ^nd a half years constitute my firTtteni 

Roosevelt would remove the perplexities that The wise custom which limits ibe President to 

weighted the minds of the political managers '""'^ terms regards the substance and not the 

hy making a final declaration. He put it off, f"'"'- a"d under no circumstances will_ I be a 

, . % , , ., , "^ . ' candidate for or accept another nomination, 

however, for a few days, until the committee [ |,ave not changed and shall not change the 

had dispersed and the convention call had decision thus announced. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



if^^ The President has in public as 
It ifflj well as in private reiterated this 
"* ' ■ declaration many times since it 
was first made, in 1904. It was not neces- 
sary for him to speak again, yet the somewhat 
perplexed and discouraged friends of various 
candidates desired a renewed announcement, 
and the President of course had no objection 
to gratifying them. The psychology of 
masses of men is hard to understand. Just 
why this last statement should be received 
as conclusive, while doubt should have been 
cast upon identical statements made a little 
earlier, is not for us to discuss. It is enough 
to say that the politicians who were propos- 
ing to hold early conventions in several 
States and pledge their delegates to Mr. 
Roosevelt will probably refrain from such a 
course. Other candidates will now be per- 
mitted to test the sentiment of the people, 
and from this time forth the game will be 
played with much activity and zest. 

„^ Meanwhile it is well to call at- 
liteterai tention to the peculiarities of our 
Pneen. jy^fem of electing a President. In 
.the strict and official sense it is not a candi- 
date for the Presidency who is presented for 
the suffrages of the voters, but rather a 
group of Presidential electors in each State. 
The people choose the electors and the elec- 
tors choose a President. If the Chicago con- 
vention should declare that in its judgment 
the Presidential electors in the several States 
ought to cast their ballots for Mr. Roosevelt 
for the Presidency, and should decline to 
nominate anybody else, the men nominated 
as Republican electors in their several States 
would if elected doubtless cast their votes for 
Mr, Roosevelt. And if the Republicans 



should have a majority in the electoral col- 
lege, Mr. Roosevelt would be declared elected 
when the votes were counted in due form. 
Under those circumstances, it is not to be 
supposed that any man could decline to talcc 
the oath of ofKce if in possession of his physi- 
cal and mental powers. Mr. Roosevelt has 
not said that he would refuse to serve as 
President if elected. He has merely said that 
he would not accept a nomination. His 
jllatform is contained in his last message to 
Congress. If the American people chose to 
make him President, no acceptance of a nom- 
ination would be absolutely necessary. Yet 
while all this is theoretically true, and ought 
not to be forgotten, it is not to be supposed 
that anything of the sort is at all likely to 
happen. Nor has any one thought of sug- 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



broihtr, Mr. Henry W. Tafi. of Xuw York.) 

gesting that Mr. Roosevelt's Statement lacked Novembet 20. The resolutions adopted by 
anythinf; of sincerity or completeness. There this League repudiated the idea that Mr. 
is no possihle reason why he should say that Foraker should be retired to private life " bc- 
if the American people elected him President cause he was not able to a^rree with President 
he would refuse to take the oath of office. Roosevelt as to the rate bill, or joint state- 
Our party forms have become so well cstab- hood for New Mexico and Arizona, or about- 
lished that they are like unwritten clauses of the Brownsville matter." Mr. Foraker's Ict- 
the organic law. ter in reply was made public November 29. 
He declared that he did not wish to appear 
Tttft ^' '^ probable that when the con- as a candidate for two offices at the same time, 
anrf veniion assembles at Chicago, no and he accepted " with heartfelt appreciation 
0™ •'■ candidate will have the support of the support for the Presidential candidacy 
anything like a majority of the delegates, which the committees have so generously ten- 
" l"he most prominent candidate is Mr. Taft, dercd." His letter in a somewhat extended 
Secretary of War, who arrived in this coun- manner expressed resentment against the 
try on December 20, having sailed from a " suggestion that the office of United States 
German port December 7, Mr. Taft found Senator is to be stripped of all the real honor 
that the support of his own State was disputed attached to it by making its incumbent a mere 
by Senator Joseph B. Foraker, who had de- agent to register the decrees of somebody else 
clared himself a Presidential candidate in re- instead of the representative of a State 
sponse to an invitation from the Republican charged with the constitutional duty of leg- 
clubs of Oliio. To state the matter precisely, islating according to his best judgment for 
Mr. Foraker was indorsed for re-election to the welfare of a great nation, accountable to 
the Senate and also for the Republican nomi- his constituency for his acts and votes, but to 
nation for the Presidency at a joint meeting nobody else," He proceeds to explain and 
of the executive and advisory committees of defend his course in the Senate, as if W 
the Ohio League of Republican Clubs, on right to act freely had been denied. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE iVORLD. 



^, It does not seem to us that Mr. 

Feraiier'i Forakcr is justified in attempting i 
on tnt on. ^^ nialce a public issue out of such 
a question, inasmuch as nobody could prop- ■ 
erly dispute his thesis. The Senate has its 
constitutional powers and prerogatives and 
its place of dignity. For a good many years 
past, instead of its being subordinated to other 
departments of the Government, the common 
criticism has been that the Senate had become 
too dominant. Speaker Cannon and the 
House of Representatives have been deeply 
indignant at the undue pretensions of the 
Senate ; and the Executive for many years pa't 
has found the Senate anything but readily 
acquiescent. Mr, Foraker will not succeed 
in convincing the country that President 
Roosevelt or any other President in iecent 
times has been able to dictate to the Senate. 
That body has shown itself more than able 
to take care of itself. A real difficulty alJRut 
the Senate is its failure to represent the peo- 
ple in a duly proportionate manner. And this 
is one of the reasons why Senator Foraker's 
course with regard to joint statehood seemed 
open to criticism. It is altogether wrong that 
Arizona and New Mexico should come into 
the Union as States with four Senators. They 
have not a sufficient development of trained 
population or of established institutions to 
justify their balancing in the Senate great 
States like Ohio, Pennsylvania, or New York. 
Mr. Foraker is a very brilliant member of 
the Senate, a public speaker of great power, 
and a man who has a strong hold upon his , 
fellow citizens of the Buckeye State. He had 
a perfect right to his own views upon ques- 



ons that came before the Senate, and surely 
obody interfered with his expression of those 
iews, inasmuch as he was able by his opposi- 
on to certain measures to shape the delibera- 



tions of the Senatorial body during most of 
the session. He was in a very small minority 
on several of these questions among his Re- 
publican brethren of the Senate;- yet he had 
his own way for more days in that distin- 
guished body than any other man has had for 
a long period of years. Surely then he will 
not be able to convince the public that any- 
body has been able to interfere with the free 
exercise of all his prerogatives as a Senator, 
His debating of the rate bill was brilliant and 
cogent and well worth while. His persistent 
forcing of the Brownsville issue was a mas- 
terful piece of work. His attitude against 
joint statehood defeated the pending bill. 
Since he was so successful, therefore, he has 
no ground of complaint. 



It would 1 



' seem more thar 



Taft likely that the Ohio contest will 

dorsement for the Presidency and Mr. For- 
aker's equally strong indorsement for re-elec- 
tion to the Senate. The managers Jn Ohio 
of Mr. Taft's campaign deny that the com- 
mittees endorsing Mr. Foraker were repre- 



8 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REI^IEiVS. 

tentative. But this criticism is not important. 
The thing that signifies is Mr. Foraker's 
acceptance of the indorsement. It is the 
opinion of the country that Mr. Taft's man- 
agers in Ohio have not been very wise or 
dignified in their methods. Mr, Taft occu- 
pies a great public office and has served the 
country for a good many years with prestige 
and distinction. He Is well-known from one 
end of the land to another, and the fact of 
his candidacy has nowhere escaped observa- 
tion. It would seem quite sufficient to let 
public opinion and the Republican party do 
the rest. Any semblance of a scrambling for 
delegates on the part of those regarded as 
authorized to act for Mr. Taft will do him 
more harm than good. President Roosevelt 
has not the slightest desire to dictate to the 
party or to the countt)*. Undoubtedly for a 
good while it has been liis opinion that Mr. 
Taft would make an admirable President, 
and that he would verj- probably prove the 
most availalile candidate. Mr. Roosevelt, be- 
ing a frank man, could not well hold such a 
view without having it become known. And 

there is no reason why he should have kept uovernoh iiigues chiuno out or bclipsb. 
that opinion as a secret. But the Adminis- From t!v« Timcs-Lition (Albany), 

tration is engaged in carrying on the work of 

the Government, and it is not using its influ- they do not undervalue those things), but 
ence or power to promote the selection of because they believe he can lead them to vic- 
Mr. Roosevelt's successor, Mr. Taft has tory. Governor Hughes made an amazing 
dignity as we!! as knowledge and experience, canvass against Mr. Hearst in the autumn of 
and he knows that the Presidency is not a 1906, and demonstrated his ability to carry 
thing to he sought with any eagerness of the State, where the odds seemed against him. 
striving. Those who favor him have a right The Republicans of the country at large do 
to work hard to secure delegates, but they not know very much about Mr, Hughes, but 
must be careful not to put Mr. Taft in a all that they have heard is in his favor as a 
wrong light before the public. man of high personal and public qualifica- 

tions. Beyond this, what they know is that 
TKe £mrrgencs There scems 00 longer any doubt he carried the State of New York in a hard 
ofeofrrnar ns to tlic emergence of Governor fight. It seems wholly likely, therefore, that 
"' "' Hughes of New York as a Presi- New York, and perhaps New England, may 
dential candidate. If he has desired to be support Governor Hughes in the Chicago 
brought forward, he has not made such a convention. 
desire apparent in any way. He has been 

Governor of New York for one year only, ut.Cortii^Bu ^* " " ^^^t ^Jtt months too 
and has never before held office, nor had he ,■'" 1"% ^'^" ^° predict what growth the 
been known to the public except in connec- "" ' ' Taft and Hughes movements 
tion with some important investigations, such may have before them. There is no possible 
as that of the insurance companies. Yet he reason for other than generous and apprecia- 
has made a great impression upon the people tive competition. Following his commenda- 
of the State of New York, and it was gen- ble activities as Secretary of the Treasury at 
erally admitted last month that he would the time of the panic, there arose a wide- 
command tlie support of the New York dele- spread discussion in political circles of the 
gates in the national convention. It must possbility of making Mr. Cortelyou the Re- 
always be remembered that politicians do not publican nominee. That a great deal of ac- 
support a man for high office because they tive work was being done in the promotion 
admire his character and talents {although of the so-called " Cortelyou movement was 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 9 

asserted with some apparent grounds of 
truth. It was also said that in ceftain States 
the third-terra movement was being pushed 
by officeholders as a mask for the Cortelyou 
boom. On Dcceraber 17 Mr, Cortelyou 
came out in a dignified statement of general 
denial. Mr, Cortelyou has met the test of 
some great responsibilities. He seems never 
to have disappointed the expectations of those 
who gave him work to do, whether private or 
public. The positions he has filled, including 
that of chairman of the Republican National 
Committee, have given him an extensive ac- 
quaintance among public men. Those who 
have been most closely associated with him 
seem always to be the ones who admire him 
most and trust him most completely, Mr. 
Roosevelt had reason to know him well be- 
fore he put him in the cabinet and before he 
made him his campaign manager. More 
than almost any other man in public life, 
Mr. Cortelyou has learned the lesson of self- 
conlrol. He will not, therefore, allow the 
buzzing of the Presidential bee to distract 
his attention from his duties as Secretary of 
the Treasury, nor to weaken his usefulness a; 
a member of Mr, Roosevelt's cabinet. His 

friends have a right to mention him for the governor albert b. cummins, of iowa. 

Presidency, and if the Republican party 

wants him it will know where to find him, ical views and a record of achievement. Fl- 
it is not at present likely that there will be nally there is Governor Cummins of Iowa, 
any strong attempt made by the Cortelyou whose friends have not been insistent in 
men to take the New York delegates away their mention of him, but who has elements 
from Governor Hughes. of strength that may shine out boldly 

when the convention is trying to reach final 
8om« Meanwhile Senator Knox, who conclusions. Governor Cummins has a strong 
otiur will be presented by the Pennsyl- personality. Is well known to represent the 
*' vania delegation, has many good Rooseveltian policies in the broad sense, is a 
words said about him throughout the coun- strong but not fanatical advocate of tariff re- 
try; and Speaker Cannon, who will be pre- form, has been a successful Governor for 
sented by the Illinois delegation, seems likely three terms, is a lawyer of high professional 
to prove a more active candidate than was at standing, and is free from any disqualifying 
first expected. The candidacy of Vice-Presi- circumstance of public record or private life, 
dent Fairbanks h« not of late been so much H is availability is positive as well as negative. 
noticed in the press as that of several other 

men. But it will doubtless be brought into Denver '^^^ Democratic National Corn- 

prominence again by reason of the decision of far tin mittee met at Washington in De- 
the Republican managers in Indiana to hold emocra i. ^.g^^^^^ j^^j selected Denver as 
their conventions early next month, and to the place for holding the party's convention, 
select their delegates at once with instruc- the date being July 7, which is just three 
tions to support Mr. Fairbanks. He will thus weeks later than the Republican convention 
be the first of the so-called " favorite sons " to at Chicago, Denver is building a splendid 
be officially launched by the party authorities new auditorium ; and in addition to other in- 
of his State, The friends of Senator La ducements it offered to contribute $100,000 
Follettcof Wisconsin take his candidacy with to the Democratic campaign fund. Mr. 
entire seriousness,and believe that the only Bryan is strong in that part of the world, 
diance for Republican victory this year is and the selection seems to foreshadow his 
with an aggressive Western candidate of rad- triumphant indorsement as the Democratic 



sition party, in its choice of leader 
its statement of issues, must be much influ- 
enced by the selections and attitudes of the 
party in power. 



10 THE AMERICAN REy/ElV OF REVIEWS. 

nominee. But the Democrats were judicious Hearst as an independent candidate. The 
in providing an interval of several weeks be- strength of Mr. Bryan lies in the fact that 
:wo great conventions. An oppo- he would be able to hold the party together. 
Thus the chief elements of opposition to Mr. 
Bryan in the State of New York have al- 
ready been completely won ever through the 
formal acceptance of the Nebraska man by 
Mr. William J. Connors, of Buffalo, who 
is chairman of the State Committee, and by 
Mr. Charles Y'. Murphy, who is leader of 
Tammany Hall. 

r*8 Prei/- ^* ''^^ opening of the first session 
nenfs Bieat of the Sixtieth Congress, early in 
"""""■ December, Mr. Cannon, of Illi- 
nois, was again chosen as Speaker of the 
House, while Vice-President Fairbanks was 
in his place as presiding officer of the Senate. 
The message of the President was of too great 
length to be instantly read'and comprehended 
by the country. Many newspapers which had 
never before failed to print the annual mes- 
sage in full, found it necessary to epitomize 
portions of it. It would perhaps be a good 
idea if a brief and terse summary of such a 
document could go out officially, along with 
the unabridged state paper. The first and 
most important part of the message deals ex- 
tensively with the subject of interstate com- 
merce. Apart from the President's lucid 
method of presenting his views and giving the 
reasons for them, he makes definite recom- 
mendations which ought to be culled out, re- 
phrased, and set before the country sfrcsh 
when Congress returns to its work from the 
holiday V 



GOVERNOR JOHN A. JOHNSON, (IF m[n: 

joftMOB ^^ '* "'*" quite distinctly un- 
and derstood that Governor Johnson 
"""■ of Minnesota will be at least a 
receptive Democratic candidate. This re- 
vival of the Johnson boom seems to have fol- 
lowed the Governor's visit to Washington 
early in December, where his reception was 
exceedingly cordial, and where he made a 
brilliant success in the always difficult role of 
a Gridiron Ciub speaker. Meantime, the 
Democrats of Delaware, on December lo, 
through their State committee, unanimously 
adopted resolutions endorsing Judge Gray 
for the Presidency, No one can deny that the 
Hon. George Gray would make a Demo- 
cratic standard-bearer of great distinction and 
strength. Much, however, must depend upon 
the Republican choice. Shrewd Democratic 
politicians fear that with so conservative a 
candidate as Judge Gray the party might be 
Split, half of it supporting Mr. Wiinam R. 



g^,^^ As respects railroads, the Prcsi- 
Raiiroan dent says: " There should now be 
"'" ""' either a national incorporation act 
or law licensing railway companies to engage 
in interstate commerce upon certain condi- 
tions," Again he says: " The law should be 
so framed as to give to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission power to pass upon the 
future issue of securities, while ample means 
should be provided to enable the commission, 
whenever in its judgment it is necessary, to 
make a physical valuation of any railroad." 
Third, the President repeats his advice of a 
year ago regarding railroad agreements, and 
says: "Railroads should be given power to 
enter into agreements, subject to these agree- 
ments being made public in minute detail and 
to the consent of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission being first obtained." What the 
country now wants is action on these specific 
recommendations rather than general discus- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. U 

sion. We have had a good deal of legislation joined in the present session of Congress upon 
at Washington, and a vast deal in the States, these specific points. The Sherman anti-trust 
on the railroad question. The three recom- law as it stands does not meet existing busi- 
mendations now made by the President are ness conditions. The business combinations 
of great importance. They will have to be of the country ought to be under federal 
faced by Congress in the present session. The supervision, with a reasonable amount of 
last one certainly ought to be enacted ; that is publicity as to their finances and methods, 
to say, railroads ought to be permitted to and with a corresponding protection against 
make agreements with one another, particu- capricious local attacks. These are momen- 
larly as regards rates. Most people will be- tous recommendations that the President 
lieve that the further issue of stocks and makes, and have to do with matters that have 
bonds might properly be subjected to the ap- been under general discussion now for a num- 
proval of the Interstate Commerce Commis- ber of years. It is time to crystallize the 
sion. The question of federal license or in- issues and to fight them out squarely in Con- 
corporation is involved in much practical gress. President Roosevelt has had to deal 
difficulty. It has seemed to us an advisable with four Congresses, namely, the Fifty- 
thing. The great conference recently held in seventh, the Fifty-eighth, the Fifty-ninth, 
Chicago, made up of representatives of all in- and the present one, the Sixtieth. His poli- 
terests, unanimously favored the earnest con- cies about railroads and corporations have 
sideration of these changes in the law. The been developed through this period. He has 
people throughout the country should ask witnessed under his leadership the breaking 
their Representatives and Senators to face up of the universal practice of railroad rebat- 
these questions in the present session. ing, and this has amounted to a practical 

revolution in business. He has seen the 
The Question ^^^ "^^^ Subject that the Presi- checking of certain methods which were too 
of inthistrtai dent deals with is the Sherman rapidly bringing the railroad systems of the 
orfwrat oaa. j^^ti-trust law as It relates, not to country into unified control through so-called 
railroads but to industrial corporations and " holding corporations." He now advises 
combinations. It is advised that Congress certain further steps in the development of 
should specifically extend the regulation and the policy of national regulation of railroads, 
control of the federal Government to great and he lays these matters before a new Con- 
industrial corporations. It is advised that gress which has its full two-years' period be- 
Congress should provide for the granting of fore it, and which will expire by limitation of 
national charters of incorporation to large term on the day when President Roosevelf 
business concerns. It is advised that an in- goes out of office, namely, the fourth of 
terstate commerce corporation thus brought March, 1909, 
under federal supervision should not be al- 
lowed to hold the stock of any other company comptetethe '^^^ intervening of a Presidential 
except as it is authorized to do so by a proper work election, with its diverting inci- 
public body. It is advised that the enforcing " "" dents, ought not to obscure the 
of the interstate commerce laws relating to country's perception of the main points of 
business corporations should not be left to the policy that it is the business of the present 
slow process of actions brought in the courts. Congress to deal with. The railroads should 
but should be in the hands of an executive have protection as well as regulation; they 
body like the Interstate Commerce Commis- should know their rights as well as their 
sion. It is advised that the Sherman anti- duties ; they should be made to serve the pub- 
trust law " should be so amended as to for- lie faithfully and efficiently, and they should 
bid only the kind of combination which does be allowed to earn good returns upon their 
harm to the general public, such amendment investments and their efforts as business or- 
to be accompanied by, or to be an incident of, ganizations. The completion of Mr, Roose- 
a grant of supervisory power to the Govern- velt's railroad policy at the present time 
mcnt over these big conceilis engaged in in- ought to give stable equilibrium to the rail- 
terstate commerce." road situation for a generation to come. 

Again, as respects the big industrial corpora- 

MiMmd Here, then, are certain definite tions, Mr. Roosevelt has shown that the law 

ihettke recommendations. The Presi- is supreme, and everybody is now ready to 

****** dent's discussion of them is clear admit it. But although the authority of law 

and strong. The issues should be clearly is vindicated, the statute provisions of law 



,0 



% 



12 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REI^IEIVS. 

have been shown to be very inadequate, and ^.^^ "strike" ^^^ result was the sharpest pa- 

to some extent absurd and unjust. Mr. of the ralysis of current business that 

Roosevelt lays down a policy for the chang- "" *' the country has ever known. The 

ing of the statutes and for the better admin- crops could not be moved because the banks 

istration of the law. In its main outline this had possession of the people's money and 

policy is right and wise. The great busi- would not give it up. If this had not been a 

nesses of this country are legitimate in their country of law and order, and if every bank 

commercial motives and in their general lines had been mobbed by indignant depositors and 

of conduct. The large way of doing busi- compelled to do business in its usual and 

ness has come to stay. But these enterprises proper way, the panic would have ended in 

have to be subject to legal regulation, and twenty- four hours, inasmuch as the money 

they cannot be properly supervised by the in- thus brought into circulation would have 

dividual States. The working out of actual passed as freely again into the window 

legislation may prove difficult, but it is not of the receiving teller as it passed out 

impossible, and the Sixtieth Congress ought of the window of the paying teller. Ob- 

to undertake it and see it through. viously, the real trouble was not with the 

people who controlled the banks, since they 
-., The third great task that should are exactly the same class of people as the 
Moneii be recognized by the Sixtieth Con- rest of the reputable business community. 
Question, gj-^^g ^g especially devolving upon The whole fault lay with our banking sys- 
it has been given urgency by the recent bank- tern. We have a system that works ad- 
ing panic and the continuing money strin- mirably at all limes except when it is sub- 
gency. There is no legal remedy for the jected to a test. All sorts of efforts were 
business optimism that leads men in flush made to bring gold from Europe, with the re- 
times to extend their credit, and to put too suit of vast importations. Clearing-house 
much capital into fixed investments. Peri- certificates were issued in lieu of money by 
odic reactions, therefore, in business are the banks of a hundred different cities. All 
bound to come. But the people regard the sorts of pay-roll checks and extra-legal forms 
money function as essentially governmental, of paper promises and emergency currency 
and look upon the banks as the creatures of were put into local circulation in place of 
law and public administration. When the proper money. The United States Treasury 
banks, instead of facilitating the circulation poured its surplus into various banks of de- 
of money, proceed with one accord, from one posit throughout the country; it sold Panama 
ocean to the other, to prevent its circulation. Canal bonds in order to get more money to 
there ensues a business condition that entails lend to the banks ; and it sold emergency 
terrible suffering upon millions of innocent notes, as if the Government itself were in 
people and that drives thousands of honest need of money, for the sake of getting still, 
and solvent businesses to ruin. We have more money to lend to the banks. And yet 
been witnessing a most amazing spectacle, there was a great abundance of money all the 
The people are in the habit of taking the sur- time, only the banks were keeping it locked 
plus money which they do not need for the up in their vaults, 
transactions of the day and depositing it in 

banks, subject to their withdrawal at any ^^^^ The simple trouble is that no 

moment. But the banks of this country sud- of one bank can stand alone in a 

denly and without notice some weeks ago ^'^f^''^* <>"• ^jj^^g ^f f^jght when its depositors 

seized the money thus placed in their cus- have precipitated a run upon it ; and our sys- 

tody, refused to let the owners have it, and tern provides no way by which the strength 

at the same time refused to lend it on ap- of the banking system at large can adequately 

proved securities to borrowers. By every de- support the isolated bank in its moment of 

vice in their power the banks gathered in need. In times of financial stress and strin- 

money and held it in their vaults. They gency in other countries, relief is afforded by 

were ready to take a depositor's money at a banking systenT whose motto is: Always 

the receiving teller's window, while within pay out money just as fast as possible, taking 

five minutes they were firmly refusing to let good security for it, and if necessary raising 

him have any of it at the window of the pay- the interest rate. But in these other coun- 

ing teller. Our article on page 82 understates, tries the banking system has some form of 

in our opinion, the amount of bank hoarding central support to rely upon. Many cxpen- 

in the smaller towns and cities. enced people in this country are now aovo- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



f 

18 



eating t h c establish- 
ment of one or more 
great central banks of 
issue, which shall rep- 
resent in principle, 
whatever be the legal 
relationship, the power 
and strength of bank- 
ing co-operation. If we 
had any perfect remedy 
to ofier to Congress or 
to the banking com- 
munity, it would not 
be withheld. All that 
we can say is that our 
present system, which 
is in many respects ad- 
mirable, needs some 
further development in 
order to give it greater 
strength in times of 
sudden and severe 
storm. So far as the 
safety of our currency 
goes, nobody could ■ 
wish anything better. 
The proposals for giv- 
ing greater elasticity 
to the outstanding volum 
well enough in their way. 
quite reach the real difficulty. It is 
much that we need more currency when the 
crops are moving and business makes an 
unusual demand, as that we need a better 
protection for the banks, so that they may 
not feel tliat they must sacrifice both their 
Hepositors and thefr approved borrowers for 
the sake of maintaining their own solvency. 

■ ^^^ The present stringency will grad- 
mm B* ually be relieved, and no legisla- 
'^' tion of a hasty kind is needed to 
help an immediate situation that is slowly 
working itself out. But the present Con- 
gress cannot properly avoid a careful and 
deliberate treatment of the whole subject, 
and the country expects It to reach some large 
and valuable conclusions. The President 
does not make specific recommendations, but 
asks Congress to deal with the subject. For 
the District of Columbia and for the Terri- 
tories he advises that trust companies he put 
under the same regulation as national banks. 
Governor Hughes, by the way, has consti- 
tuted a very able commission to recommend 
changes in the banking laws of the State of 
New York. The results will doubtless be 
laid before the Sute Legislature by Governor 



(fhalPD 



• of currency are 
But they do not 



Hughes, and will bring about a more perfect 
regulation of trust companies, with other Im- 
provements in the banking laws of the State. 
The Secretary of the Treasury, in his report 
to Congress, strongly urges the adoption of 
some plan to remedy the difficulties that we 
have lately experienced, but makes no definite 
suggestions. The Controller of the Currenc)-, 
Mr. Ridgely, does not hesitate to criticise 
the neglect of currency reform by Congress, 
and lie is in favor of a central bank of issue. 
Mr. Fowler, chairman of the House Com- 
mittee that deals with questions of currency 
and hanking, has for some years had his own 
plans and views; but from this time forth he 
ought to insist less rigidly on his own ideas 
and bend all his energies toward securing an 
agreement upon some workable plan, 

Taiiir and "^^^ President's message deals 
ReueiMit with 3 great number of topics 
that cannot be acted upon by the 
present Congress. These parts of the mes- 
sage are, in fact, addressed to the country, al- 
though in form they are laid before the legis- 
lative bodies. For example, the President 
declares that " there is an evident and con- 
stantly growing feeling among our people 
that the time is rapidly approaching when 
our system of revenue legislation must be re- 



THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REt'lEWS. 



HO>f. JOS. E, RANSDELl., OF LOUISIANA. 
(Cha[riiiaa of iIil> NaMunnl Rlvc^c nail Hnrbora 
ConBrcBs wlili^h mni at WasblDgton oarl^ la Decem- 
ber, He was re'elected.) 

vised." Yet he makes it dear in what fol- 
lows that it will not be revised under his 
presidenc)'. He takes up the tariff question, 
for instance, and says that tariff revision can- 
not be accomplished until after the Presi- 
dential election. He advocates an income 
tax and an inheritance tax as a part of the 
revision of our revenue system, and thus lays 
down a programme of cardinal importance 
that must certainly be deferred for action un- 
til the Sixty- first Congress assembles two 
years hence. He places particular stress upon 
the advantages of a graduated inheritance 
tax. His object evidently is to get the sub- 
ject under thoughtful discussion in the coun- 
try, as preliminary to its consideration by 
Congress at some future time. 

Labor "^^^ matters for which the 
Qutaihna In friends of organized labor have 
tilt Meatast. ^^^^ contending at Washington 
are set forth in a friendly spirit by the Presi- 
dent. Thus he asks Congress to find some 
way to limit the abuse of injunctions and pro- 
tect those rights which from time to time the 
granting of injunctions is thought to invade. 
He advocates an inspection of railroad opera- 
tion for the sake of a more perfect knowledge 
of the facts regarding accidents, and he ad- 
vocates further legislation extending the prin- 



ciple of the liability of employers for all in- 
juries sustained by their workmen. He asks 
that the principle of the eight-hour day 
should be extended to the entire work of the 
Government, including that of public con- 
tractors. In addition to existing laws regard- 
ing the investigation of industrial disputes, 
Congress is asked to create a board for com- 
pulsory investigation of facts, with a view to 
limiting the evils of strikes and lockouts. 
Under a general discussion of the relations 
of capital and labor, Congress is asked at this 
session to pass a thorough and comprehensive 
act regulating the employment of women and 
children in the District of Columbia and the 
Territories. He does not withdraw his former 
Jation of the use of the interstate 
power to prevent the employment 
of children under fourteen in factories and 
mines, as proposed in the Be ve ridge bill. 
But first of all the President thinks Congress 
should deal directly with the subject in the 
District of Columbia and the Territories. 

TAB piMio '^^^ President deals at length 
Domain anil with Certain subjects which have 
had a foremost place in his 
thoughts and efforts during his entire period 
in office. Thus he writes of the forestry 
question with convincing weight, and advo- 
cates the establishment of the proposed Ap- 
palachian and White Mountain reserves. 
The various phases of the public land ques- 
tion in the West are presented with great 
knowledge and force. The progress of the 
irrigation policy is explained, the large pro- 
posals for inland waterwiiy development are 
set forth, and the value of the work of the 
agricultural department for the further train- 
ing of the nation in scientific farming is 
made the subject of what is virtually a com- 
pact little essay. In connection with the dis- 
cussion of the forests, the President advocates 
the repeal of the duty on wood pulp. The 
most fascinating section of the message de- 
scribes the work of the biological survey and 
shows how important to the country has been 
the Government's study of insects, birds, and 
animal life of all sorts. There is a section on 
the relation of the Government to public 
health. The recommendation of Mr. Mey- 
ers' plan for postal savings banks will have 
peculiar timeliness, and the proposal to ex- 
tend parcels post system on rural routes will 
prove popular. From the standpoint of the 
people's welfare as promoted by Government 
activity, this message is undoubtedly the most 
comprehensive ever written by any Presiilcnt. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



j^^ There are elaborate discussions ^^^ In paragraphs relating to foreign 
Amg ami of matters relating to the army foreign affairs, an excellent summary is 
""*■ and the navy. The necessity of '"' """' given of the work of the peace 
keeping the army organization efficient in conference at The Hague. Congress is in- 
time of peace and giving the officers anil en- formed that peace and prosperity now reign 
listed men a better compensation for their in Cuba. Apropos of the exposition to be 
services, are points convincingly set forth, held at Tokio, the President finds opportunity 
The presentation of navy questions has espe- to refer to the cordial relations between this 
^cial interest in view of the impressive de- country and Japan, The tariff relations be- 
parture of our great fleet of sixteen battle- twecn this country and Germany are fully 
\ ships on December 16 for the long vo)-a|«: to explained. The President asks for authority 
/the Pacific Coast. The President ivent to to revise the existing arrangement with China 
\ the rendezvous at Hampton Roads to bid in surh a way that we may show our friend- 
1 farewell to the fleet ; and the sailing was an ship by remitting further payment of in- 
I imposing affair. The expedition is under- dcmnity. Relations with ^lexico and Cen- 
taken ^vith the perfect good-will of all n.i- tral America arc set forth: Secretarj' Root's 
tions, including Japan, and with the ill-will visit to the neighboring Republic and tKe 
of nobody excepting a few carping critics in conference of the Central -American republics 
this country. The President advocates a pro- ai WasJiingron being especially noted. l"he 
vision this year for'four large battleships, and message ends witJi glowing praise of the work 
afterward for one battleship a year. He asks of the Bureau of American Republics. It 
for the completion of our scheme of coast is a document of immense value anfl import- 
fortifications, and apropos of the sailing of ance, and can only be appreciated as it is re- 
thc fleet he shows 4iow useful the expedition read from time to time for reference to its 
will be as a training for the navy and an treatment of particular questions. It re- 
object-lesson in all that relates to sea power, fleets the great range of our Gi 



THE AMERIC/tN REVIEW OF RkyiEWS. 



Hon. I.nwrpnce O. Miirrnj'. Hon. Cliarlos T. Nclll. 
THE COMMISSIONERS SENT BV PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO INVESTIG.\TE THE I^Ol-DFJEI-D MIXERS' STRIKE. 

activities, while it also illustrates the intimate Kentanka'a ^o^- Augustus E. Willson, of 
knowledge and the strong convictions of tlie Tubaoca Kentucky, the first Republican 
President in the various fields of public work. "'■ executive to be inaugurated in 
that State In twelve years, had barely taken 
j^^ Early in December lO.OOO mi- the oath of office, last month, when it be- 
eoiafieid ncrs at Goldfield, Nfv., went on came necessary for him to take decisive 
Diiiur nces. j,[.;|.g because their wages were measures to suppress the riotous spirit of the 
paid in cashiers' checks, instead of currency, tobacco planters in the Hopkinsville district. 
Most of the Goldfield miners had been where mobs had destroyed warehouses and 
members of the Western Federation of terrorized the inhabitants. The Governor's 
Miners or of affiliated organizations. After next step was to invite members of the to- 
the strike some of the mines attempted to bacco growers' societies and buyers repre- 
open with non-union miners. Various deeds senting trust interests to meet together, with 
of violence were charged against the strikers, a view to an adjustment of differences. The 
and it was probably a knowledge of the hostility existing between the farmers and 
methods that the Western Federation had the trust is intense. Injunctions restraining 
employed in Colorado and elsewhere, in the shipping of " pooled '' tobacco were sus- 
years past, as much as any real or threat- tained by the courts, one of the judges mak- 
cned injury to person or property, that led ing use of this significant language: "I 
Governor Sparks to call on the federal would rather an injustice should be done 
Government for troops. President Roose- one man than that 100,000 men should suf- 
vclt promptly dispatched military aid to the fer everlasting ruin." Large growers re- 
Nevada authorities, but he also sent to Gold- ceived anonymous letters containing threats 
field a commission consisting of Assistant that if they should attempt to ship their 
Secretary' Murray, of tlie Department of tobacco, the crop would be burned- 
Commerce and Labor, Commissioner of La- 
bor Neiil, and Commissiorer of Corpora- ^ j,,,,,^^^^ Economic conditions in this coun- 
tions Smith, with instructions to make a a Quarter try have caused a remarkably 
thorough investigation of the difficulties be- """" " '' heavy return of foreign laborers 
tween mine-owners and miners. The com- for winter sojourn in their native lands. Com- 
mission had the necessary authority and was missioner Sargent informs us that the total 
directed to report to the President. immigration for the fiscal year 1906-1907*33 



THE PROGRESS OF THE H/OrLD. 

I,38s>349> 3 t°^^ exceeding the greatest oi embarkation abroad 

figures of any preceding year by more than about to start for this country ; and that a 

18O1OOO. The greatest number of immi- treaty be negotiated with Mexico respecting 

grants came from Austria- Hungary, — 338,- immigration through that country, 
000 of them. Italy came next, sending us 

385,000 odd. The Russian Empire sent ^^^ central ^^ ^^'' ^^^ '^°^* significant event 
259,000; China 960, a decrease from the American of the past month in Latin 
figures of the preceding year; and Japan a""""'- ^1^,^^;^^ was the agreement 
30,000, an increase of about 100 per cent, upon two general treaties and six conven- 
for the year 1906. One significant fact tions of peace and friendship between the 
brought out by the Commissioner's report is republics of Central America. The treaties 
that a great number of immigrants landed at do not provide for a union, as had been ex- 
Southcm ports, an increase to these destina- pected in some quarters; they do provide for 
tMKU caused, in the opinion of the Commis- arbitration, for the establishment of an inter- 
aoacT, by the growing desire of the Southern national court to settle all possible differences 
States to draw the better class of labor from which may arise between the countries. They 
■broad. The relatively large increase in the treat further of commerce, navigation, and 
immigration from Japan is no douht due to extradition. The court, which will consist 
ill^al entry froip over the Canadian and of five judges, one named by each republic 
llexicaii borders. The total amount of from its most eminent jurists, to sit for five 
Dioney brought into the country by immi- years, will have jurisdiction over any ques- 
grants last year was over $25,000,000, an tion which any one or two of the Central- 
average of almost $20 per person. -The Aiperican governments may agree with any 
Commissioner strongly recommends the call- foreign government to submit to it. Unless 
ing of an international conference on immi- for very special reasons the court is to sit at 
gration and emigration; that marine hospital Cartage, in Costa Rica. The treaties are to 
surgeons be stationed at the principal points remain in force for ten years. 



TBI unKFENDENT STATES C 



18 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

the troops of any two of the other four coun- In the legislative program, among other 

tries to clash without crossing Honduras, propositions, are to be found the Oliver 

war in Central America would seem to be Land bill for the settlement of homesteads 

geographically impossible. There was also in the Far West, the bill providing for the 

adopted a convention providing for the es- more rigid inspection of insurance com- 

tablishment of a Centra I -American univer- panics, a measure for old-age pensions, an 

sity system, one providing for an internation- amendment to the Dominion Elections Act 

al Central-American bureau corresponding to guard against bribery and corruption, and 

to and allied with the International Bureau a proposed amendment to the provincial con- 

of the American Republics at Washington, stitutions, providing that Manitoba, Ontario, 

one dealing with the customs duties and tar- and Quebec shall be permitted to extend 

iff schedules, and one providing for better their boundaries to Hudson and James Bays. 

means of communication between the five re- During the early days of the session the 

publics, .This convention will make easy the Franco-Canadian tariff treaty was signed 

building of the Central-American section of and approved and much animated discussion 

the much -discussed Pan-American railway, bad over the question- of Japanese exclusion. 

The conference adjourned on December 17. Premier Laurier, in a speech at Ottawa on 

With the taking of the Cuban census and December 3, declared that, as long as he re- 

tbe near approach of the presidential elec- mained at the head of the government, noth- 

tion, after which the island may again re- ing would be done to jeopardize the Bridsh- 

ceive its " unaided independence," there has Japanese treaty. Commercially and finan- 

been a renewed interest among the American cially Canada appears prosperous, and has 

people in Cuban matters. The figures show apparently suffered not at all from the mon- 

a Cuban population of somewhat over 2,- etary disturbances in our own country. 

000,000. A review of the situation in the The present session of the Dominion Parlia- 

island at the present time, by a keen Amer- ment is probably the last before a general 

ican observer, appears on another page of the election. The Liberal government is still 

Review this month. in power, with a majority of fift>' behind it, 
and will doubtless maintain its control 

Opening of the ^"^^^^^'^ Parliament began its througjiout the present session. The cnthusi- 

Canaitiaix winter session on November 28. astic reception accorded to Mr, Borden, 

In his speech Lord Grey, the leader of the opposition, however, on his 

Governor-General, announced that during recent tour of the Dominion, would indicate 

the last fiscal period the public debt of the that the next general election will prove a 

Dominion bad been reduced by $3,000,000, severe struggle for the Liberals. 

y^^ Party government in Portugal 
Dictatorship in the year 1906 had come to 

" '""""an', jjipgjj jjjjjg jjj^jj.^ (jjgjj jjjg j,g|j_ 

trot of public office exclusively for private 
" graft," with a working understanding be- 
tween the two dominant parties whereby 
offices were openly bartered and sold. 
A third party, under the leadership of 
Senhor Franco, a vigorous young patriot 
(Secretary of the Interior from 1894 '<> 
1897) became powerful during the past two 
or three years and finally secured the confi- 
dence of the King. During the past sum- 
with the full knowledge and approval of 
King Carlos, Senhor Franco cut off parlia- 
mentary sinecures aggregating more than 
$2,000,000 annually. Some of this money 
has been diverted to the civil list of the King 
and some devoted to settling the arrears of 
HOW iHE THE ui^iiiTV FjLi.BN ! {(jg glways Underpaid government employees 

R^volutlo;., «pellod tron, R»,s,a, Ih-b^ udmlselon ^ ,j. ^j ., ^^ Premier, 

■t Portugaii floor. , , t> 1" 

Prom the Timet (New York), moreover, has relused to summon rania.- 



THB PROGRESS' Of' THE iVORLD. 



Tatat within the time prescribed by law and 
has suspended many constitutional guaran- 
tees, thus making himself virtual dictator. 
Those who are best informed on Portuguese 
conditions assert that his dictatorship is fa- 
vored by the great mass of the population, 
and is in the interest of justice and decent 
. government. All reports of a possible revo- 
lution against the King and the dynasty are 
vigorously denied from Lisbon. Senhor 
Franco announces that he vi'ill prove the be- 
neficence of his dictatorship by its success. 
If conditions are such as to justify it, the 
government, it is announced, will hold elec- 
tions in April for the new Cortez. A more 
detailed account of the causes leading up to 
the political troubles in the little Iberian 
kingdom is given in one of our " Leading 
Articles" this month. If there is a revolu- 
tion it will undoubtedly be one by the court 
and the politicians. The people, 80 per 
cent, of whom are illiterate, are indifferent 
to the contest between the politicians and the 
cruwn, and the army and the navy, which 
have profited by the discomfiture of the poli- 
ticians, are not likely to respond to any in- 
vitations to revolt. 

St-migtaHon Three such widely different 
TnauiHB topics as the wholesale return to 
""'*■ Italy of thousands of Italians 
frightened away from American cities by 
the business depression, the holding of a 
papal consistory at which four new cardinals 
were created, and the election of a Jew and 
a Free Mason to be mayor of the city of 
Rome, were interesting Italians last month. 
Germany, Austria, and the Scandinavian 
countries have also had serious problems of 
re-migration forced upon them by our un- 
favorable business conditions, but Italy ap- 
pears to have suffered the most in this way. 
The returning thousands of Italy's sons do 
not bring with them sufficient money to sup- 
port them for more than a few weeks, and 
many are practically penniless. The prob- 



let 

local authoritie) 

vafed by the si 

King Victor ] 

strikes have mi 

and there is mui 

classes, owing 1 

cost of living. There is not much of 

for Americans in the papal appointments at 

the consistory held on December 16, all the 

appointees being Italians, and only nominal 

honors coming to American prelates. 



for the national and 
and its gravity is aggra- 
rious condition of labor in 
.manuel's domain. Many 
■ked the past year in Italy 
h suffering among the lower 
the great 



(Portugal's Premier- Dictator.) 

TKe Hebrta '^ ^^^ shades of the Roman Em- 
AfadDi- peror Titus and the Jewish 

0/ Rame. ^hjgftains of the year A.D. 70 are 
permitted to exchange reminiscences in the 
other world, their memories of the capture 
of Jerusalem by the Romans in those early 
years of the Christian era will be shocked by 
the election of a Hebrew, Past Grand Mas- 
ter of the order of Free Masons, to be mayor 
of the ICternal City, the world's center of 
Catholicism. Despite the dramatic points of 
this incident, however, which have been 
dwelt on in the daily press, Signor Ernest 
Nathan will make an eminently appropriate, 
logical, and useful head, — not of the capital 
of the Caesars or the center of Catholicism, 
■ — but of the bustling, enterprising, modern 
Italian city on the Tiber, which needs many 
civic reforms. The election had really no 
religious significance whatsoever, Signor 
Nathan, who comes of one of the oldest Ital- 
ian families of Jewish blood, is a Liberal and 
a disciple of Mazzini, whose friendship he 
enjoyed. Though born in England and edu- 
cated at Oxford, Signor Nathan is an Ital- 
ian of the Italians, speaking the language of 
Dante with elegance and precision. He has 
held a number of offices in the gift of the 
municipality and has an excellent record for 
public spirit. His election by the "bloc" 
of anti-clerical parties (the vote stood 60 to 
2 in the Board of Aldermen), while without 
religious significance, may be taken as a re- 



so THE AMER!CA>J REi^lEW OF REVIEWS. 

bulte to the political activities of the Cler- ^^ Etcnina ^ y^"" *"" *" ^SP> »t will be re- 
icals. Those who know Signor Nathan do «"»/#« 0/ <*• membered, the Reichstag, the 
not expect him to meddle with state politics "I't's- lo^^-e^ house of the German Par- 
or religious questions, but to give Rome a Uament, was dissolved becnuse it had refused 
thorough, up-to-date, clean administration, to sanction the government's proposal to in- 
crease the army budget. In the election that 
followed the government was supported by 
a substantial majority. The Chancellor's 
victory, however, was in reality achieved by 
such a narrow margin that he was able to 
carry out his policies only by bringing about 
the coalition of the two conservative groups, 
—the National Liberals and the three fac- 
tions of the Radicals. A serious defection 
from the government's side became evident 
late In November when Dr. Herman S. 
Paasche, first vice-president and one of the 
National Liberal leaders, in a stirring speech 
r.ttacked the government for extravagance 
r.nd for sheltering the army officers con- 
cerned In the Harden-von Moltlce scandal. 
Herr Bebel, the Socialist leader, followed, 
rrcsenting letters and quotations from the 
iilsmarck and Hohenlohe memoirs to prove 
the existence and power of the von Moltke- 
Lulenberg camarlHa, and asserting that the 
guilty parties were members of such high 
classes in Germany that the police were 
afraid to name them. In discussing the bud- 
get Tlerr Bebel reminded the members of 
the great increase in the cost of living, caus- 
ing widespread suffering in the lower 
classes. He produced statistics to show that 
siGNOB ERNEST NATHAN. at the present day there are 4800 children in 

(Tbe newiy-L-iectpd Moyor ot Rome.) Berlin who never have dinner, and only 

bread and coffee for breakfast and supper, 
p ina Upon his return from what he and asserted that the unemployed in the 
Oerman himself has referred to as his German capital now number over 40,000. 
frobient). ^^^^ pleasant and profitable visit In reply, the Chancellor and General von 
to England, the German Kaiser finds public Einem, Minister of War, admitted the evil 
interest throughout his empire wrought up, practices referred to, but denied the exist- 
— it might almost be said, overwrought, — ence of a camarilla and accused the Socialist 
concerning three highly important matters; leader of exaggeration. The decision of the 
the failure of Chancellor von Biiiow to re- Emperor that Counts von Hohenau and 
tain a decided governmental ascendancy in Lynar, who were implicated in the Harden 
the Reichstag, resulting in his forced admis- disclosures, cannot appeal to a special court 
sion of ministerial responsibility to the Par- of honor, but must take their chances In the 
liament; the discussion over the new budget, civll'court, was pointed to as evidence of the 
and the radical step taken by the Prussian Imperial sincerity, firmness and independence 
Diet in introducing a bill providing for the of judgment in the matter. 
compulsory expropriation of the lands of the 

Poles. The Chancellor's parliamentary em- ^^^^i ^^_ The pressing need for approval 
barrassment and its outcome has resulted in ititutio^aiiim of the budget, upon which the 
a virtual revolution in German administra- " """'"''■ government is depending to pass 
tive methods, finally bringing the empire its naval hill, rendered it necessary for the 
into line with the truly and fully constitu- Chancellor to secure an undoubted majority 
tional governments of the world. It will be in the Parliament at an early date. After 
interesting to trace the steps in this progress, the sensational speech of Dr. Paasche the 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 21 

Reichstag adjourned, on December 4, for f,,;^,,,^,^ The first result of the new order 
the purpose of determining whether the efkini, of thinp in the Reichstag is a 
"bloc" would sanction or repudiate the ' modification of the drastic pro- 

position taken by its vice-president. Chan- posals of the government introduced in the 
cellor von Billow called into conference the Prussian Diet to take Polish estates by force. 
leaders of all the coalition groups (Herr von In his speech from the throne at the opening 
Narmann and Baron von Gamp, for the of the Prussian Diet, on November 26, 
Conservatives; Herr Ernst Bassermann, for Chancellor von Biilow, who is also Minis- 
the National Liberals; Herr Miiller and ter-President for Prussia in the diet of that 
Herr Meingen, for the Radicals; and Herr tingdom, read the budget proposals and in- 
Liebcrmann von Sonnenberg, for the.Agrari- troduced a bill authori/ing the government 
ans), and plainly informed them that should to acquire Polish estates by condemnation 
Dr. Paasche be upheld by the Parliament he proceedinj;s under the law of eminent do- 
would be driven to one of two a,lternatives: main. The bill provides for a credit of 
he must either resign his office at once, or $87,500,000 to continue the purchase of 
advise the Emperor to dissolve the Reich- land and $12,500,000 for condemnation pro- 
stag. Thus, for the first time in the history ccedings. Prince von Bulow admitted that 
of the empire, a Chancellor appealed to the the attempted colonization of lands in Polish 
majority in Parliament for its support. His Prussia had been unsuccessful. The untir- 
appeal meant nothing less than that the Ger- ing patriotism of the Poles has succeeded in 
man ministry is now responsible, — not to the keeping these lands so largely in Polish hands 
crown, but to the Reichstag. Of course, this by paying any amounts for the estates that 
epoch-making change could not have been prices have become higher than the govern- 
eflected without the sanction of the Em- commission could meet. " It has, therefore, 
peror, and it is intimated from Berlin that J>ccome necessary to give the government the 
the Kaiser understood the necessity for his right to dispossess the Poles by legal process." 
Chancellor's action and approved of it before In brief, the Minister-President asked the 
starting on his trip to England. In the co- Diet to give him an appropriation for the 
alition caucus the position taken by Dr. expenses of condemning the lands of the 
Paasche was repudiated by the National Lib- Poles by German tribunals. It is necessary 
erals, who then entered into an agreement for German national welfare, the Chancel- 
with the Conservatives and Radicals to give lor insisted, that the lands now possessed by 
the government a vote of confidence at the the Prussian Poles, be taken over and thnr- 
reassembling of the chamber. The changed oughly Germanized, if not by sale, then 
situation in Germany, bringing the empire through condemnation by the court. 
into line with parlia- 
mentary workings as 
they are in Great Brit- 
ain, is no doubt the re- 
sult of the development 
of a real and active 
public opinion. It is not 
necessarily a permanent 
change in the constitu- 
tional practice of the 
empire. The Kaiser, 
having once sanctioned 
it, however, with the 
majority of the Reich- 
stag co-operating, it 
does not seem likely 
that the government at 
Berlin will ever revert 
to the old semi-auto- 
cratic method of pro- 
cedure initiated by Bis- ,„g fkienusbip or kino edwahd and kaisfh wiuielu. 
marck and foUovved by p^^^.^ , ,. ^^^ ^^g,^ ^^^^ believed tbey coold play « duct so barmonlongur 
all Chancellors smce. - 



THB AMRlCAl^ kBflEW OP RCyiBWS. 






" 5 

5s 



THE PKOCRF.SS OF THE WORLD. 

Uk., w,« This 
(*• rude 

~"""' disturb- 
ance of the indus- 
trial and social 
life of the Polish 
subjects of the 
German crown 
aroused vigorous 
opposition in the 
Reichstag, — not 
merely among the 
Poles and the So- 
c i a 1 Democrats, 
but among even 
the government 
supporters. As a 
result of this op- 
position and the 
consciousness that 
• the ministry is 
practically depend- 
ent on the will of 
the majority in the 
imperial Parlia- 
ment, the govern- 
ment has agreed to 
reduce the appro- 
priation asked 
f rom$ ioo,cxx),ooo 
to $66,000,000 in 
all, and to limit 
the expropriation 
process to certain 
districts to be de- 
termined by the 
Diet. Although 
there appears no 
legal means of pre- 
venting the carry- kim; lii-sT.w v, ami i.hf.kn \\< 

ing out of this lat- rUw ii.>«- Sw..,i(sli immarrlis. 

est phase of the 

German izat ion campaii;n. it dues nut seem repressive nieasuri's : 
likely to those who have fullowi-.l rli.- intrica- liavr trtt.-n ph^e ihr. 
cies of the Polish problem in the tlin-e parti- iriaii Pulanil, assv 
tioning countries that the 
succeed in his repressive nii 
triotism which, throuj;li m 
tury, has by individual cffoi 
tribution nullified the anti- 
Bismarck and his followers, will find .i way Decmili 
of meeting this new dancer. Th(^ Russian death of hi 
Poles also have been afflicted. The school rnfertain i. 
association of the old kingdom having fallen from those 
under the ban of Governor-General SkaMon, his coimtri 
more than 1600 Polish schools in Russia the firsi 
w-ere closed during late November and early father' 



v half a cen- 
iiil public con- 



l-embert 



Throughout Galicia, 
iiiin;; even :i riiitous 
the capital of the pre 



R«ed<-n': 
AdnlphlJ 



December. As a protest against these severe Nons^ay when that t 



ic"- king, Gustavus 

.r Gustav Adolf. V., 

ed to the throne on 

8, within a few hours after the 

IS father, Oscar II., is believed to 

idras of a very different character 

:c of the late kin^ on the subject of 

ry's role in Kuropean politics. In 

place, he always disproved of his 

lenient and kinillv attitude toward 



■ separated from 



SM THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REf^/EfVS. 

Sweden, Several days before King Oscar's ThtDuma ■^ ^''*"'* ^'*^ ■* P'^i^'Cted for the 

death, while the present king was Regent, tttpuniattt a* third Russian Duma, even 

the majority of the cabinet resigned owing "'""at*- shorter than the lives of its two 

to the Regent's refusal to permit Sweden to predecessors. Conservatism, if not reaction, 

become a signatory to the treaty insuring the is admittedly so strong in the empire that the 

integrity and neutrality of its sister country, least radical movement on the part of the 

This matter is treated at a greater length" on people's representatives is likely to call down 

another page this month. The late- King the wrath of the Monarchists, Despite the 

Oscar's career and his gentle, manly virtues apparently Conservative makeup of the 

are set forth, also, in the excellent article by Duma, however, the Reactionaries arc not 

Mr. Bjorkman. In matters of foreign pol- having things all their own way. After 

icy. King Gustav is believed to lean in the some heated discussion oyer the propriety of 

direction of Germany. He has at any rate using the words " autocrat " and " constitu- 

always cultivated a close intimacy with the tion " in the address to the throne, the form 

Kaiser, Personally he is a man of studious finally adopted was this; 

habits, not so democratic as his father and ^ . ^. ,- , . , ,. . 

■.L . .u I .. ' 1- 1. - „f .,-. Mo.st Uracions birc : lour Imperial Majesty 

without the Utters peculiar charm of man- ,,^^ ^^.^^^ ,^ ^^^^^ j,,^ members of the iiird 

ner. King (justav was married in ia»i to \-,.aai^ and lo.invoke the Almighty's blessing on 

Princess Victoria, daughter of the Grand ihe legislative work before us. We, therefore, 

Duke of Baden. They have three children: take the liberty to express personally to your 

Prince Gustav Adolf, Duke of Scania, who ','"?"<='" ^^'^'j'^^'^ 7^^ ''^'^■'"^^°^f,t!''ti%I^ * 
. , . T L n ■ II' 'he supreme head of Russia and our tlianks for 

married m June, 1905, the Princess Victoria (i,^ ^jg|,t ^^ popular representation granted to 

of Connaught; Prince Wilhelm, and Prince Russia and secured by the fundamenlal laws of 

Eric. The present Crown Prince and heir the Empire. 

to the throne and Princess Victoria have one , H"^'* confidence in us S.re We wish to 
... , |_ ■!■-. Aju devote all our ability, knowledge, and expe- 

chlld,_ whose name is also Gustav Adolf, ^j^^^^ ,^ strengthening the form of government 

born in April, 1906. whidi was given new life by the Imperial will 

in the manifesto of October 30, 1905; to pacify 
the fatherland, to assure respect for the laws, to 
develop popular education, to promote the gen- 
eral welfare, to be a buttress for the greatness 
and power of indivisible Russia, and to thereby 
justify the confidence reposed in us by his Ma- 
jesty and llie fatherland. 

j.^^ The words " supreme " and 
Addreas la " popular " were substituted for 
tne tirone. " agtoj-ratic " and "constitu- 
tional " after a bitter struggle between Re- 
actionaries and Constitutional Democrats, 
the adopted form proving victorious by a 
vote of more than 2 to i. When the Duma 
had rejected the proposition of the Conserva- 
tive leader, Vladimir Purlshkevich, to the 
effect that all attempts to establish a consti- 
tutional regime having failed, and the Em- 
peror in reconstituting the Duma having 
sho\vn his autocracy, the word " autocrat " 
should be in the Parliament's address to the 
throne, a dramatic scene followed. The 
members of the Extreme Right declared that 
the Czar had been insulted and they with- 
drew from the hall. The Constitutional 
Democrats, who had held for the insertion 
of the word "constitution," agreed to with- 
THE TA11ENES8 OF THB THiED DUMA. jraw that tcrm if the tcnn " autocrat " were 

Sioi.vi'tH TO THE czah: "The othera were a hit ajjo withdrawn. The victory for this idea 
iiKieprndciit. Bite; tbis bird will Hureiy uik as we j^o^ed that the two wings of the Russian 
'""^■" From t-Ft (Berito). oonstitudon«Hst«, the Octobiim wd the 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 25 

G)nstitutional Democrats, can unite. This the demand be persisted in, dissolution will 

proves that the majority of even this con- come immediately. The fundamental right 

Rervative Duma regards as its minimum the of any Parliament is the power over the 

fulfillment of the promises made in the purse. Will the Czar dare to force the 

famous manifesto of October, 1905. issue? Other interesting and important 

happenings of late November and early 

Th Premier ^^ ^^^ following day (Novem- December in Russia were the dramatic 

Affirms ber 29), in the course of the opening of the trial of General Stoessel 

utoeracy. ^li^isterial declaration, Premier for cowardice in surrendering Port Arthur 

Stolypin set forth the attitude of the govern- to the Japanese ; the arrest and convic- 

ment in these words : tion of a number of Social Democratic 

^, _ , i- , . , - - members of the second Duma, including 

The Emperor has often shown, in the face of xt u i t^ u -i i • j *u *. j« 

extraordinary difficulties,, how highly he prizes Nicholas Tchaikowski and the peasant depu- 

the basis principles of the new regime of rcpre- ty, Annikin, for sedition and conspiracy last 

sentative government within the limits estab- year, and theif exile to Siberia; the payment 

lished by himself. Nevertheless the historic, ^y j^^ssia to Japan of $24,000,000 as the 

autocratic power and free will of the monarch 1 , 1 ^ .1^ TVfi 1 '^ « ^,.^ i .- *u« 

stand out as the most precious assets of the b^^?^"^^ ^"^ ^he Mikado s empire for the 

Russian state. They have created the present maintenance of Russian prisoners during the 

institutions, are destined to save Russia in time war; and the visit of Secretary Taft to the 

of danger and disaster, and will bring her back Russian capital on his way from the Far 

to the path of order and historical truth. ^.^st to this country via Europe. The Amer- 

In reply to this the Radical orator, Feodor ican Secretary of War was much interested 
Rodichev, in a stirring speech, insisted that in the sessions of the Duma, 
autocracy had never done anything to ele- 
vate the condition of the Russian people, but TheRecaHof ^^^^ ^^ became known that, on 
had found its expression in hundreds of Ambassador the eve of the departure of our 
courts martial which had *' oppressed Rus- ^ '' battleship fleet for the Pacific, 
sia with a Byzantine despotism.*' Referring the Japanese Ambassador, Viscount Aoki, 
to the military regime he used the expression had been recalled by his government, there 
** the Stolypin necktie " as a sort of com- was much nervous apprehension evident not 
panion phrase to the famous " Muraviev only in some of the journals of our own 
neckerchief " of unsavory memor>% both countr>% but quite generally in the press of 
phrases meaning the triumph of the hangman Europe as well, lest this recall presage a 
over the legal procedure of justice. The really dangerous tension in the relations be- 
ministerial declaration outlined a number of tween the two countries. That this feeling 
projects, including the reform of the Zem- was entirely unjustified, however, soon be- 
stvos (the system to be extended to Poland came evident when the Japanese Ministry of 
and other border lands), reform of the Foreign Affairs publicly explained that Am- 
courts, and measures for the development of bassador Aoki was recalled at his own re- 
the army and navy. As soon as normal con- quest " because of purely personal and home 
ditions are restored, said the Premier, " the reasons," and, further, when the appoint- 
government promises to devote its attention ment was semi-officially announced of his 
to the internal development of the empire successor. Baron Kogoro Takahira. The 
and the settlement of the agrarian problem." former Japanese Minister at Washington 
Then came the long drawn out struggle over and incumbent during the trj-ing days of the 
the budget, which has already precipitated Russo-Japanese war is entirely persona grata 
what is apparently an irreconcilable conflict to the American Government and the Amer- 
between the Parliament and the crown. ican people. He is well known in this coun- 
try as a diplomat of native gifts and excel- 

A struaqie ^^^ ^^ Duma and the Council lent experience, and a firm believer in the 

Over the of the Empire, the two houses of necessity for close friendship between his own 

" ^* ' the Russian Parliament, have country and the United States, 
asked that the Minister of Marine submit 

to their Committees of National Defense the settling the '^^^ immigration question be- 

details of the program arranged by the Ad- immigration tween the two countries is in a 

miralty and fnvolving, it is reported, an out- ' ^"^ ^"' fair way of being settled by 

lay of $500,000,000. This request has been re- diplomatic negotiation, although (according 

fused, and the Parliament informed that if to the official report of Commissioner-Gen- 



WE AMERICAN fiEy/ElV OF REyiEii^S. 



voy, Hon. Rodolph LemJeux (Postmaster- 
General and Minister of Labor of the Do- 
minion), that the plan of his government 
was " closely to limit all emigration to the 
United States and Canada." Amhassador 
O'Brien, representing this country at Tokio, 
moreover, at the annual meeting of the Ori- 
ental Association on December ii, asserted 
positively that " so far as our two countries 
are concerned, there is now not one serious 
ciuestion which remains unsettled." That 
the alleged Japanese apprehension and irrita- 
tion over the voyage of our Pacific fleet have 
lents of journalistic imagina- 
lian proven hy the cordial mcs- 
. will from Japanese political 
1 of the sailing of the 
Foreign Minister Hayashi, Admiral 
Togo, Prince Ito, Count Okuma, and other 
prominent statesmen, even expressed the hope 
that our warships would call at Japanese 
ports. The Mikado's empire, these gentle- 
men declare, is anxious to give our ships and 
sailor men a hearty welcome. 



been only figi 
tion is more tl 
sages of 
leaders on the 



£arthqualtet 



dor at Washlnctoa.) 

era! of Immigration Sargent) more than 
twice as many Japanese were admitted to this 
country than in the preceding year. It is true 
beyond a doubt that many of these came in 
without legal right and entirely without 
knowledge on the part of their home govern- 
ments. A number of Japanese statesmen, in- 
cluding liaron Ishii. chief of the bureau of 
commerce, have announced in the newspapers 
and in public addresses that their government 
has not only consented to a more rigid con- 
trol of the character of emigrants, but is 
planning a limitation of emigration. Al- 
though the authorities at Tokio have not is- 
sued any official statement in the matter. 
Baron Ishii has announced publicly that, in 
his opinion, " it will be necessary, in order 
to keep absolute faith with the United States, 
to prevent emigration of labor thither alto- 
gether." In reply, also, to a committee from 
a number of Japanese emigration agencies a 
few weeks ago, Foreign Minister Hyashi de- 
clared, in the presence of the Canadian en- 



Central Asia has been the scene 

of stirring events during the past 
''"""■ few weeks. Early in November 
a terrible earthquake occurred at Karadagh, 
in northern Bokhara, during which more 
than 12,000 people perished. Reports indicate 
that in this convulsion of nature, which was 
one of the most appalling on record, more 
than 30.000 cattle died and five or six towns 
were overwhelmed. Not far to the south 
of this devastation a political earthquake 
struck the Persian capital. The Persians 
have not had a very long experience with 
constitutionalism. Apparently the experi- 
ment is not to succeed, for the resignation of 
several ministries In a few weeks and an 
appeal to Britain and Russia to put down 
tno insurrections indicate the unhappy con- 
dition of the Shah's domain. Early in De- 
cember the Persian Parliament addressed a 
petition to the British and Russian govern- 
ments to assume charge of peace and order in 
the kingdom and Indirectly of the govern- 
ment. This Is the first practical test of the 
recently concluded Anglo-Russian agreement, 
but It would seem, also, if Britain and Rus- 
sia respond, to mark the end of Independent 



(Tlie eastbound steerage Uiisineas on ihe Atlantle INuts last monlh was unprecedented.) 

RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 

IFruiii Xiivcniber 10 to Deeembrr StO, 1007.) 



S IN CONGRESS. ihc House, the Committees on Rules and Mile- 
December 2.— Both branches of Ihe Sixtieth afic are announced by the Speaker. 

Congress meet for ihe first session Joseph December i6. — In the Senate, Mr. Tillman 

G. Cannon (Rep.) is re-elected Speaker o£ the (Dem„ S. C) attacks the Administration on the 

House Both branches adjourn immediately financial question and Mr. Culberson (Dem., 

after the opening ceremonies out of respect for Tex.) introduces a resolution calling for infor- 

the memories of Senators Morgan and Pettus, mation as to Treasury relief measures. .. .In the 

of Alabama. House, the Speaker announces the membership 

December 3.— The President's message is read "^ ""e Committee on Appropriations. 

in both branches The Senate, in executive December 17.— The Senate passes the bill of 

session, confirms the appointment of ex-Senator Mr. Dick (Rep., Ohio) extending the time dur- 

Blackbum, of Kentucky, as a member of the ing which the State mihiia must conform their 

Isthmian Canal Commission In the House, organisations to those of the regular army. 

Speaker Cannon reads a greeting from the new December iS — In the Senate, Mr. Tillman 

State of Oklahoma and announces the member- (Dem., S. C.) introduces resolutions calling for 

ship of the Committee on Banking and Cur- information as to corporations engaged in mter- 

rency. stale commerce and the liquor traffic. 

December 5.— In the Senate, Mr. Frye (Rep., December ig,— In the House, the make-up of 
Maine) is elected president pro lent. the committees is announced by Speaker Can- 
December 9. — In the Senate, several resolu- "o"- 
lions providing for an inquiry into recent Treas- POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-AMERICAN. 
ury bond issues arc introduced. November 20.— The Ohio League of Repub- 
December 11.— In the Senate, Mr. Davis lican Clubs endorses Senator Foraker for re- 
deem., Ark.) speaks on his bill for the aboli- election and as a candidate for President, 
tion of trusts. November 23. — The President makes public 
December 12,— The Senate passes a resolution a letter to members of the cabinet, forbidding 
asking Secretary Cortclyou lo furnish figures ihtrd-term activity by federal office-holders, 
bearii^ on the recent financial stringency. . . .In November 27.— The official count shows Ralph 



28 THE AMERICAN kEt^/ElV OP REf^lEfV$. 

C. Watrous (Rep.) elected Lieutenant Cover- leave Washington for Hampton Roads to view 

nor of Rhode Island by a plurality of nine the departure of the battleship fleet for the 

votes. .. .Judge T. M. G. Jones, of the United Pacific. 

States Court, issues an injunction forbidding December i6.-The fleet of sixteen battleships 

he enforcement of nine of the railroad regu- j^^^^g Hampton Roads for the cruise to the 

lation laws passed by the special session of the p^^ifi^ Coast. .. .Comptroller Ridgely in his an- 

Alabama Legislature. ^^^^ report recommends the establishment by 

November 29.— Senator Foraker announces his the Government of a central bank of issue and 

purpose to fight for the Ohio delegates to the reserve. 

Republican national convention and to give up December ip.-John F. Ahearn, who was re- 
he Senatorship m order to make the contest for ^^^^^ f,^^ ^^^^^^ ^3 president of the Borough 
the Presidency. . , of Manhattan, New York, is re-elected by the 

December i. — The third annual report of the Board of Aldermen. 

Third Assistant Postmaster-General, made pub- ^^ , -n -■, t. t t 

lie at Washington, shows a gross d<;ficit in the ; December 20— President Roosevelt orders the 

postal service for the year 1907 of $6,692,031.47. j^^^P^ ^^ Goldfield, Nev., withdrawn on Decem- 

December 2. — Adam P. Leighton (Rep.) is 

elected mayor of Portland, Me. POLITICS AND government-foreign. 

December 4.— Nevada N. Stranahan resigns November 20. — The first election for a Parlia- 

as Collector of the Port of New York and ment in the Orange Free State takes place; the 

President Roosevelt appoints Edward S. Fow- result is a victory for the Dutch party The 

ler as his successor. French Chamber finishes the debate on the devo- 

December 5. — President Roosevelt's order di- lution of church property, the government pro- 

recting more severe physical tests for army ofii- posals being carried by a large majority The 

cers is made public General Funston is in- government of Salvador issues a decree grant- 

structed by the War Department to send troops ing amnesty to political prisoners and allowing 

to Goldfield, Nev., to preserve order in the mine the return of exiles ; the state of siege is sus- 

strike Secretary Cortelyou, in his annual re- pended. 

port to Congress, asks for the speedy passage November 2i.--Ernest Nathan, a Jew, is 

of a remedial currency law, but makes no spe- elected mayor of Rome, Italy The German 

cific recommendations A comniittee of the imperial budget authorizes the borrowing of 

National Rivers and Harbors Congress in Wash- $65,000,000 and emphasizes the necessity for im- 

ington presents a memorial to Vice-President posing new taxes to harmonize expenditures 

Fairbanks and Speaker Cannon asking an ap- and revenues The Russian Duma appointed 

propriation of $50,000,000 a year for waterway officers and a drafting committee. 

improvement November 22.— The Metropolitan Water Board 

December 6.— The Republican National Com- issues a report on the future water supply of 

mittee meets in Washington; Harry S. New, of London. .. .The German Reichstag reassembles. 

Indiana, is elected chairman Secretary Cor- xt^„«^k«^ ^. j.,^r t? i at- • . 

telyou decides to issue only $25,000,000 of the ^r^T?^]'^;' frf^ -i Fernandez,, Minister 

Panama Canal bonds, and announces that he of Justice 'n the Mexican cabinet, resigns. 

has accepted bids for this amount. November 25.— The Portuguese Government 




a;^ive'in G^^^Md: N;;r:rsccre;;;;r c^rld^ f:':,i?^^^^^^^^ -^ ?^^-t^ 

announces the allotments of Panama Canal f.f^'TJIr.nor^^^^^ 

hnnH« tn nritinml hank*; ^"^^» ^"" General Hertzog Attorney-General 

bonds to national banks. j^^ ,^^^g^^^ parliamentary session on record in 

December 9.— John F Ahearn, Borough presi- New Zealand closes (it began on June 27) 
dent of the Borough of Manhattan, New York, November 26.-A protest is made by the Pro- 
is removed from office by Governor Hughes on -^^^ ^ meeting of the l!)ndon 
charges of neglect and misconduct. County Council against the ma^nner in whi^h the 

December 10.— The Department of Agncul- Moderates are blocking educational work in 

ture estimates the total cotton production for London. .. .The Prussian Diet meets; Prince von 

the year 1907-1908 at 5,581,968,000 pounds.... Billow introduces his bill for the expropriation 

George A. Hibbard (Rep.) is elected mayor of of Pohsh landlords. .. .The Russian Duma dc- 

Boston over John F. Fitzgerald, by about 2000 bates the address and decrees that the title 

votes. " autocrat " is no longer tenable within the Rus- 

December 11. — President Roosevelt repeats his sian state, 

announcement made on election night in 1904, November 27.— The Australian Government 

to the effect that he would not again be a can- agrees to the adoption of a penny postage with 

didate for President The President appoints Great Britain. 

a commission to go to Goldfield, Nev., and re- xTrv„««,K^^ \q -d^^^^ „«„ Tjr.i^ ^ .1 

nnrt tn him the pvart «itatn<i nf afFpir«; therp November 28.— PnnCC VOH Bulow, at the 

port to him the exact status of affairs there. opening of the German Reichstag, makes a not- 

December I2.--The Democratic National able speech defending the Emperor, the Ger- 

Committee, in session at Washingrton, decides to man army, and himself. .. .Eari Grey, at the 

hold the national convention in Denver on opening of the Canadian Parliament, discusses 

J^h 7- the Newfoundland fisheries question and immi- 

December 15. — President Roosevelt and party gration matters. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



November ag. — In (he debate in the German 
Reidistag on .the budget it is stated that the 
imperial debt now amounts to $1,000,000,000, 
having increased since 1901 $400,000,000. .. .In 
the French Chamber, the government's naval 
estimates and proposals for the reorganization 

of the navy are adopted In the Russian 

Duma, M. Stolypin defines the ministerial policy. 

December 3. — The Russian Duma adjourns 
without coming to a vote on the ministerial dec- 
laration. .. .Senhor Machado, the opposition 
leader in Portugal, declares that the Republicans 
lavor meeting force with force and says that 
they possess bombs as well as arms. 

December 4.— Prince von Bulow forms a coal- 
ition with National Liberals in the German 
Reichstag in support of the government. . . . 
Premier Franco, of Portugal, announces his de- 
termination not to compromise with the opposi- 
tion The Liberal party of Panama opens a 

campaign to select a successor to President 
Amador. 

December 7. — Japan takes measures to im- 
prove the financial condition of the empire. 

December 8. — On the death of King Oscar, 
<i[ Sweden, Gustav V. lakes the oath of office as 
the new King. 

December 10, — The trial of General Stoessel. 
for surrendering Port Arthur is begun at Si. 

Petersburg Announcement is made in the 

Russian Duma that $93,000,000 will be needed 
for extraordinary expenditures. 

December 12. — Dr. Ernest Brenner, a Radical, 
i* elected President of Switzerland Don Car- 
los, the Spanish pretender, seeks the aid of ilie 
Po|>e in his efforts to regain the throne of 

December 13. — The Prussian Government an- 
nounces the modification of its expropriation 
proposals. 



December 14. — The Russian Social Democrats 
held responsible for the dissolution of the sec- 
ond Duma are severely punished, some being 
exiled to Siberia. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

November 2\. — In support of the plan for a 
union of the Central -American republics Presi- 
dent Zelaya, of Honduras, announces that he is 
willing to resign his office. 

November 25. — Ten thousand Arabs are re- 
pulsed by the French army in Algeria, losing 
1200 killed. 

November 26.— The Australian claims against 
Germany regarding the Solomon and Marshall 

Islands are settled by arbitration The draft 

of a proposed peace treaty is submitted to the 
delegates representing the five Central -American 
republics at the conference in Washington. 

November 27. — A French force is attacked on 
the Algero-Moroccan frontier. 

November 28.— In reply to overtures from 
the American Ambassador, the Japanese for- 
eign office announces that every precaution is 
being taken to prevent a recurrence of past im- 
migration frauds The Moroccan army in- 
vades Algeria and forces the French troops to 
retreat, until reinforcements arrive. 

November 29.— Japanese immigrants are de- 
tained at Victoria owing to a dispute between 
the steamship agents and the United States and 



80 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

Canadian immigration officials It is an- Michelson, of the University of Chicago, is re- 
nounced at Ottawa that the Franco-Canadian ceived from Stockholm (see page 42.).... Miss 
treaty is the first of a series of trade agreements Florence Nightingale is appointed by King Ed- 

to aid Canada in marketing her products. ward to the Order of Merit Receivers are 

December 3.— Viscount Aoki, Japanese Am- appointed for the New York City Railway Com- 

bassador to the United States, is summoned pany. 

home. November 30. — ^The $50,000,000 issue of Pan- 
December 5.— Minister Hayashi announces ama Canal bonds is found to be largely over- 
that Japan will limit all emigration to the United subscribed when bids are opened at the Treas- 
States and Canada. .. .Baron Takahira is for- ury Department in Washington .... The ter-cen- 
mally appointed Japanese Ambassador to the tennial exposition at Jamestown is closed.... 
United States. Twelve thousand aliens sail from the United 

December 7.— It is reported in Tokio that a ^^^^^^^ returning to Europe. 

satisfactory settlement of the emigration ques- December i. — Six torpedo boat destroyers 

tion has been reached. , start from Norfolk, Va., for the Pacific Coast. 

December lo.-The Moroccan foreign board ;/ ' •^JL^^^^^^" 400 workmen are discharged at 

accepts the demands made b^ France and Spain, ^^e Charlestown. Mass., Navy Yard. ... The 

-^ . ^ T^ • • , 1 New York City Charter Revision Commission 

December n.—Great Britain sends ten vessels embodies suggestions in a report to Governor 

to patrol the West River for the protection of jjughes 

shipping from Chinese pirates. ta u ^ '^\, n j- t> •/: 

Sr . r^y ^^ e • Deccmber 2. — The Canadian Pacific steamer 

December 15.— The yellow-fever quarantine ,Uou»/ Temple, from Antwerp, runs on the rocks 

against Cuba is removed. near Halifax ; the 633 passengers and the crew 

December 16. — The Italian embassy at Wash- of ninety-nine are rescued. 

iiigton takes measures to investigate the recent December 3.-Secretary Taft makes a plea for 

kilhng of Italians m Louisiana. ^orld peace at the American banquet in St. 

December 17.— Great Britain and Russia de- Petersburg An attempt is made to assassin- 

cide upon joint action in Persia to prevent the ate President Cabrera, of Guatemala, 

threatened uprising. , , . December 4.— Secretary Taft is received in au- 

December 20.— The Central American peace jience by Czar Nicholas and spends about five 

conference at Washington, having reached an hours with him.... The National Rivers and 

agreement on a treaty, comes to an end. Harbors Congress opens in Washington. .. .The 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. Comptroller of the Currency issues a general 

_,__.,_ , call on clearing-houses throughout the country 

November 20.— The United States purchases to report the condition of national banks. 

£202,000 from the Bank of England in bar i^ , ry^, f . ir 

gold.... Delegates from fifteen Atlantic Coast December 5.— The steamship Mauretama es- 

States organize at Philadelphia the Atlantic Jablishes a new cast-bound transatlantic record, 

Deep Waterways Association. beatmg the Lusitanms best time by twenty-one 

November 2i.-The American Civic Associa- ^^^'iw^^rr^*'''-''^ '^^•^''^'rw ^^^^^ 
tion and National Municipal League meet at f"^ ^Vr^^I^^TF ' " f """ at Washing- 
Providence R I V b ton, memoralizcs Congress for an appfrop nation 
XT 1 * ' ' T-1 . 1 • ir ^ • ^^ $50,000,000 a year for waterway improvement. 
November 22.— The steamship Mauretama ... .President Roosevelt's order directing more 
completes her maiden voyage across the Atlantic severe phvsical tests for army officers is made 
in five days five hours and ten minutes. .. J P. public. .. .'The National Bank of Commerce of 
Morgan and President Baker, of the First Na- Kansas City, Mo., closes its doors, 
tional Bank of New York, confer with Presi- r»^u/:c i r-^i j'jx 
dent Roosevelt on the financial situation. ^-ccnr'^w^.Ti^^' ""'-'. Cortelyou decides to 
XT 1 Ti. • 1 xi . .1 XT 1. 1 ^^^"^ ^"^y $25,000,000 of the Panama Canal 
November 23 -It is announced that the Nobel ^^nds, instead of $50,000,000 as originally con- 
fxrfr ^«r^cli^;m»^^try has been awarded to Sir tcmplated. .. .Thirty persons are drowned in the 
William Crookes.... The trench army dirigible sinking ^f the Brazihan coasting steamer CMa.yfa. 
balloon La Ai/ne- travels a distance of 275 kilo- j^ British turbine torpedo boat destroyer 
meters at an average speed of forty kilometers ^^akcs a new record for her class by steaming 
Uee page 5»}. , , ^ , , 35-952 knots. .. .More than 300 miners are en- 
November 24.— It is announced that Rudyard tombed bv an explosion in the mines of the Fair- 
Kipling has been selected to receive the Nobel mont Coal Company near Monongah, W. Va. ; 

prize for literature Large investments in few are rescued The Fort Pitt National 

small lots of railroad and industrial securities Bank of Pittsburgh is closed by the Comptroller 

are reported in New York. of the Currency at the request of the directors. 

November 25.— Dr. Rash Ghose is unani- December 8.— ^xlore than lOO.men are killed 

mously elected president of the Indian National and wounded in engagements with Bulgarian 

Congress. bands in Macedonia. 

November 28. — The railway strike in India is December 9. — The bursting of two great water 

settled bv the intervention of the secretary of mains causes a general suspension of business in 

the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants. St. John, N. B. 

.. In the work of widening Blackfriars Bridge December 11.— The Texas Appellate Court 

in London four men are killed through the fall- upholds the ousting of the Waters-Pierce Oil 

ing of a caisson. Company from the State' and the assessment of 

November 29. — Announcement of the award penalties aggregating $1,690,000 for violation of 

of the Nobel prize in physics to Prof. Albert A. the State anti-trust laws. ...Harry Orchard is 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 



on the witness stand in the trial of George A. 
Pettibone for complicity in the murder of for- 
mer Governor Steunenbcrg of Idaho. 

December 12. — Boris SarafTov and atiofher 
Macedonian revolutionist are murdered in Sofia. 

December 16,— Sixty miners are reported 
killed in an explosion in the Yolande coal mine, 
Mississippi. .. .Elastic currency is the theme of 
the annual meeting of the National Civic Fed- 
eration in New York City. 

December 17. — The new British turbine tor- 
pedo boat destroyer obtains a final speed of 

thirty-seven knots Exercises commemorating 

the centennial anniversary of the birth of the 
poet Whittier are held in many New England 

December 19. — Ninety-three persons are killed 
and 100 injured by the explosion of a powder 

magazine in Palermo, Sicily The funeral of 

King Oscar of Sweden is held at Stockholm. . . . 
More than 250 miners arc entombed and killc<l 
by an explosion in the workings of the Pitts- 
burg Coal Company at Jacobs Creek, Pa, 

December 20. — Secretary Tafi arrives in New 
York from his journey around the world. 

OBITUARY 

November ig. — Rev. Dr. Alexander S. Twom- 
bly, of Newton, Wa:;s., Congregational minister 
and author, 75. 

November 20. — Brig. -Gen. George E. Pond, 

U. S. A., retired, 60 Gen. James Stewart 

Martin, of Salem, III, ex-Congressman, 82, 

November 2t. — Capt, James H. Holmes, one 

of John Brown's band of abolitionists, 74 

Charles F. Taswell, associate justice of the 
Colorado Supreme Court. 56. 

November 22. — Prof. Asaph Hall, the well- 
known astronomer, 78. ' 

November 24. — Sir Henry E. Colvile, major- 
general in the British army, 55 Col. Frank J. 

Bramhall, author of books on the Civil War, 60. 

November 26. — Gen. F. M. Kelso, of Fayette- 
ville, Tenn., a veteran of the Confederate army. 

November 27. — Cyril Flower, first Baron Bat- 
lersea, 64- 

November 28.— Rev. Dr. Wendell Prime, for- 
mer editor of the New York Observer, 70.... 
Stanislaus Wyspianski, the Polish poet, 38. 

November 29. — Gen. Leon Jastremski, of 
Louisiana, a Confederate veteran, 63. 

November 30. — Dr. George F. Shrady, a well- 
known physician of New York, 7a 

December 2.— Rev. Dr. Elijah E. Chiverg, 
of the Baptist Home Mission Society, 57. 

December 3,— Albert Ware Paine, of Bangor, 
Me., author of the law giving the accused in 
criminal cases the right to testify in their own 
behalf, 95 Gen. Allen Thomas, former Min- 
ister to Venezuela and veteran of the Confeder- 
ate army, 77. 

December 4.— Gen. Louis Saenz Pena, ex- 
President of the Argentine Republic, 77 

Hennf O. Havemeyer, president of the Ameri- 
can Sugar Refining Company, 60. 

December 8.— K'ng Oscar, of Sweden, 79 

Mrs. Louise M. Taft, of Millbury, Mass., mother 
of SecreUiy of War Taft, 80. 



<(jcnodaoii of tlie nrst Si^ri'tnry of the Treasury; 

Oenoral Ilaiulltnn dU'd Inet month at 

the age of 92.) 

December 9. — James Henry Sloddart, the vet- 
eran actor, 80. .. .Prof. Moiitz Schmidt, of 
Frank fort-on-Main, a well-known laryngologisL 

December 10. — Gen. Alexander Hamilton, 92. 

December ir. — Benjamin Champney, of Bos- 
ton, a well-known landscape artist, 90 The 

Rt. Rev. George Howard Wilkinson, Bishop of 
Si. Andrews, Scotland, 74. 

December 12.— Boris Saraffov, Bulgarian rev- 
olutionary chief. 

Decemlwr 13. — Col. A. S. Colyar, of Tennes- 
see, a member of the Confederate Congress, 90. 

December 14. — The Rt. Rev. Leigh ton Cole- 
man, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Dio- 
cese of Delaware. 70 William Bliss, of Bos- 
ton, president of the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road, 73. 

December 15.- William Stead, son of William 
T. Stead, editor of the Rcvkv) of RevicTvs of 
London, collaborator with John Morley on the 

biography of William E. Gladstone. 40 Prof. 

Juan L. Contreras, the Mexican scientist. 

December 16.— Carola, Queen Dowager of 
Saxony, 74. 

December i7.^WiIliam Thomson, first Lord 
Kelvin, the noted scientist, 83.... Dr. William 
Bayard, of St. John, N. B., said to be the oldest 
practising physician in the world, 94. 

December 19. — M. Filossofov, Minister of 
Commerce and ex-Compl roller of the Russian 

December 20.— Charles M, Skinner, author 
and playwright, 56. 



SOME OF THE RECENT CARTOONS 




SOME OF THE CURRENT CARTOONS. 



srsr!"— From the World (New York). 



1 tha iSjrafeMnu»-£«vleio (Spokane). From Ibo Xeict-Trlbune (Uulutli). 



THE AMBRICAN kEyiEW OF REyiEWS. 



rnal (Columbus). 



Pbesident Roosevelt : " FOLI-OW ME ! " (or 
as.OOO words to Uiat cITect). See the Prealdent's 
mewa^e to Congress. 

From Punch (London). 



Uncle Ram nlsHLng Admiral Cvaag and bis fleet a 
sate voyage. 

From the Kcfntng Mall (Nev York). Prom tbe UTeic* (Baltimore). 



CURRENCY REFORM : A CENTRAL BANK. 

BY ROBERT EMMETT IRETON. 

D ANKERS, business men, and legislators Fowler and American Bankers' plans advo- 

all agree that our bond-secured cur- cate emergency credit currency. The Treat 

rency system is defective, unscientific, and in- plan, a bond-secured emergency note sys- 

elastic, yet they are unable to unite on a sub- tem, and the Shaw proposal emergency cir- 

stitute possessing the simple, primary essen- culation. These are the best-known and 

tials of safety and elasticity. That we are most w^idely-advocated measures, and briefly 

committed to-day to a currency system which epitomized are : 

owes its inception to the necessity of finding American Bankers' Plan : Providing for an 

a market for Government bonds many years " emergency " credit currency by permitting any 

ago, is due principally to the apparently ir- national bank, actually engaged for one year, 

Mil /!• ^ • L 1 • ^* • - nru;« and with a surplus of 20 per cent, of its capital, 

reconcilable conflict mbankmgopmion This ^^^ j^^^^ additional notes without security equai 

Congress has been quick to use as a foil to to 40 per cent, of its bond-secured circulation, 

defeat almost every request for remedial leg- subject to a tax of 2J/2 per cent, per annum on 

islation. It is a patent fact that bankers are the average amount outstanding ; and a further 

not in arrord on this U<;iip and that their ^^^^unt, equal to I2j^ per cent, of its capital, . 

not in accora on tnis issue ana tnat tneir subject to a tax of 5 per cent., etc^ 

views are strangely divergent. Indeed, in . Central Bank : Providing for a central bank 

many cases, they are confused and elemen- of issue, with capital of not less than $50,000,000, 

tary, and not a few bankers admit their in- to carry a large reserve of gold, and act as 

ahllitv tn disriiQ*; the iq<5iip at all custodian of the Government s metallic reserves, 

aDility to aiscuss tne issue at an. ^^ j^^ ^^^^^ j^^ redeeming all kinds of money, as 

JOINT CURRENCY. COMMISSION. jts receiving and distributing agent, doing at its 

branches the work now done at the Sub-Ireas- 

This tends to explain the fact that, prac- "nes, and to deal exclusively with banks. The 

tically, the first concrete effort of our bank- tVr^Xf'^^^^^^^^A^^^^V^^^ Gov"^ 

ers to amend our currency system dates only ernment, but vests its management exclusively 

from 1906, when a currency commission, con- in the Government. 

sisting of appointees of the American Bank- Chamber of Commerce : Providing for the is- 

ers' Association and of the New York Cham- ^f .f ^ of additional notes equal to 35 P^^ cent. 

" ■»**«^«»' . « ** .. ^ J ot Its capital by any national bank whose bond- 

ber of Commerce, met in Washington and secured circulation equals 50 per cent, of its 

formulated a plan for presentation to Con- capital stock, subject to a graduated tax of from 

gress in December of that year. The meas- 2 per cent, to 6 per cent., according to the 

ure failed to pass, but the incident marks the amount of additional notes taken out. 

uiv. Aniiv^u I.V p<K», krui. Litv. ti.v. v^w ^* « Treat: Providing for a bond-secured emer- 

beginning ot unity and concurrence on this gency note system, in contradistinction to a 

issue among our financiers. At that, the plan credit currency system. Under this plan na- 

adopted did not represent the views of everv tional banks would be empowered to issue 50 

hanker in this rniinfrv nor doe«5 it to-dav- P^^ ^^"^* °^ ^^^^^ circulating notes on security 

panicer in tnis country, nor does it to day , ^^^^^ ^^^^ Government bonds, and the same 

but It carried with it the prestige of the only ^ould be retired in four, six, and eight months 

representative organization of the nation^s from September i of each year.. 

bankers, and as such compelled the attention Fowler : Providing for a credit-currency sys- 

of Congress. That body, with characteristic *^^"\ kJ^'^^^T'"''"/?^ "^^'^"^^ -f "^' i^-^ ?''?" 

.,. ^ 11 Aij • L << !• / » i-'ii vert bank-book credits, or deposits subject to 

resiliency, passed the Aldrich relief bill check, into bank-note credits, or credit currency. 

and shelved the emergency currency plan of Shaw : Providing for ** emergency " circula- 

the commission. tion by national banks up to 50 per cent, of their 

capital without a deposit to secure its redemp- 

BEST-KNOWN RELIEF PLANS. tion, but subject to a tax of 5 per cent. 

Other suggestions for monetary reform of crisis intensifies remedial demand. 
recent date are those of the New York Since the fall of 1906 the question of cur- 
Chamber of Commerce, former Secretary of rency reform has been the leading subject 
the Treasury Leslie M. Shaw, United States for discussion in bankers* conventions. In 
Treasurer Charles H. Treat, and Represent- the majority of cases when prominent finan- 
ative Charles N. Fowler. The Chamber of ciers delivered public addresses throughout 
Commerce favors a central bank, and, as an the country the same issue was selected. 
alternative, a plan for asset currency. The Magazines and newspapers in the same period 



have given generous space to this vitally im- our financial problem brought it to the atten- 
portant issue, and even some Senators and tion of the public, particularly in the last 
Representatives had been heard to concur in three months, and many prominent bankers 
the general demand for currency remedial and certain of our most influential news- 
legislation. All this, however, is as noth- papers unhesitatingly endorse it. Perhaps 
ing compared to the effect of last Novem- some idea of its strength may be gathered 
ber*s distressing experiences. Bad banking from the following demonstration, 
and a defective currency system were largely ^^^^^^ ^^ ^ currency poll. 

responsible tor our crisis, if not its precipitat- 
ing causes; hence, to-day, from every section Within one month, the writer personally 
of this country the demand is universal for conducted a currency poll of the presidents 
legislation that will reduce to a minimum and cashiers of leading banks throughout the 
the dangers of the prevailing system and give country, for a leading financial newspaper, 
us instead an elastic and liquid currency. New York City was not included. A ballot 
President Roosevelt has urged upon Con- was prepared containing an outline of. the 
gress its duty in this respect, and has assured plans aforementioned and mailed to several 
us that we may expect a permanent and sub- hundred bankers, with the request that they 
stantial measure of relief. indicate their preference, assign their rea- 

So we find the people and the press prac- sons and return to sender. The results were 
tically a unit on the question of currency most surprising and unexpected. Replies 
amendment, but not certain, by any means, were received from almost 400 voters in 
of the form of the appropriate remedy, thirty-three States. The Central Bank of 
Bankers profess to be equally perplexed, and Issue plan led the poll, receiving 33 per cent, 
it is entirely probable that Congressional re- of all the votes cast, and the plan of the 
lief, following the line of least resistance, American Bankers was second, having been 
"will come in the shape of another compromise favored by 29 per cent, of those balloting, 
and satisfy none. Of the plans outlined, the The Shaw, Treat, Chamber of Commerce, 
American Bankers', Fowler, and Chamber of and Fowler plans followed in the order 
Commerce recommendations seek to preserve named, and, combined, did not equal the 
our present bond-secured bank notes, and vote of either of the dominant recommenda- 
would extend circulation through the me- tions. In addition, it is worthy of mention 
dium of bank-credit currency in order to that fourteen voters rejected all plans and 
provide the needed elasticity. Collateral sixteen submitted original solutions for this 
security for such note issues is not required perplexing issue. 

under any of these plans, but taxation is re- The voters were representative men, and 
lied on to force their retirement when not the vote as a whole may be assumed to be a 
longer needed, and in case of a failure of a fair reflex of banking opinion on currency 
national bank such note issues would be re- reform. It was unquestionably the only vote 
deemed by the United States Treasury, ever taken on all the current plans outlined, 
which would recoup itself, in turn, from the and probably the heaviest ever recorded in 
redemption fund created by the tax im- favor of a currency measure. It is asseverated 
posed on such circulation, and from the assets by those present and participating, that the 
of the failed bank. The Shaw proposal resolutions on currency reform passed in the 
favors emergency circulation unsecured but Atlantic City convention of the American 
heavily taxed, and the Treat plan (an Bankers' Association last year were put to a 
adaptation of an idea of former Secretary of vote when there were not more than 100 
the Treasury Chase) opposes credit or emer- delegates present and voting. The poll re- 
gency currency, and would establish a bond- ferred to quadrupled that result; and it can 
secured emergency note system. The ultra- be claimed, moreover, that never in a con- 
conservatives favor the Treat suggestion. vention was the same opportunity for de- 

Diametrically opposite to all of these is liberation and individual expression of opin- 
that of the central bank. Tentatively offered ion given a banker as in the privacy of his 
by the Chamber of Commerce, in the fall of office when considering the newspaper ballot 
1906, as a probable remedy for our currency aforesaid. From the results of this poll two 
dilemma, it received but passing notice. In- facts are clear: The marvelous spread of 
deed, its own advocates had an alternative, sentiment in favor of the central bank and 
aforementioned, at hand when they proposed consequent recession of the American Bank- 
it. Nevertheless, the increasing discussion of crs' plan, and the deeply rooted divergence 



CLEARING-HOUSE CERTIFICATES INADE- 
QUATE. 



CENTRAL BANK S ADVANTAGES. 



CURRENCY REFORM: A CENTRAL BANK. 37 

of opinion among bankers. The fact that all the other banks, thus meeting every de- 

fourteen should reject all six plans, and like^ mand, extraordinary and otherwise. 
wise that sixteen should submit new plans 
shows the confusion and uncertainty, not to 
say empiricism, prevalent in the ranks of our 

financial fraternity. Clearing-house certificates are our only 

recourse under present conditions, but how- 
ever serviceable to banks, as a means of de- 
Emergency currency based solely on a high fense in a currency famine, they lead to 
interest rate is undesirable, and, at best, a chaos in business. Domestic exchange is 
palliative. What we want is an issuance of halted. Collections and remittances cease, 
properly protected bank-credit notes to insure Business men can neither make remittances 
elasticity; rediscounting facilities; control of nor avail themselves of their bank accounts, 
the discount rate; and the prevention of soar- and are forced to suspend through no fault 
ing interest rates. These, and more, a cen- of their own, but through the total insuffi- 
tral bank will furnish. Such an institution ciency of our financial machinery, which 
would deal exclusively with banks, receive proves inadequate to the strain to which it 
and disburse Government moneys, act as is subjected. What is the inevitable result? 
Government agents in reducing paper money. Depression, blighting and lingering, w^hich 
issue currency, and rediscount for banks. It must continue to visit us so long as the 
would serve as a buttress for the national Government takes no step to prevent panics, 
banks and as a sanctuary in times of panic, but leaves to the bankers themselves the task 
It would prevent the hoarding of Govern- of devising ways and means to arrest them 
ment money in the Treasury vaults by act- as often as they occur. Were a central bank 
ing as its custodian, and it would terminate established the case would be different. Bank- 
the periodic appeals of the money market to credit notes of such an institution, responsive 
the Treasury for relief. By dividing its to the demands of business, expanding and 
stock among the national banks of the coun- contracting readily, would replace the cer- 
try in proportion to their capital its relation tificates aforementioned, insuring steadiness 
to each would be uniform, and through the and safety • to the merchant, the depositor, 
constant changing of its paper its assets • and the banker alike. 

would be available always and its assistance Every country in Europe has a central 

to business constant. Moreover, it would bank, and the Bank of England, Bank of 

eliminate the Sub-Treasury system, and pre- France, and Imperial Bank of Germany, or 

vent inflation and contraction, liable to fol- Reichsbank, are pertinent illustrations of 

low the Government's disbursements and worth and service. Japan copied our system 

collections, by keeping the nation's money at thirty-five years ago, but later discarded it 

the disposal of trade and commerce. for the central bank. We alone among 

We have no banking system to-day. Each highly civilized peoples have no such insti- 

bank is an independent unit, playing a " lone tution, and to profound political prejudice, 

hand '* in the game of finance, and with that is absolutely without foundation, must 

never a thought of its relation to the system responsibility therefor be ascribed. It is a 

as a whole. This may lead to disaster, melancholy commentary on our character 

When banks realize that suspicion is lurking and an admission of our inefficiency, that we 

in the public mind, they beconte suspicious are unable to adopt for our financial ends a 

of one another and hurriedly attempt to method so helpful to other countries. A bill 

amass reserves. This was the case last No- for a central bank is now before Congress, 

vember and led to gigantic hoarding by the having been introduced in the Senate by 

banks, to the utter paralysis and confusion Senator Hansbrough, and this may force the 

of business and banking. Under a central issue. Certain it is, — as shown by the 

bank this would not happen, for the latter, currency poll above referred to, — the tra- 

possessing the right to issue credit bank ditional prejudice of the Jacksohian era 

notes, could regulate its issuance automatic- against a central bank is disappearing with 

ally and precisely through its relations with the years. 



OSCAR IJ., SWEDEN^S DEMOCRATIC MONARCH. 

BY A SWEDISH-AMERICAN. 

/^NCE when the late king of Sweden, dreaded no thought so much as that of what 

faithful to a favorite practice of his, might happen when King Oscar died. It 

paid an impromptu visit to a public school was generally supposed that the Norwegians 

in some provincial town, he bent over the would take no radical step while he was 

littlest of a class of wide-eyed and gaping still alive, and it was as generally feared in 

little maidens, and with his accustomed some quarters, hoped in others, that his son 

stately kindness of tone, that had in it no would meet such a step in a manner that 

vestige of condescension, he put to her the could lead to nothing but war. Heavy as 

question: the sorrow of the king was when the long 

" Canst thou name me the three greatest feared crisis finally arrived, in 1905, I be- 

of our kings? " lieve personally that his sorrow was mingled 

After some faltering the girl stammered with a strong sense of relief at being able to 
forth the names of Gustavus Adolphus, deal with it in his own spirit. Not that I 
Charles Xn., and, — Oscar II. The twinkle think his son actually held any of the war- 
in the monarch's glance grew merrier as he like views with which he too frequently has 
asked again: been credited, but that it would have been 

" And canst thou also tell me something so much more difficult for the younger and 

I did to deserve that honor ? " less loved man to check the chauvinistic pro- 

The little flatterer pondered, pouted, clivities of a certain element in Sweden, 

whimpered, wept, and then gasped out in which, though not representative in every 

open despair: " N-n-no — I can't think of respect, has always wielded a disproportion- 

anything at all ! " ate influence, through its hold on the admin- 

" Well, dear, don't take it so. hard," re- istrative. And when, apropos of King Os- 

joined the king, as he put his hand sooth-, car's death, the leading Swedish- American 

ingly on the head of the sobbing girl. " I newspaper in the East, the Nordstjernan, 

cannot think of anything myself." says editorially that " it depended on him 

Some there are who might take issue with alone that the two nations were not drawn 

that verdict, but, all in all considered, the into a useless war," it expresses beyond 

claim of the gentlest and sweetest of modern doubt a universal opinion as well as a reason 

monarchs to the love of his people and the more weighty than all others for granting 

respect of the whole civilized world lay in real greatness of character to the departed 

what he was rather than in what he did. ruler. 
It was his faith in the cause of justice and 

^ ^1 I . . «. ^ *k • U.. ^f THE KING AS ARTIST AND WRITER. 

truth, his smcere respect for the rights or 

nations as of individuals, and his warm love Another proof that his high reputation 

for all mankind, which enabled him to fill everywhere was based on inherent ^merit, 

that hardest duty of a ruler, — the duty of and not reflected from the office with which 

subjecting his own will to that of the people, he was vested, may be found in the assertion, 

And from those qualities he drew the heard from every one who came in personal 

strength to refrain from action at a time contact with him, that he would have made 

when to do anything at all would have been his influence felt in the world no matter 

to provoke a sanguinary clash between two where fate might have happened to start hrm. 

kindred nations. The Swedes have long Like a majority of the Bemadottes, he was 

been fond of relating how Charles XV. on by nature an artist, and he gave an^ple evi- 

his deathbed turned to his brother and sue- dence of creative ability as well as of keen 

cessor with the remark: and catholic appreciation. As a poet he pro- 

" It will hold together as long as you live, duced a few things that not only won praise 

Oscar, but God help your children ! " from polite academicians, but went to the 

With " it " the dying king was supposed heart of the people itself. His translations 

to have meant the union between Sweden are counted among the literary treasures of 

and Norway, and for years the wisest heads his country ; he wrote at least one play that 

on both sides of the Kjolen Mountains still possesses enough vital power ♦^o tempt 



OSCAR 11., KING OF SWEDEN. 

Born JsDiiarr 21, 1820. Died December 8, 1907. 

German managers into staging it every now personal courage rarely found in royal per- 

and then ; his works on military history have sonages e\cept on the battlefield, while his 

been translated into several other languages, familiarity with every phase of public busi- 

and his speeches will for a long time to come ness compelled the respectful hearing even 

serve as models of Swedish prose. Add to of those least inclined to listen to him. The 

thn that he displayed on many occasions a most delicate tact and an irresistible chann 



40 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

of manners were joined with a simple majes- temperaments. She has all her life been 

ty of bearing that caused delighted comment intensely religious, with a strong leaning 

wherever he appeared. Not without reason toward pietism, and illness has still further 

has it been said that the kingliest of Euro- developed this inborn tendency. He, on the 

pean sovereigns was he who hkd the least other hand, was always gay, lighthearted, 

portion of royal blood in his veins. And fond of merriment, and given to many pleas- 

probably it was this happy gift of nature, ures and pursuits which his spouse could only 

making him look a king in every inch, that look upon as far too worldly, 

freed him once for all from the need of any . ^^.,«,, , ^^ 

^./: . , , ,. r u- J- V All A CONCILIATORY RULER. 

artificial protections for his dignity. Ail 

through life he moved among other men not Duke Oscar Frederick, as he was known 

as a being made in a different manner, but in those early days, found himself the heir 

as a man. apparent to the throne after death had un- 

^^.T^ ^^ r^.,^ c^. .^r^ ^^ ,,.Tor^ cxpectedly removed the two claimants with 

FOND OF THE SEA AND OF MUSIC. • u-. • -. u* a j ^u 

rigrits prior to his own. And on the suc- 
His grandfather, the former Field Mar- cession of his eldest brother, he became the 
shal of France and Prince of Ponte-Corvo, Crown Prince. It was a delicate position, 
was still on the throne when he was born in which imposed on him a reserve foreign to 
1829, as the third son of Crown Prince Os- his nature. As it contrasted sharply with 
car and the beautiful Josephine of Leuchten- the unceremonious jollity of his brother, 
berg. He seemed far removed from the King Charles, he came by degrees to be re- 
throne then, and thus he found freedom to garded by those ignorant of his true charac- 
dev^op himself more in keeping with his in- ter with a distrust bordering on dislike, 
dividual tastes and inclinations. Another Thus when the succession fell to him in 
factor to be borne in mind is the character of 1872, he found himself little understood and 
his governor and principal instructor, the less loved. It took him years to overcome 
historian, F. F. Carlson, who gave to his the prejudice. As far as I can remember, it 
pupil a fondness for scientific exactness as was his sanction of the impeachment pro- 
well as an insight into the true causes of ceedings by the Norwegian Radicals against 
civilizatory development found none too fre- the retiring Conservative ministry which, in 
quently in professional thinkers, and hardly the early *8o*s, first served to turn the 
ever: in princes. The things that drew him trend of public opinion in his favor, both in 
most strongly in those days were the sea and Sweden and in Norway. That act was one 
music. of the many by which he showed his ability 
One of the foremost of Swedish com- to submit his own inclinations to the de- 
posers, A. F. Lindblad, taught him the mands of the people without becoming a 
latter, while his fondness for the former was mere tool in the hands of any one political 
richly satisfied during the years when he party. About the same time he succeeded in 
worked his way through the ranks of the bringing about a deeply needed and by him- 
Swedish navy. And his position on board self long-cherished reform of the popular 
the. various man-of-vvar*s-men in which he educational system in Sweden. Previously, — 
traveled on many seas in those days was it was, in fact, his first important step after 
never merely ornamental or even exceptional, his ascension to the throne, — he had on his 
He took not only the title but also the work own initiative proclaimed full freedom of 
of the offices he held, from midshipman to worship for persons not belonging to the 
admiral. established church. 

*..««, .^T, A Scandinavianism of the purely senti- 

COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE. ^ l l • j .i i • j ^u - -. li J '-.u . 

mental kind, — the kind that talked without 

It was characteristic of him, too, that ever dreaming of putting the talk into deeds, 

when he married, he did so out of love. On — had prevailed until then on the peninsula, 

a tour through several countries in 1856 he Intermixed with it was an equally senti- 

was fortunate enough to meet Princess So- mental sympathy with France. Though 

phia of Nassau. The courtship was brief and himself the grandson of a Frenchman and 

ardent. Within a few months occurred the still keenly devoted to French literature and 

engagement, and the wedding followed in art. King Oscar had the foresightedness to 

less than a year. To the last that royal recognize that the interests of the country 

couple remained strongly devoted to each were more closely bound up with those of 

other in spite of widely differing tastes and Germany. And one of the most striking 



OSCAR IL, SWEDEN'S DEMOCRATIC MONARCH. 41 

features of his reign has been the growing Gustavus Adolphus (now the Crown 

cultural intercourse between the nations in Prince) and the Princess Margaret of 

the north and their neighbor south of the Connaught. 

Baltic. And while the king discouraged Up to the last King Oscar remained 

the speech-making, empty Scandinavianism active and interested in all public affairs, 

against which Ibsen was fond of launching Though he had experienced several brief but 

his most vitriolic invectives, he fostered in- rather severe illnesses of late years, the end 

stead a fellow-feeling between Sweden, Nor- came without warning, after a few days of 

way, and Denmark that found its expression indisposition, suddenly taking a fatal turn, 

in practical co-operation, in the equalization A kindly " thanks " for a small favor ren- 

of commercial and industrial regulations, in dered him by a member of his family was the 

the breaking down of as many as possible of last word heard from his lips. Previously 

the unnecessary barriers between them. As he had expressed his wish to the members of 

the years passed on and the trend of his his cabinet that no interruption in public 

labors became understood and appreciated, or private business be made on account of 

he found a part of his reward in a steadily his death, 
increasing respect for him throughout the 

. M. , ^ ij ^ *l, * *. Jl THE NEW KING AND QUEEN. 

Civilized world, — a respect that repeatedly 

found expression in requests that he act as King Gustavus V., who took the oath of 
arbiter of international differences. He had office within a few hours of his father^s death, 
always been fond of traveling, and this fond- on December 8, has suffered something re- 
ness he continued to indulge up to the last, sembling his father's fate as Crown Prince. 
Unlike those of some other monarchs having Overshadowed by the more brilliant gifts 
a similar taste, his comings and goings on and more attractive personality of the parent, 
the continent of Europe were always the he has for years been spoken of in a rather 
objects of pleasant and welcoming comment, disparaging manner in Sweden, while in 
If gossip had to name King Christian of Norway he harvested outright hatred in re- 
Denmark " the father-in-law of all Eu- turn for his determined upholding of the 
rope," King Oscar was surely " the friend union. On frequent occasions during the 
of all 'the world." Apace with his own fame last decade he has acted as vice-regent while 
grew the prosperity of his people. On either his father was $ick or traveling, and in this 
side of the Kjolen Kis reign marked an era way he has found chance to display qualities 
of unprecedented economical, social and that have gradually changed the popular 
spiritual progress which not even the inter- regard of him from one of suspicion to one 
nal dissensions of the sister nations could of hearty respect. His nearsightedness, his 
interrupt. reserve of manner, his very sincerity and 
Not only as a ruler but as a father King serious mindedness have militated against 
Oscar was both wise and fortunate. Four him, but it seems probable that he will prove 
sons came to him through his marriage, and the very best ruler Sweden could desire at 
these have proved men of his own type, the present juncture. He is slow to make 
Never did he do more to win the approval of up his mind, and will not do so until he has 
his subjects and of thinking men and women searched every phase and detail of the prob- 
everywhere than when he permitted the mar- lem before him, but once he has come to a 
riage of his third son, named after himself, conclusion he pursues his path without look- 
to a young Swedish noblewoman, Froken ing to right or left. 

Ebba Munck of Fulkila. While the prince -The new queen was the Princess Victoria 

had to renounce his right of succession and of Baden, through whom, by a strange play 

his position as a royal prince of Sweden, his of circumstances, the claims of the extinct 

relations to his father and the other mem- House of Vasa, — the last direct descendant 

bers of the royal family remained the same of which passed away a few days after King 

as before his marriage. As the years went Oscar, in the person of Carola, Dowager- 

by a third generation grew up in the palace Queen of Saxony, and daughter of the de- 

at Stockholm, — again a brood of long-limbed posed King Gustavus Adolphus IV. of 

and broad-shouldered sons with wholesome Sweden, — may be said to have become joined 

tastes and bright minds and kindly tempera- with those of the reigning House of Berna- 

ments. And at last, when the king was dotte, and through her, her son, the present 

seventy-eight years old, a great-grandchild Crown Prince, is a descendant of both those 

■was laid in his arms, — the first son of Prince houses. 



A NOBEL PRIZE FOR AMERICAN SCIENCE. 

BY HERBERT T. WADE. 

\X^HEN the trustees of the Nobel Fund the promotion of peace to President Roose- 
in their awards for 1907 decided to ve!t in 1906 naturally met with the enthusi- 
confer the annual prize for physics on Prof, astic approval of the people of the United 
Albert A. Michelson of the University of States, and so this more recent honor to an 
Chicago, the event was significant as being illustrious physicist is considered as much a 
the first time that this distinguished honor recognition of American science and capacity 
had been paid to an American man of for drigmal work and minute specialization 
science. The award of the Nobel prize for as it is a well merited tribute to the dis- 
tinguished recipi- 
ent. Furthermore, 
it is an added 
source of gratifica- 
tion that Professor 
Michelson's work 
represents most 
largely the results 
of American train- 
ing and environ- 
ment and has been 
carried on for the 
most part in Amer- 
ican institutions. 

Born at Screlno,' 
Prussia, December 
19, 1852, he was 
brought to this 
country as a boy, 
and from the San 
Francisco high 
school entered the 
United States Na- 
val Academy at 
Annapolis, where 
he was graduated 
in 1873. The 
young ensign's in- 
terest in physics 
and chemistry led 
to his detail to the 
teaching staff of 
the Academy in 
1875, and it was 
here that he com- 
menced his experi- 
mental work that 
soon developed in- 
to such Impor- 
tance, He was at- 
tracted especially 
PROFESSOR ALBERT A. MICHELSON. toward thc prob- 

(Winner of the Kobel Prl» in Physlra. 1907.) lem oi the velocity 



A NOBm Plil2B FOk AMERICAN SCtEsCE. 48 

of light, which since the days of Galileo Then going to Europe he was able to enjoy 

had appealed with such interest to physicists, the facilities of the laboratories of the Uni- 

Although a speed of 186,000 miles a second versities of Berlin and Heidelberg and of the 

is as much beyond the grasp of the ordinary College de France, and Ecole Polytechnique, 

mind as it was beyond the crude though and was brought into close contact with the 

ingenious methods of Galileo, yet in 1849 great physicists who then presided over these 

the French physicist Fizeau was able to ap- institutions. In this way he was able to de- 

proximate this quantity, using apparatus the velop some experimental ideas which he had 

principal element of which was a rapidly previously evolved, 

rotating toothed wheel. This method was «^,,^,„..^ ^„^ ,,^„^ ^.„„« 

^j u 17 1^ • ,0- u STUDYING THE LIGHT WAVES. 

improved on by Foucault in 1850, who em- 
ployed a rotating mirror and a much shorter Realizing in his study of light waves that 
distance for his beam. Here the velocity was greater use could be made of the principle 
obtained by observing the displacement of of interference, he began a series of experi- 
the reflected light in a telescope, rather than ments which since have found wide applica- 
by its eclipse, as in Fizeau's experiment. tion and development at his hands. Not 
,„^ „„„ ,,^T^r,Tr«,r ^^ ,T^,,^ only has he been enabled to determine the 

RE-DETERMINING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT. \. • . j- . • ^ r ^u 

most minute distances in terms or the v^ve 

It was an improvement of this method length of light, but one of the early applica- 

that young Michelson devised, and obtaining tions of his experiments was to the determin- 

at an expense of $10 a small revolving mir- Ing of the relative motion, if any, between 

ror, with such apparatus as the Naval Acad- the all-pervading ether and the earth. This 

emy laboratory afforded and he could con- involved measuring the relative speeds of 

struct, he made a series of determinations beams of light in different directions as re- 

which gave as a mean value of the velocity gards the motion of the earth. While this 

of light 186,500 miles. This preliminary and subsequent experiments led to negative 

work so commended itself to the scientific results, yet they brought about improvements 

men of the navy that the sum of $2000 was of the apparatus in the form of the intef- 

placed at his disposal and special apparatus ferometer, so that it became most useful for 

• with a small frame building in which it was spectroscopy and metrology, 

installed was constructed, so that early in Convinced that a career devoted to science 

the year 1879 the first observations could be was more to his nature Michelson resigned 

made. The care taken in these experiments from the navy in 1881, and was called to 

and the delicacy of adjustment and manipu- the Case School of Applied Science, at Cleve- 

lation aroused the admiration of older physi- land, Ohio, as professor of physics. Here 

cists and astronomers, and the values ob- ample opportunity was given for research 

tained for the velocity of light from these and the range and scope of his experiments 

observations were considered an important with the interferometer were greatly in- 

3dvance in accuracy and precision. It may creased, numerous papers on this subject be- 

be said in passing that the importance of this ing communicated to scientific journals and 

quantity does not lie merely in its use in learned societies. At Cleveland a repetition 

optical problems at the earth's surface, but of the experiments on the velocity of light 

assuming that light travels with the same was undertaken and more accurate values 

velocity in interplanetary space as in a vac- secured, while the relative speeds of the 

iium, Its velocity becomes an important con- waves in air, water, and other gases and 

sideration in astronomy. It affords a most liquids was obtained. So well recognized by 

useful method of determining the solar par- this time was Professor Michelson's repu- 

allax and the distance of the sun, either by tation that in 1887 he became vice-president 

considering it in connection with observa- and chairman of the section of physics of 

fions of the eclipses of the satellites of Jupi- the American Association for the Advance- 

ter or with the astronomical quantity known meht of Science, and in the following year 

as the " constant of aberration," derived was elected a member of the National Acad- 

from observations of the fixed stars. emy of Sciences, that small group of Amer- 

At the conclusion of these important ex- ican scientific immortals. That this growing 

periments, Michelson, who by this time had reputation was not confined to the United 

reached the grade of master, was assigned to States is shown by the fact that the Royal 

the Nautical Almanac Oflice in Washington, Society of London in 1889 conferred on 

where his studies in light were continued. Professor Michelson its Rumford Medal, in 



THE ECHELOhf SPECTROSCOPE. 



44 THE AUEklCAN kEyiElV dP REf^/EtVS. 

recognition of his researches on optics. In appreciated by the mind, may undergo such 
this year he became professor of physics in changes as may unfit it for use as a standard, 
Clark University, at Worcester, Mass., not to mention its possible loss, damage, or 
where in addition to supervising research by destruction. As the standards of the metric 
graduate students, he further developed the system underlie the metrology of the entire 
practical use of the interferometer in the vv^orld, the importance of permanently de- 
measurement of distances. When it is stated fining them cannot be underestimated as an 
that the length of a light wave varies from achievement in physics. 
"ST^nnr ^^ ^^ ^"^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ■srVoir ^^^ Professor Michelson^s return from this 
violet, the difficulties in the way of using successful work at Paris enabled him to take 
such a quantity can be understood. But it up the organization of the department of 
was here that Professor Michelson*s manipu- ph)^sics of the University of Chicago, to the 
lative skill was able to achieve success, and head of which he was appointed in 1892. 
he was able to measure with accuracy small Arranging a large and commodious labora- 
distances in terms of the waves of light of tory, he gathered around him skilful teachers 
a fixed position in the spectrum. and investigators who were able to profit 

^„ , ^.r^r^TT from his direction and experience, so that 

A NEW STANDARD OF LENGTH. .uj * .u u- J j-.'J 

this department has achieved and maintained 
The accuracy of this work so appealed to an enviable place among those of American 
Dr. B. A. Gould that when he attended the universities for teaching the fundamentals of 
meeting of the International Committee of science as well as for the furtherance of 
Weights and Measures at Paris as the dele- original investigation and research. Here 
gate of the United States in 1892, he conditions of equipment and organization 
brought the matter before the eminent have enabled Professor Michelson to carry 
physicists and metrologists composing that on his original woYk without a diminishing 
body. Accordingly an invitation was ex- of i^s amount or quality, 
tended to Professor Michelson to carry on 
and extend his investigation at the Bureau 
International des Poids et Mesures at In connection with his spectroscopic 
Sevres near Paris, with a view to determin- studies he has devised a new instrument 
ing the length of the International Prototype known as the echelon spectroscope, where 
Meter in terms of the wave length of light, the effects of magnetism on the light waves 
Professor Michelson proceeded to Paris, and and other phenomena can be studied. Just 
in one of the laboratories of the Bureau in- as his apparatus for measuring the velocity 
stalled his apparatus. A year was spent in of light showed an improvement over that 
the careful adjustment and the making of of Foucault, so with the new spectroscope 
observations, but when the latter were com- the separation of special lines observed by 
puted the results were most satisfactory, Zeeman w^hen the light was under the influ- 
their harmony indicating a high degree of ence of a magnetic field was strikingly in- 
precision. The prototype meter Professor creased. He has also extended the use of tlic 
Michelson found was equal to i,553>i63.5 interferometer to astronomy in connection 
red waves of the spectrum of the metal cad- with the telescope, and its power to resolve 
mium, 1,966,249.7 of the green, and 2,083,- the light from the various stars into particu- 
372.1 of the blue, with an absolute accuracy lar and peculiar kinds of radiation has made 
of one part in 2,000,000. it a most useful instrument. Also by the 
This research fixes the standard of length study of the characteristics of the radiations, 
now used, independent of time and all other considering the vibration of the ether as a 
considerations, as the waves of light are un- form of motion. Professor Michelson has 
alterable. Even if the properties of the greatly increased the range of spectroscopy. 
ether should change as the solar system In 1899, as lecturer in the famous Lowell 
moves through space, it would be hardly less course, at Boston, Professor Michelson ex- 
than 20,000,000 years, says Professor Mich- plained in a series of lectures recent develop- 
elson, before any such effects would be ments in the study of light, and these ad- 
material in changing the wave length of dresses, printed in the Decennial Publications 
light. On the other hand the present plati- of the University of Chicago under the title 
num-iridium standard meter preserved most of " Light Waves and Their Uses," afford 
carefully in the vault of the Bureau Inter- an excellent insight into modern physical 
national, even in spaces of time more readily methods. In this same year, as one of the 



mLUAM JAMES. The hi am AS/D THE THlNKEk. 46 

American representatives at the jubilee of spect and admiration, if not the understand- 

Sir G. G. Stokes, the celebrated physicist and ing, of the average man, the world of science 

authority on light, Professor Michelson pre- at the other end of the scale to which the 

sented an address to this distinguished savant, physicist working in what is known as pure 

and in turn was honored with the degree of science largely addresses himself, has hardly 

Doctor of Science from Cambridge Uni- received the same general attention and ap- 

versity. The Royal Institution of London preciation. It is in this field that Professor 

also made him an honorary member, and in Michelson has achieved such great success, 

1900 he received a grand prize from the and it bears out a remark of a famous physi- 

Paris Exposition. cist often quoted by him, "that the future 

While the astronomer deals with magni- truths of physical science are to be looked for 

tudes so great that they challenge the re- in the sixth place of decimals." 



WILLIAM JAMES, THE MAN AND THE THINKER. 

BY EDWIN BJORKMAN. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM JAMES, the out-of-the-way nook that the visiting stran- 

foremost exponent of Pragmatism and ger needs a chart and compass to find his way 

the representative of contemporaneous Amer- to it through the labyrinth of meandering 

ican philosophy who looms largest in the avenues that is Cambridge, 

public eye not only in his native country The academic career now brought to a 

but all over the world, retired officially on formal, if not actual, end has not only sur- 

October i from the chair of philosophy at passed the ordinary in duration and produc- 

Harvard University, which he had occupied tiveness, but it has, to an exceptional extent, 

for ten years. A pension from the Carnegie been characterized by a steady growth, an 

Institution has enabled him at last, — he is incessant opening of new vistas and widening 

now sixty-five years old, but as hale and of outgrown horizons. It would be hard to 

strong and active as a man of fifty, — to real- find a finer illustration of that modern, scien- 

ize a long cherished desire of devoting his tific spirit which enjoins the searcher after 

whole time and energy to the completion of truth from ever stopping in the belief that 

several philosophical works already planned, the final goal has been reached at last. To 

Though the public and science must be Professor James the words of Emerson have 

gainers by a change which enables Professor always applied in full force: " His life is a 

James to put into final form those ideas and progress, and not a station." The exact 

theories that have raised him to the emi- sciences drew him at first. He studied medi- 

nence he now holds in the world of thought, cine and took his degree of M.D. in 1870, 

this change will mean a severe loss to the but he never practiced. Instead, he taught, 

university and the student body. 1 ne loss giving the major portion of his attention to 

would be still greater were the institution to physiology. Eight years saw him as instruc- 

be deprived not only of Professor James* tor and assistant professor in that subject at 

teaching but also of the inspiring influence the university from which he had graduated, 

of his personality. But his life will continue But his future life work was calling him 

to be centered in and about Harvard, where even at that early day, although its voice was 

he has been at home almost uninterruptedly still coming out of the ** sub-conscious " 

since he first entered the Lawrence Scientific only. By degrees he turned more and more 

School as a student in 186 1. His familiar, from matter to mind, from the body to the 

briskly moving figure, his bristling beard, soul. He began by interpreting the psycho- 

and his smiling eyes, will still be seen logical theories of Spencer, and ended by 

around the Delta, and innumerable student working out new ones of his own. From the 

pilgrimages will undoubtedly be made from first his steps tended toward new and un- 

that region to the cosy house on Irving broken paths, and his honor of having opened 

Street where Professor James lives with his these cannot be lessened by the paralleling of 

wife and sons, — a haven of peace snuggling his work by other men in some cases. 

so close among elms and shrubbery in an As a part of the curriculum, psychology 



46 THE AMERICAN REl/IEl^ OF RE^IElVS. 

was merely a subordinate division of the umental wark, the "Varieties of Religious 
department of philosophy in those days. In Experience: A Study in Human Nature." 
1880 an assistant professorship in philosophy And again he was found to have rendered a 
was given the young psychologist, and five contribution to human learning that was in 
years later this was made a full professor- a large degree original and in every respect 
ship. But only in 1889 was Professor James significant. In that work the pragmatic at- 
given a separate chair of psychology. In the titude of looking toward results rather than 
following year appeared his first great work, causes prevailed throughout. It accentuated 
the ** Principles of Psychology." It had been on one side the unifying effect of vital re- 
nine years in the making. But it took hardly ligious emotion on man's existence, and on 
that many months to spread the name of the the other side the futility of all religious 
author throughout the civilized world. For forms that have ceased to influence human 
the two volumes contained a complete expo- life actively. Harald HoflEding, the Danish 
sition of what is now familiar to every stu- philosopher who ranks among the greatest 
dent of psychology and philosophy as the minds of the day, and who himself is the 
Lange-James theory, the essence of which author of a remarkable Philosophy of Re- 
may be roughly expressed in the contention ligion, says concerning the work of Professor 
that our feelings are the result rather than James: " Long time has passed since I read 
the cause of our instinctive reactions against a book that had the power of this one to 
impressions from without. While still dis- make me look at man and life with new 
puted, — and frequently with fanaticism, — and refreshed vision." And right here it 
this theory has been gaining ground ever may be well to quote another utterance by 
since it was first published, and even where the same writer about his American col- 
it has not been accepted in its entirety it league : " James belongs to the foremost 
has had the power to modify previous con- thinkers of our time. He combines compre- 
ceptions of our emotional processes. hensive knowledge with great power of ob- 
Like more than one prominent psychol- servation, keen critical judgment with ideal- 
ogist in modern times, Professor James was istic enthusiasm, and freedom from prejudice 
irresistibly led on. toward philosophy in its with sincere conviction." 
widest sense, — as " a synthesis of all human , 

, \ ^ c ^y • J , ,• I A^c THE EXPONENT OF PRAGMATISM. 

knowledge for the mterpretation and modin- 

cation of man's relationship to life. In this- In late years Professor James has more 
tendency^ which in 1897 resulted in his and more claimed the attention of laymen 
transfer to a chair of philosophy at his own and experts alike as the expounder and de- 
request, he was undoubtedly speeded by the fender of a new philosophical method, — a 
increasing predominance of experimental method that had been vaguely glimpsed by 
psycholojn^ the methods of which have left one of our most brilliant and most diffuse 
him unsympathetic from the start in spite of thinkers (Charles Pierce) years before its 
his own firm belief that physiological true nature and proper application were 
changes underlie all psychological phenom- grasped and explained by Professor James, 
ena. In 1897, too, was published the volume Prof. John Dewey of Columbia, and Prof, 
entitled " The Will to Believe, and Other F. C. S. Schiller of Oxford. Thesq three 
Essays," in which may be found his first men stand fundamentally for the same thing, 
definite announcements of pragmatic theories, although one of them calls it Pragmatism, 
These took then principally the form of a the other Instrumentalism, and the third 
protest against the dogmatism, absolutism Humanism. James and Dewey arrived at 
and fatalism of the orthodox Hegelian phil- their conclusions simultaneously and inde- 
osophy prevailing at Oxford, and represented pendently of each other, one applying the 
here by Professor Royce of Harvard witlr new ideas to logic in particular and the other 
such ability and originality that his works by to psychology. Schiller, who received in- 
many are valued even above those of Francis spiration from both the others, has turned 
Bradley, the most effective thinker among his attention more toward pure metaphysics, 
the English Neo-Hegelians. The two win- At present the importance of Pragmatism 
ters of 1900-01 and 1901-02 were spent by may be judged chiefly by the stir it has 
Professor James at Edinburg and Aberdeen, caused in the world of learning. And its 
where he went to deliver the Gifford lecture actual bearings are still seen only by a small 
courses on philosophy. The result of that minority. Putting the matter into very 
venture across the ocean was his second men- broad and crude terms, it may be said that 



PROFESSOR WILLIAM JAUBS. 

Pragmatism insists on the correlation of making it intelligible to all thinking men 

philosophy to real life. Instead of turning and women. With this object in view he 

backwards for inspiration and authentica- delivered a course of lectures, iirst at Boston 

tion, it sends its vision forward. It does not and then at Columbia University, publishing 

pretend to be a new philosophy, whether this them later in hook form under tlie title of 

word be used to designate a cosmological con- " Pragmatism : A New Name for Some Old 

ception or an attitude toward life. It is a Ways of Thinking." Plain and clear as is 

method rather than anything else, a way of the language of this volume, it has been 

working that leads to the weighing and largely misunderstood, where it was not wil- 

judgtng of truth by the consequences its ac- fully misinterpreted. 

ceptance may have to men. It professes to One thing that Professor James declares 

teach how truth may be recognized, not what with particular emphasis in this as in all his 

the truth is. Of those who have preached it other works is that what we generally call 

so far, none has done more than Professor " truth " cannot be regarded as, — to quote 

James to cany out its innermost spirit by another Pragmatist, — " an unalterable sys- 



48 THE AMERICAN RE^IEm OF REyiE[VS. 

tem of objective truths that subsist inde- ble, many of whom have been led by the 
pendently of the flux of human experience." study of his w^orks to regard him as a sort of 
To him truth is being constantly produced physician for the soul, are ever knocking at 
by interaction between man and the world his door, and few are those that go away un- 
around him ; or, as Professor James himself helped, while none is turned aside unheeded, 
recently expressed this thought: "Mind en- In each man he manages to find a trace of 
genders truth upon reality." But Pragma- good ; through the darkest case he spies a ray 
tism goes further still by recognizing as truth of hope. And men show naturally their best 
only what has meaning and importance in sides in his presence, both intellectually and 
man's life, judging the value of a truth by morally. If there be anything of worth in 
the consequences to man of its acceptance as them, his gentle word?, so totally free from 
such. And by this exercise of selective power all intellectual snobbishness, are sure to re- 
man becomes able to exert an influence on veal it. _ 
the encountered reality, just as he is influ- In the lecture-room, in his books, and in 
enced by it. In other words, man not only his daily life, he is above all honest, both in 
helps to make the truth but to ** make," — dealing with himself and with others. He 
i. e., to change and reconstruct, — the world is equally frank in confessing failure and 
itself. Thus, according to Professor James claiming merit, in granting the limitations 
and his followers, man ceases to be the help- of all philosophy or those of his own. In 
less victim of a fate made for him by a spite of his vast store of knowledge and his 
power wholly outside of himself, as not only deep insight into the nature of men and 
the theologians but also the philosophers of things alike, he never permits himself to be- 
materialistic as well as idealistic leanings come dogmatic. Obscurity is hateful to him. 
have insisted on making him. Another im- A master of style, he does not disdain to em- 
portant phase of this new tendency of phil- ploy colloquialisms, or even slang, if thereby 
osophic thought is its refusal to recognize he may make himself more easily under- 
the complete supremacy of reason as taught stood. And to him the truth that is not 
by the prevalent rationalistic philosophies, known and understood is not yet any truth 
Op this point Prof. W. P. Montague of at all. His students have always mixed their 
Columbia University said recently: " It is admiration for him with a goodly portion of 
safe to say that Pragmatism, whatever else pure love, and they are often heard to de- 
it may imply, stands for a protest against dare that whatever be best in them, whatever 
interpreting experience in terms that are ex- they possess of sincerity, directness and un- 
clusivcly cognitive. Existence does not con- conventionality as wTiters and instructors, 
sist primarily either in being perceived or in they owx to the example set by Professor 
being conceived, but rather in being felt and James. One result of his passion for clear- 
willed." Taking into consideration not only ness, on the platform as well as in print, has 
these features of the new school, but also been to make many think him less deep than 
others not touched on here, it is clear that it he is: the plainness of his style seems sadly 
tends directly away from that all too com- lacking in profundity when compared with 
mon academical attitude which Jooks upon the veiled and oracular utterances of other 
knowledge as something existing in and for philosophers. His openness of spirit has 
itself, without regard to its usefulness to man. manifested itself strikingly in his attitude 
A TviTTnu nPTnvpn nwiTr^cnowPD toward Christian and Mental Science as well 

A MUCH-BELOVED PHILOSOPHER. ^ ,, , . i i i • r i 

as toward psychic research, the clamis of the 

Whether Professor James be considered as latter having always found in him a tolerant 

thinker or as teacher, as writer or as man, although far from credulous listener. 

his most characteristic qualities are catho- If anything more be needed to make clear 

licity and charitableness of spirit, toward just what kind of man he is, I will add a 

thoughts not less than toward men. He little anecdote before I close. Not long ago 

has unbounded faith in mankind as well as a former pupil of Professor James lost all 

in individual men, and yet he is rarely if his personal property, including his library, 

ever deceived. It is not blind trust but ex- through fire. A few days later he received 

treme acuteness of perception that fills him by express a box containing fifty volumes 

with limitless sympathy and turns him into which Professor James had picked out from 

what one of his friends described as a " dis- his own rich store of books as being particu- 

penser of spiritual alms." Persons in trou- larly needful and helpful to the sufferer. 



SOME OF ELECTRICITY'S RECENT TRIUMPHS. 

BY GEORGE ILES. 

(Author of ■' Inventori at Work,") 

AX^HEN man in the making first kindled fuel contains sulphur or phosphorus these 
fire, he took a long stride toward be- much impair the quality of molten iron or 
coming man as he is. Fire gave him warmth seething steel. In dwellings, in mines, on 
in winter: it opened to him gates of the north shipboard, the necessary consumption of air 
otherwise forever shut. After sundown it is a dire evil ; more serious still is the out- 
bestowed light, so that he could then work pouring of deadly gases. Flame labors under 
or travel, hunt or fish, instead of idling in other disadvantages. It is on the outside of 
caves or huts as when destitute of glowing a crucible or retort that it beats; the shell to 
ember or flaring torch. When a blaze died be penetrated, if the steel plate of a big 
out the earth below its ashes was found boiler, may be an inch thick; much thicker, 
baked to hardness: here lay the promise of and non-conducting as well, is the brick wall 
bricks and pottery, so that at last the walls of a bake-oven. Flame produces much heat 
of Ninevah were reared, the vases of Etruria of little worth because of low temperature, 
took form. When a flame fiercer than com- The whole Atlantic Ocean might be lukc- 
mon melted sand to glass, there was prophecy warm and still leave a potato unboiled. It 
of a telescope for Galileo, a camera for is the margin by which a temperature over- 
Daguerre, a microscope whereby Pasteur tops the degree needed for boiling, melting 
should detect the deadliest, because the min- or welding that decides its value. Vet more: 
utest, foes of man. All the streams of lead flame at most has a play of only a few inches. 
and iron, copper and zinc, ever smelted from Even when it raises steam, the best of all 
ores; all the acids, oils and alcohols that ever heat-carriers, that steam may be borne no 
dropped from alembic or still, took their rise further than a mile without excessive loss. 
in that tiny blaze as it flickered under its All these faults and wastes disappear when, 
creators' hands. Unknowingly there, too, instead of flame, we employ electric heat, not- 
were laid foundations for the mighty engines withstanding the cost of its round-about pro- 
of Watt and Stephenson, Parsons and De duction by a furnace, a heat-engine and a 
Laval. Thence, also, sprang the tides of dynamo. In many cases the engineer can 
iron and steel which to-day gridiron the con- happily dispense with fuel altogether, and 
tinents, wall every steamship to resist the draw upon a waterfall, as notably at Niaga- 
ocean surge, and build machines to exalt a ra. Electricity, in whatever mode produced, 
hundred-fold the weaving, digging, hamtricr- may be easily and fully insulated, taken, if 
ing thrust of the human arm. we please, ico miles, and there, through 
Could mankind harness an agent still non-conducting mica or asbestos, enter the 
mightier than flame? Yes, and we are now very heart of a kettle, or still, to e.vert itself 
in the midst of that subduing, for never as heat, without an iota of subtraction. It 
more than at this hour were the masters of has no partner, gaseous or other, to work 
electricity triumphant. We have but to 
glance at a few of their recent conquests to 
see that electricity can do all that flame does, 
do it better, and accomplish tasks infinitely 
beyond the reach of fire, however ingeniously 
applied. 

ELECTRIC HEAT BETTER THAN FLAME HEAT. 

Flame, as a direct source of heat, is at 
best a faulty servant. In consuming oxy- 
gen it produces carbon dioxide and other 
harmful gases; it wastcfully warms huge vol- 
umes of inert nitrogen, with the result that ^ (.iunk wefded uy the elihu thomsos 
temperatures are much reduced. If the pkocess. 



50 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^lElVS. 

injury or levy a tax. Electricity, too, by a iron-smelting and steel-making. 
transformer, may be readily lifted from low 

to high voltage, or pressure, immensely The extreme heat of the electric furnace, 
widening its effective play in soldering, weld- with its exclusion of all undesired substances 
ing, smelting. At any temperature desired, whatever, make it an ideal means of smelt- 
there, with perfect constancy, electric heat ing iron or producing steel. In reviewing a 
may be maintained, with no need that a remarkable series of experiments, IVIr. F. W. 
branding or smoothing iron return period- Harbord, the eminent English metallurgist, 
ically to a fire, with risk of scorching. says: " Pig iron can be produced on a com- 
mercial scale where electric energy is $lO 

ELECTRIC WELDING. i -l .. x • «. ?1 ..^^^^^ 

per kilowatt for a year, as agamst $7 per ton 
A capital example of the convenience and for coke. Steel, equal to the best Sheffield 
economy of electric heat is displayed in the crucible steel, is obtainable electrically at 
art of electric welding, due to Elihu Thom- less than the present cost of producing high- 
son. Two steel bars to form parts of a class crucible steel." The Keller electrical 
crank are clamped together, and a current is process for pig iron has required in a first 
sent. through their junetion. At every point run .475 horsepower year per ton; in a see- 
where contact is imperfect, resistance to the ond run, .226. In steel making the Kjellin 
current is greatest, and the highest tempera- method has consumed .116 horsepower year 
ture appears. Electric heat thus goes just per ton, the Heroult method, .153, the Kel- 
where it does most work. At the instant of ler method, .112. Only very few waterfalls 
welding the two pieces of steel are forcibly in the world can furnish electricity at Mr. 
drawn together; when cool they sever under Harbord*s limit of $10 per year for a kilo- 
stress anywhere but at their weld. In like watt, or ij/^ horsepower. For other pur- 
manner the tires for bicycles and automobiles poses than the production of heat, as for 
are united, the rails for railroads, the links motive power or lighting, the current would, 
of chains, the tubes for boilers, the contain- as a rule, have much more value. In New 
ers for compressed gases, and so on through York retail customers pay the Edison Com- 
a long list. The chemist, with as much gain pany 10 cents per kilowatt hour, or $876 
as the metal-worker, adopts electric heat. per annum. Clearly a much lower rate must 

^, .,,^^r,^ precede any rivalry betwixt the electric 

CARBON YIELDS LIGHT, RIVALS THE DIAMOND^ ^ .,, \ . ,/ ^ , 

crucible and the blast furnace. 

AND MINIMIZES FRICTION. 

^ , , .1 u .c u • 1 1 LIGHT ALMOST TREBLED. 

Carbon, perhaps the chier chemical ele- 
ment, has forms as diverse as coal, graphite, Two methods by which electricity may 
and diamonds. Both as an element and in afford heat are illustrated in ordinary elec- 
its compounds, it has for years engaged the trie lighting. An Edison lamp has a fila- 
skill of Edward Goodrich Acheson, at Niag- ment of carbon which so resists a current as 
ara Falls. There, with electric heat of ut- to rise to a vivid glow. A second mode is 
most intensity, he converts anthracite into shown in an arc-lamp, whose two carbon 
graphitized carbon rods, almost pure. Their pencils first touch, then withdraw, leaving 
conductivity is four-fold that of the best between them an arc of dazzling radiance, 
natural graphite. These rods serve as cur- An incandescent lamp, so far from requiring 
rent-carriers in an electric manufacture of air, demands a vacuum. To-day the best 
alkalis, impossible without their agency. Mr. lamp of this kind has a thread of tungsten, 
Acheson makes graphite serviceable as a pig- of an efficiency two and one-half times great- 
ment, and also in a form useful as a lubri- er than that of a carbon filament. Tung- 
cant. As little of his flaky graphite as I sten may safely reach 1850 degrees Ccnti- 
part to 300 of oil greatly heightens the value grade; carbon may not surpass i()6o degrees. 
of the oil in lubrication. He has discovered Only within two years have the difficulties 
that by adding a little gallotannic acid to of treating tungsten for lamps been over- 
this flaky graphite it remains suspended in come. In one process the metal is crushed 
either oil or water. As an indivisible liquid to powder, united with a binding material to 
the mixture may be pumped throughout a form a paste which is squirted through a die 
huge machine shop, and drop from its noz- as a thread ; the binder is then removed, leav- 
zles as if pure oil. Mr. Acheson makes also ing^ the tungsten by itself. It is much more 
carborundum, a compound of carbon and sil- fragile than carbon, and must be carefully 
icon, an abrasive second only to the diamond, handled; its filaments may be disposed down- 



ELECTRIC/TY-S RECENT TRIUMPHS. 



ward only. Its raj's ar so b h h h no o need a shade, with its destruction 

are usually dimmed by n" opaq lb f i 1 In the automatic design liere illus- 

with, of course, consider hi lo of I gh d vitch closes the circuit, at once a 

I'ht Westinghousc nj, n Ian p ! a nagn Its the lamp for its start; this de- 
twenty candle power, f a u en of a u es relighting should there be an 
1.25 watts per candle; la 000 hou a d n al interruption of current. In this 
with hardly any lessening of brilliancy ; type, " H," a candle power requires .64 
it costs 90 cents. Side by side is a carbon- watt; with a tube twice as long, type " K," 
filament lamp, of sixteen candle power, for a the outlay sinks to ,55 watt per candle, or 
current of 3,1 watts per candle; with a use- 1356 candles per horsepower. The light is 
ful life of 450 hours; it costs 18 cents. With green and unsuitable for houses, stores, or 
current at 10 cents per kilowatt hour, light wherever else colors arc to remain normal to 
from tungsten is about half as expensive as the eye. Apart from this restriction the 
from carbon threads, inclusive of lamps in Hewitt tubes have wide appHcahilitj' to fac- 
both cases. tones, mills, foundries, composing rooms, 

A Cooper-Hewitt tube in economy excels freight sheds, docks, streets and public 

a tungsten lamp as much as that lamp dis- squares. They are used in the New York 

tances an Edison bulb. It is of clear glass, Post Office. In photography their beams are 

about 21 inches long, with a small cup at particularly rapid and effective. 

each end inside. When in circuit a little How in cosf does li^ht from electricity 

mercury running from end to end starts the compare with light from flame? In its best 

light, which, coming as it does, from an ex- fOrm, with rays directed downward, a 

tensive surface, is so moderate in brightness Welshach mantle gives 25 candles for each 



52 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

cubic foot of gas burned an hour. With gas and after that absolutely still. How can we 

at $1.25 per 1000 cubic feet, and tungsten store its power at times of surplusage for 

lamps consuming current at 4 cents per kilo- hours of dearth? If we compress air, or lift 

watt hour, the cost is the same, leaving out water to lofty tanks, our outlay will be iargje, 

of account the expense of either mantles or our losses by friction very considerable. But 

candles. let us harness a storage battery and we shall 

^r ^r^r^.r^.-^r . r^ „^xr,. bc wcll and chcEply served. Every foot- 

ELECTRICITY AT HOME. , , ^ -^ u • -. llw Jt 

pound of spare energy may be mstantiy ana 
Carbon-filament lamps are much cheaper safely banked there, and withdrawn at need 
to-day than at first; a like fall in price may with small deduction. Not only in house- 
soon give popularit)' to lamps of much higher holds, office-buildings and factories has this 
economy. On equal terms electric light is battery high utility, but also as a means of 
preferred to any other; it is the safest of all, travel, as in the runabout. The gasoline au- 
sends out no fumes and but little heat, while tomobile has a field of its own, as a hig^- 
it leaves the air unconsumed. In many an- power machine which may go indefinitely 
other service electricity stands ready to lift far. It may develop forty horsepower from 
the burdens of housekeeping, to create new a HerreshoflF motor weighing but 415 
comforts at home. pounds, and furnish a horsepower for an 

Last October the Brooklyn Edison Com- hour for each pint of gasoline consumed, 
pany exhibited in New York the best array picking up from the air, as it goes along, the 
of electric appliances for the household ever ox>'gen for combustion. The elcctromobile 
brought together. A suite of rooms, to form carries much less effective fuel in its lead or 
a home, were equipped with every electrical iron, and besides must bear such acids and 
aid. The kitchen had a coffee percolator, a alkalis as its combinations demand. Last 
fr>'ing kettle, a waffle iron, all heated at October Mr. Edison showed me his new 
small cost. In the laundr\' was a smoothing nickel-iron cells, from which, for every fifty- 
iron always at the right temperature, need- three pounds, he expects a horsepower for an 
ing no renewals of heat at a stove. A variety hour. Despite its weight the electric vehicle 
of motors operated a clothes-washer, a wring- is popular on many accounts ; it starts at a 
er, a sewing machine, a dish-washer, a buffer touch, asks no expert driver, is simple and 
to polish silver, and a vacuum cleaner for safe, odorless and cool; and, above all, its 
rugs and carpets. A Brunswick refrigerator habit is to stay in order. In their best de- 
of one horsepower made a pound of ice ever>' signs electromobiles run fast and far. A 
hour. Fan motors .here and there were Babcock machine travels twenty-six miles an 
blowing a grateful breeze; in winter they hour on a level road. A Detroit machine 
might hasten the warming of rooms by driv- has gone from Detroit to Toledo, seventy- 
ing air over their steam coils. two miles, in 220 minutes, with charge 

These household motors are an unmatched enough left for thirty miles more. A lady 
gift of electricity. On a minor scale, for as she pays a round of calls or goes shopping, 
domestic labor, heat engines are out of the a physician visiting his patients, a family 
question. Steam motors are economical only taking the air, all find the runabout prefera- 
when large. Gas engines of as little as five ble to the automobile, whose power and 
horsepower are built, but they are unwel- swiftness are excessive, with mechanism diffi- 
come tenants in a house. All heat engines cult to control, costly to keep in repair, 
exhale gases or vapors, need qualified attend- ^uvmu^ ov tuk » mt 

^ . ^ 1 ' ^ £ n 1 J* I\i(ir(»KS (IN THh RAIL. 

ants, mtroduce a risk ot nre or scaldmg. 

Whether small enough for a cottage, or big Incomparably more important than the 
enough to drive a steel rolling mill, an runabout is the electric locomotive, which, in 
electric motor is equally efficient and de- its first estJite, as the trolley-motor, has vastly 
sirable. On request it takes a walk, as in expanded the suburbs of our cities, and 
the traveling crane of a ship yard or quarr\'. created thousands of healthful homes. Pass- 
In any use a flexible wire conveys all its ing from city streets anil coiuUrv roads to 
energ>', dismissing chains and belts, cranks or the tracks of steam lines, tliis motor is work- 
pulleys. And when idle it asks no pay. ing a quiet revolution, by virtue of inherent 
«TT.,^r^r^ «^„r^« T^r » * ^t^c superioHty at even* point. To begin with, 

PUTTING POWER IN BANKS. i ^ • i * • i. i / • / i i 

an electric locomotive has left its fuel and 

Suppose we have a windmill, waterwhcel, furnace. Its boiler, water-tank and engine at 

or other prime mover, now swift, then slow, home. Unburdened by their weight it is 



ELECTRICITYS RECENT TRIUMPHS. 



also free from their hazard of fire or scalding 
in case of mishap. With no tender to drag, 
this locomotive bears on its drivers so large 
a part of its total weight that it gets up 
speed in about half the time needed by its 
steam rival. Last July the New Haven 
Railroad began running its electric trains to 
Nc4V Rochelle from New York, sixteen 
miles, since extending this service to Stam- 
ford, seventeen miles further. An alternat- 
ing current, at ii,000 volts, enters a car 
from an overhead wire through a pantagraph 
which permits much more play than does the 
common trolley- wheel. These Westing- 
house locomotives, hauling aoo-ton trains, 
which stop on an average ever>' 2.2 miles, 
must net twenty-six miles an hour. On long 
runs they must go sixty-five to seventy miles 
an hour, or take 250- ton trains at sixty 
miles an hour. At such paces a steam loco- 
motive would have low efficiency ; its cylin- 
ders would be too quickly emptied to be kept 
fully supplied with steam. At all speeds 
electric locomotives have their economy un- 



impaired. Nor is this all ; a heavy train, on a 
steep grade, may call for two or more steam 
locomotives. It is hardly possible to keep them 
in step so that they exert an even, uniform 
pull. A train irfight be a mile long, and with 
electric motors distributed throughout its 
length, all would advance^as a single, ma- 
chine when controlled by the Sprague mul- 
tiple-unit system. And again: a steam loco- 
motive is impelled by the to and fro action 
of its pistons, which, at high speeds, some- 
times deliver blows so violent as to lift the 
wheels from the track. An electric motor 
turns round and round, so that it never 
works this injury. 



Whether for railroad service, faaory toil, 
city lighting, or aught else, it is an inestima- 
ble boon that electricity may be borne for 
scores of miles at comparatively small cost 
for conductors, with inconsiderable leakage 
by the way. The Pacific Gas and Electric 
Company of California has stations at their 



54 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 



farthest 318 mtles apart, supplying, all told, 
about 80,000 horsepower. Its chief currents 
have the enormous pressure of 60,000 lolts. 
Each insulator, of stout porcelain, is made 
up of three separate, conical hoods. 

WIRELtSS WORDS. 

Thus far we have planced at services long 
performed by fire, and nou better executed by 
electricitj-. Let us now 'view feats of elec- 
tricity' that tire cannot attempt at all. In 
communicatintr messages, tlame began to play 
a notable part long a;;o: first, as flaring bea- 
1 lamps such as those still swing- 
ailroad tracks. liut all such 
larrowly limited in scope, and 
when lo^s descend or storms 
arise. Because an electric "ire may lie in- 
sulated for hundreds of miles it has created 
the telegraph, pi'riiaps the chief gift Ix'stowed 
by the electrician upon mankind. Electric 
waves are not only transmissible by a wire, 
they may be committed to the ether of free 
space, as by Marconi, so that with no metal- 
lic or other medium, save the aforesaid ether, 
he enables Ireland and Nova Scotia to signal 
to each other as if on opposite banks of the 



cons: 


then. 


ing a 


Ion;! 


means 




utterl) 


,■ fail 



Hudson, instead of being divided by the 
tempest swept Atlantic The four Maroont 
towers at Glace Bay, Nova Scotfa, each 215 
feet tall, are surmounted by poles of fifty 
feet more, making a total height of 265 feet. 
Some fiftj' aerial nires run from these poles 
horizontally for several hundred feet as a 
directive system. Thus far seventy kilo- 
watts, about ninety-three horsepower, has 
sufficed in transnnssion. The plant includes 
a steam engine of 500 horsepower, and an 
alternator of 350 kilowatts at 2000 volts. 

And speech as well as signals may be car- 
ried by the ether. Among the methods of 
wireless telephony may be mentioned that of 
Prof. R. A. Fesscnden. For several months 
he has been transmitting speech from Brant 
Ruck, Mass., to Brooklyn, N. Y., almost 
200 miles, nearly three-fourths of the dis- 
tance being overland. His alternator runs 
at 81.700 cycles per second, employing either 
a single armature nuchine of 1^ horse- 
power, or a machine of double this capacity. 

WHY XO TRANSCONTIXEXT.AL 'pHONH? 



No tclepho 
New 1-ork ;i 



line, of the Bell type, joins 
1 San Francisco: its double 



ELECTRICITY'S RECENT TRIUMPHS. 



circuit of heavy copper wire woulil cost too wlien tlie alternations increase in their fre- 

mucli, quency, the notes rise in pitch. A performer 

A telegram takes its way along a succession at a keyboard touches off pulses from scores 
of lines, each joined to the next by a self- of diverse alternators, each voicing a simple 
acting repeater. No such contrivance is yet note. Such notes duly blended recall the 
available in telephony, whose currents, fur- complex overtones of the flute, the oboe, or 
thermore, are so very slight as to be seriously other instrument. Effects bej'ond these, 
impeded in passing through switchboards or H-holly new and delightful, are created, so 
other mechanism, no matter how well de- that Mr. Cahill has conferred a fresh re- 
signed, source upon composers and executants. Hi« 
MUSIC PURELY ELECTRIC. Central station in New York resembles a 
powerhouse, with its engine, its groups of 

Through a telephone we may listen to a alternators and switchboards, its wire fes- 

distant orchestra or choir, but the effect is toons. The music is sent forth on ordinary 

not pleasant enough to give it popularity, telephone lines anywhere within lOO miles, 

To-day, the telephone adds to its old task of and so powerfully that at any desired place 

reproducing operas or symphonies as exe- an audience of 500 may together hear its 

cuted, the rendition of music wholly electric, weird and sympathetic strains. 
In his telharmonium Mr. Theodore Cahill 

J .L I . L . L » ELECTRICITY FOR UNIVERSAL SERVICE. 

proceeds upon the fact that when a current 

is reversed, or alternated, hundreds or thou- Our survey thus far, scant though it is, 

sands of times a second, it utters in a tele- may suffice to show that the inventor and 

phone a distinct musical note. When the the manufacturer have fulfilled their duty 

alternations are few, the notes arc grave; with respect to electrical art. They have dc- 



56 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REI^IEIVS. 

signed and built excellent motors and dyna- His glass and porcelain, his plates of zinc 

mos, heaters and lamps, chemical dividers of and silver, his acids, were all bestowed upon 

all sorts, batteries of many types, all at mod- him by flame. And it is by devising econom- 

erate prices. Where electricity is cheap, as ical heat-motors, whether using steam, gas 

at Niagara Falls, these devices are in general or oil, that the modern engineer enables the 

use, both in factories and homes. Where the electrician to generate currents readily and 

current is comparatively dear, we find its cheaply. 

public acceptance much less wide. A good This flowering of old resources into new, 
deal, too, depends upon the business manager of transcendent sweep, of subtler probe, is 
of a central station. When he is bold and plain in ever}' decisive advance of humankind. 
enterprising he repeats such a success as that Let us ask, How came fire to be kindled at 
of the telephone. To take a striking case: first? In all likelihood by a surpassing feat 
the Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting of manipulation, directed by the sagacity 
Company recently wired gratis several hun- which only dexterity could awaken and in- 
dred houses in Pueblo, Colo., at an average form. Probably in clashing flints together to 
cost of $7.64 each for the first batch of 384 shape rude arrows, or chisels, a savage flashed 
houses of seven lamps apiece. It is now earn- out a spark upon a tuft of dried fibre which 
ing from these dwellings enough to pay for at once leaped into a blaze. Or, it may be 
the wiring twice over. Wholesale installa- tliat in drilling a stick an armorer was re- 
tions in this fashion reduce cost to the warded for uncommon persistence and stress 
lowest notch; they give a launching jolt by a tiny flame, with its hint for repetition, 
to the inertia of heavy-heeled citizens. A The superiority of such a man to the kins- 
like policy, extended to sewing machine man next below him in skill and brains may 
motors, fans, smoothing irons, chafing dishes have been slight enough; no wider, indeed, 
and the like, would undoubtedly inure to than the " variation " which is Darwin's unit 
the profit of central stations, while at the of advance. But in the passing from mere 
same time greatly lightening the tasks of warmth to fire a new world was entered, 
housekeeping. abounding in powers and insights impossible 
A central station earns most when its ma- to beings who, though human, had not risen 
chinery is fully and constantly at work, above the abilit}', shared by other creatures, 
Hence the importance of introducing heaters merely to change the forms of leaves, bark 
and motors usually busy at other than the and wood, of clay or stone. With fire to 
" rush " hours of the day. Between mid- work his will man was able to alter proper- 
night and dawn, when demands for current ties as well as shapes, to gain copper and 
are slack, is the time to restore exhausted bat- iron from ores, giass from sand, pottery from 
teries for electric vehicles so that, by virtue clay. 

of buying their energy at low prices, they The argument here briefly indicated I 

may more strongly than ever compete with presented in detail in " Flame, Electricity, 

gasoline motors. In ice-making, electro- and the Camera," published in 1900. To 

plating, and many other industries, a market the proofs then adduced, many more might 

may be found for current that to-day has no now be adiled, especially with regard to the 

sale. And the more the field for electricity researches of Crookes, Thomson and Ruther- 

is widened, the cheaper it will become, with ford. These investigators, armed with a 

the effect, familiar in the gas business, of glass bulb nearly vacuous, employ electricity 

still further broadening the demand. to break down atoms into electrons about 

A SUPRKME LAW OF KVOLUTiON' EMERGES. one-th«,jsandth part the size of the hydrogen 

atom. I ncsc electrons are all alike what- 
Only when electricity thus becomes our ever their source may be, whether lead, cop- 
universal servant will its master)' mean as per, gold, or aught else. As fire made man 
much for mankind to-day as, long ago, did master of the molecule, electricity now en- 
the first kindling of fire, with slowly won ables him partly to resolve the atom itself 
arts of furnace and lamp, oven and smelter, into units which may be the foundation 
crucible and still. A point to be kept steadi- stones of nature. The fireless savage dealt 
ly in view is that it was this old resource, only with the surfaces of things; when he 
flame, that in flowering gave birth to electric created fire at will he passed below surfaces 
art. When Volta, as recently as 1800, built to the molecules which build up masses; to- 
his battery, to create the first electric stream, day the electrician disrupts the atom itself 
he did so because rich in golden gifts of fire, to reach nature's verj' heart. 



LORD KELVIN, FOREMOST ELECTRICIAN OF HIS AGE. 

1 Thomson, the first Lord Kelvin, whi^ rnnkod as one of the greatest m 

, , ts of his tiine, was born at Belfast, Ireland, in 1824. At a very early a„_ 

tudent at Glasgow University, where his father, James Thomson, was professor of mathe- 
matics. The son, however, removed to Cambridge and was graduated frocn St. Peter's College 
in 1845 3s second wrangler. The next year he was called to the chair of natural philosophy at 
Glasgow University and held that chair continuously for a period of tifty-three years. As a 
young university professor he was greatly attracted by the new science of electricity, and when 
the American, Cyrus Field, began the laying of cables across the Atlantic he was appointed con- 
sulting engineer. In this cable enterprise Professor Thomson gave valuable assistance, making 
inventions of instruments for receiving the messages and working the line, and devising other 
important apparatus. Later he perfected methods of taking deep-sea soundings while a ship was 
under way, and devised a provision for overcoming the influence of a ship's magnetism on the 
compass. Among his non- electrical inventions it is said that the machine for predicting the level 
of the tides in any part of the world is the most important. In the electrical field he contributed 
materially to the introduction of accurate methods of measuring current Professor Thomson 
was raised to the peerage in 1892. He visited America in i88j, 189?. and IQ02, He was pro- 
foondly interested m the electrical development at Niagara Falls. In 1896 Lord Kelvin's jubilee 
as professor at Glasgow University was celebrated with great enthusipsm. It was attended by 
del^ates and visitors from all parts of the world. Lord Kelvin died at Glasgow on December 
I7i 1907. at the age of eighty-three. 1 



In Inland 



THl- COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 

RV I'RXI-ST I.A nvV. JONKS. 

POR ,)UT two cnitiinVs man liiis Iwii try t.. lilt tliis balance of wc^U. Thus it is 

iiti; ti) iiivi'iit a rm-ari-i wluTchy lif miiilit s;-rri that a iiicirt- ilistinctive wonl must be 

naxijiiitc the air. Many have bct-'n the fan- used i.> ilUtinuviish what U jienerallv meant 

tastii- schniKS hir reali/ini; tliis izreai .lesM- hy a heavier-ilian-afr machine. Of late the 

cratinii, but uot iintii uiiliin tlie last lew \nif.l "' ua-^less " has been intrmhiced, and it 

years has am thinL' like suceess heen atlaine.i. seen:s tn fill every requirement. Now, then, 

'i'his success is but contiKirative. an.l it ha* \\f have properly .lesliinateil the two general 

been attained bv but chu- t\ pe of apparatus, clas.;es, the liuhter-ihnn-uir auii the Easless. 

In onler to have a clear unUerstamlin;: of The (zasless type suhJivi>ies info three,— 

the siihiect it is necessar\ to state the two the aen^plane. the iirtlu'ptcr or beating-wing 

divisions in which, apparatus for lliyht is n^achine, an,! the heliiopter or direct-lift 

classed.— lighter (ban ^or atul heavier than nuichine. The aeroplane obtains its lifting 

air. Tven this chLssific^ition. while p-nerallv capaeitv by beim: lora-,! a-ainst the air by 

used, is incorrect. By a " lijihter-tban-air " vertical propellers at a speed s<i great that the 

machine is umlerstooii one that depends for pressure on the \inder side, properly inclined. 

its buoyancy on a j:a- of low specific gravitv. will cause it to r'<e ami maintain its course 

Hut a mudiine may be built be^.vier than air through ibe air, either i^arallel with tbe earth 

and stili \ise gas as tbe principal aid to per- or at \;ir>ini; angle-. The oribopter is a close 

feet buovancy, with planes to lift the ditTer- iniitaiion of ihe hlr,!, witli Happinir wings, 

ence hetween the total weight of the apua- hut in merely soaring or gliding It would 

ratiis and the weight lifted by the gas, Tbe have the attributes of the aeroplane; The 

motor, if driven fast cmmgH, would move helicopter, or " heilish-coptcr," as its friends 

the planes against the air with force enough jotingly call it, dt'|iends upon driving fffi- 



THE COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 



dent horizontal screws or propellers at a There is no machine of the jjasless type 
speed great erouph to pull the machine ver- which conihines all three classes. To illua- 
tically or obliquely into the air. tratc the at-roplanc wc would take as the 
The French war dirijjible La Palrie is a best e.vaniple that of Wilbur and Orville 
true type of the lighter than air. The Santos Wright, of Dayton, The}* have adopted the 
Dumont No. l6 is a heavier-than-air appara- t\vo-plane gliiler introduced by Chanute and 
tus, using gas as a means of lifting the greater Herring. The Gammeter orthoptcr would 
part of the weight. Horizontal planes were be a true specimen of that class; and the 
evpected to lift the small balance, but an Kimball model an example of the helicopter, 
accident in the trial of this machine, or bal- We naturally ask what has been done in 
loon, prevented an actual test of its possi- ever)' line to give promise of definite results? 
bilities. A later invention of the same type, In the gas type we have reached practical 
the Malecot, achieved a short flight, but also [lerfection. There are serious difficulties 
came to grief. Both accidents ivere due to which cannot be overcome. The gas hag it- 
other causes than to the application of this self is a plainly evident one. The weight of 
idea itself. material and machinery . has already been 



:: OF LOUIS blekiot, im, iE\ 



60 THE AMERICAN REl^lEiV OF RE^IEH^S. 

brought to the lowest limit of safety, and it 
is obviously impossible to decrease the volume 
of gas employed. Beyond certain limits in 
size it is believed ne cannot go. Zeppelin 
has already gone to the extreme in size and 
capacity, but has been able to keep from ex- 
ceeding practicabilits'. La Patrie has been a 
great success, but it has not achieved quite 
the results of the Zeppelin. We can now 
count at least four perfectly practical, useful 
dirigible balloons, the Zeppelin, the Parseral 
and the Gross in Germany; and La I'atrie 

With the 413-foot Zeppelin a speed of 
thirty-four miles an hour has been attained, 
and over 200 miles covered on one recent 
ascent lasting eight hours. This stands as 
a record of its kind. The Parseval dirigible 

has attained a speed of t\venty-eij;ht miles, ^^j^ moml helicopter uf wh.bu-b 
and so has the military airship of Major or .new vohk. 

Gross. The German Government is very 

secretive in regard to these two, and little over twenty miles an hour, and this against 
but general information is obtainable. a wind which blew at one time twenty-four 

For five years the wealthy Lehaudy miles an hour. November 30 a sudden 
brothers financed the building of the well- violent gust of wind tore the airship from 
known Lebaudy. In 1906 it was given to the grasp of the soldiers at Verdun and it 
the French Government, and a duplicate was was last reported as having come to earth in 
ordered and called La Patrie. This, with Ireland, There were conflicting reports as 
a speed of some twenty miles an hour, has to whether any one was on board the ship or 
proved so successful that a few weeks ago not. Of late, little information has been ob- 
orders were given for five more, to be called tainable from the French engineers, while in 
Repabli'/i/e, Democralie, Liberie, Virile, the past considerable information has been 
and Justice. On November 23, 1907, La gleaned. 

Palrie traveled, sans estate, from Paris to The importance of the dirigible baIIo<Mt 
Verdun, a distance of 142.8 miles, in seven to governments is shown. in some degree by 
hours am! five minutes, a mean speed of this episode; A great German rubber com- 
pany obtained the 
agency for the French 
dirigible in America, 
Just as they were 
about to enter into ne- 
gotiations the French 
manufacturers sudden- 
ly cancelled all con- 
tracts. Thus, the se- 
crets of the recent suc- 
cesses in France with 
the dirigible balloon 
will probably remain 
with the French. But 
there is this question 
which comes up: The 
rubber cloth used tn 
the Lebaudy balloons 
is made in Germany, 
and we wonder if the 



nviUT I 



sell its 



THE COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 



61 

The United States 
Government has done 
nothing in the develop- 
ment of the dirigible 
or the flying machine, 
and the private citizen 
has had no incentive 
to expend time and 
money with the hope 
of disposing of it to 
the Government. 
The international bal- 
loon race at St. Louis 
and the great success 
attained abroad have 
done much to interest 



Goi 



and 



J 1907 



material to France. They certainly would 
not do so in time of war between those 
countries. 

The British -Government has also pro- 
duced this year the 'NuUi Secundus, or, offi- 
cially, Dirigible No. i, under the direction 
of Colonel Capper. After several trial 
flights, with rather unpromising results, the 
balloon was wrecked, revealing imperfect 
construction and inadequate engine power. 
The Italian Government is actively at work 
on a dirigible, and we may look for definite 
results there. Spain also is building a dirigi- 
ble 115 feet long, with two twenty-four 
horsepower motors. 



before long we may 
3 wEiiE have a dirigible to 
"■ compete with those of 

Europe. As a guide 
to the desire of the American people for 
the furtherance by the Government of aero- 
nautics in this countrj', it is interesting 
to note that the International Aeronautical 
Congress, held in New York, October 28 
and 29, 1907, passed the following resolu- 
tion; "Resolved, By the International Aero- 
nautical Congress, assembled together in 
New York, that the President of the United 
States be requested to call the attention of 
Congress to the advisability of providing the 
departments of the Government charged 
with these duties funds sufficient to establish 
aeronautical plants commensurate with those 
of other r 



I THIRD DIRIGIBLE. 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEU^ OF REI^IEIVS. 



The real gasless flying machine is about to him t"0 priz.es. one for the first aero- 
be, or has already been, realized, am! only plane to fly 195 feet and one for the first 
remains to he perfected and placed upon the to go at least 32.S feet. Ellehommer, in 
market. In 1905 the Wright brothers were Denmark, in Januan-, 1906, flew a distance 
able to fly twenty-four and one-fifth miles in of ib? feet in a " Wrij;ht-type " machine. 
thirty-eight minutes and three seconds. The In April, 1907, the DeJagrange aeroplane 
flight was stopped then only by exhaustion made a flight of 164 feet, though in a previ- 
of fuel. This flight was made over a circu- ous trial a distance of ig6 feet was attained. 
lar course, and the average, speed was over Uleriot made a flight of 492 feet in an aero- 
thirty-eight miles an hour. t)n a straight plane during the summer of 1907. 
course the speed would have been forty miles. The world's public record for dynamic 
The machine, with the operator, weighed flight was first made by Santos Dumont, 
925 pounds. l"he Wriglit flight caused a when he covered his 723 feet. Hut in Octo- 
rush of foreign inventors into the field. bcr, 1907, Henri Farman introduced a new 

Santos Dumnnt, 
who had had no pre- 
vious experience with 
a gasless machine, in 
September, 1906, was 
able to fly about twen- 
ty-five yards in an 
aeroplane we i gh i n g 
465 pounds with the 
operator. Succeeding 
flights were longer, 
until o n November 
12, 1906, he main- 
tained a uniform flight 
for 723 feet, at a speed , ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^_^^ 

of twenty-five mdes an ^„^ kkench oihii^iule ball.oo:i "vii.LE he tab 

hour. ']"his won for to m, ueutscii. 



THE COMING CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 



THE SANTOS DUMONT NO. I4, WHICH MADE THE FIRST PUBLIC FLIGHT 

design of aeroplane, and in his first flight flights being about fifty feet, at a speed of 
approached the distance of Santos Dumont. ten feet a second. He has become impressed 
In the second trial he negotiated 935 feet, vcith the commercial possibilities of such an 
190 feet more than Santos Dumont's record, apparatus and expects to have a man-carrying 
On November 18 this distance was again machine completed in the near future. Otto 
increased to a kilometer, six-tenths of a mile. G. Luyties, Baltimore, has completed a fuU- 
A complete circle and return to the starting sized helicopter in which he places great 
point was accomplished, but the machine faith, and he is intending to compete for the 
touched the ground for an instant just before Scientific American trophy- for gasless ma- 
and just after rounding the post at one end chines. There -is also another helicopter 
of the course at Issy-les-Moulineaux. The building in Connecticut which promises 
weight of the machine is lioo pounds, and it much from results obtained thus far. 
is propelled at a speed of twenty-five to The orthopter has, by those who are con- 
thirty miles an hour by a fifty-horsepower sidered qualified to judge, long been assigned 
motor. The supporting surface is 560 square among the impossible, though some small re- 
fcet; thus nearly two pounds are supported suits have been attained. The claim is that 
by every square foot of area. This flight nothing is to be gained by copying nature, 
established a new world's record. The except in principle, and that the application 
Wright brothers' flight cannot be placed of nature's laws can be improved upon by 
among records of public flights, for their man. 

work has been done in secret, and we have The helicopter, to the laity, seems to be 

accepted the fact of their flight on the veri- the best type of the gasless machine. An 

fied statement of wit;iesses, aeroplane must start with a speed of at least 

With the helicopter little has been done, twenty-five miles an hour in order to main- 

and less with the orthopter, M, Cornu has, tain flight, while experiments witK;^ model 

perhaps, done the most work with the heli- helicopter, with a load of one pound to the 

copter, and his model, weighing thirty and square foot of surface, showed a speed of 

one-hdf pounds, rose in the air " most satis- twelve miles an hour sufl'icient to maintain 

factorily and maintained a steady course." the machine in the air. With the helicopter 

Wilbur R. Kimball, of New York, has built one can advance at a more speedy angle than 

an eleven-ounce rubber-driven model which with the aeroplane, and there is the possibil- 

has flown verj' successfiJIy, the longest ity of hovering at an an^le within the limits 



64 THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REyiEWS. 

of a comparatively small space ; and the ani;le 
of descent is sharper. Hut the drawback to 
this type is the unreliability of the present 
h'ght motor. With tlic aeroplane the stop- 
ping of the motor is not ilisiLstrous, and a 
ionf; j;lide to earth can be made, but with 
the helicopter the safety of the operator 
tlcpcmls at once on the motor [loinji until 
stopped by the operator on landing. 

It will be seen that we actually have at 
least four practically perfect dirijiible bal- 
loons and as many jsisless machines which 
promise the accomplishment of dynamic 
flight in the very near future. 'While 
flights of a few hundred feet in dynamic 
machines are onlv " grasshopper jumps," a 
les.son is learned each time, and as lon^i as 
the flights continually increa-e in length we 
tnow that the lessons have been effective. 

The age of the thin^ nniebine i> here,— 
and now. The dirigible ltall<.on surely has 
Slime adiaotages over the dynamic apparatu'^, 
hut the latter has a preponderance over the 
dirigible. 'Che dirigible 



stepping-stoH' 


e, although in another direction. uKxm . 


'.\M\( 


to the flving 


machine, i'lie dirigible is mere- '''' 




ly a balloon 


made steerable. while the flv- 




ing machine 


is a new thing all the way flies will 


be 


through, not 


an adaptation of any present that end 


\\i- 


method of t 


ravel. A flying mmbine that jumping 


ap|i 



is. and until we attain 
tisider adaptations and 
mparative. 



HOW THE CUBAN PROBLEM MIGHT BE SOLVED. 

BY CAPTAIN JOHN H. PARKER, U. S. A. 

[Captain Parker's long residence in Cuba, his experience with American army conditions, 
and his sympathetic study of Cuban conditions under the most favorable circumstances, make 
the following analysis and plan of his, — worked out, as it has been, during years of contact 
with the Cuban people and surrounded by the conditions ni which they live, — unusually inter- V 
esting and important. Of course, the views presented are his own, but his experience and V 
equipment, we believe, justify the rather extended space wo have given them. — The Editor.] ' 



W 



SELF-DEFENSES AND THE PANAMA CANAL. 



HEN the power of the United States cussion as to whether the former Cuban 
destroyed that of Spain in Cuba, in Government was wise and efficient is for- 
July, 1898, the duty of establishing and eign to this point, however much it may be 
maintaining a just and law^ful government germane to other questions. A discussion 
devolved upon the conqueror. From the of the capacity of the Cuban people for self- 
international point of view ( no nation caring government is equally irrelevant on this 
to controvert, by force of arms, the Ameri- point. It is the international duty of the 
can occupation of Cuba), the form of gov- United States to establish and maintain a 
crnment was an affair of international ad- just and lawful government in Cuba, of 
ministration, to be settled by the United some sort, as much as it is her duty to main- 
States. The fact of American control was tain a similar government in Alaska or 
the only essential one in the situation. From Missouri or the District of Columbia, 
the point of view of foreign nations which 
were interested, that fact alone fixed the in- 
ternational responsibility for law, order, It has also become imperative that the 
tranquillity, and justice in Cuba. Its ac- United States do this on account of consid- 
ceptance by the United States fixes upon erations of self-defense. Since its first in- 
her a continuing responsibility until there tervention in Cuba the United States has 
shall be established a permanent Cuban Gov- embarked upon the construction of the Pan- 
ernment, capable of conducting its affairs in ama Canal, a work of great international 
a manner acceptable to its neighbors. importance, but one of far greater impor- 

In the performance of the obligations thus tance to her own defenses. Now Cuba is 
imposed the United States established first the key to the locks of the Panama Canal, 
an American military government, then an The nation that controls Cuba can inevita- 
independent Cuban Republic, whose stability bly maintain control over the Atlantic exit 
was guaranteed by the United States, and of the canal. If the nation exercising such 
lastly a provisional administration of that re- control be hostile to the United States the 
public, under its own constitution and laws, latter must lose to a hostile power the great 
for the very purpose of executing that guar- advantage resulting from such control of 
anty of stability without which the Cuban the canal now being built as a public enter- 
Republic could never have been. Such is a prise by the United States at her own ex- 
condensed history of the relations of the pense. If this control doubles the defensive 
United States with Cuba since the sinking power of the United States, or doubles the 
of the Maine down to the present time. offensive power of an adversary against the 

Now arises the question as to future rela- United States, as the case may be, it follows 

tions between the United States and Cuba, that American control over Cuba is just as 

The international situation is the same as indispensable to the interests of the United 

before. It is a matter of purely internal States as control over the canal itself. Such 

administration for the United States. All control does not necessarily imply either an- 

thc nations of the world have acquiesced in nexation or incorporation of Cuba into the 

the second American occupation of Cuba, political S5^tem of the United States; but 

Their approval is not less sincere because it does imply such a future relation that the 

implied. American control is absolute and ri^^ht of the United States to make, use of 

complete. American responsibility is corrc- Cuban ports as bases of military-naval opera- 

spondingly complete and indivisible. A dis- tions in time of war will be fixed beyond 



66 THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEWS. 

controversy. B5' virtue of our actual occu- United States for her defense against foreign 

pation we have that right now. It would aggression. 

1 r 11 A '¥ (3) These relations must contain nothing 

A I- S"r^^"^^r It. • contrary to our form of government; and there- 

Another consequence flows from the geo- fore the relation between the two countries must 

graphical position of Cuba and its recent be one capable of subsisting under the Consti- 

instability of administration. A country tution, laws, and treaties of the United States. 

I'll 1 . J* ^ 1 I (4) 1 hese relations must be such that they 
which has many and serious disturbances of ^m ^^^ greatly prejudice any of the large in- 
public peace, and also has a large foreign tcrests of the people of the United States, merely 
element in its population, with large busi- a? a matter of practical politics. They must con- 

ness interests controlled bv foreign capital, 1?^" "°,^^*"S to wound the high pride and sensi- 

t - , ^ r- » tjyg nature of the Cuban people; for, otherwise, 
is sure, sooner or later, to become a source Cuban discontent will make of them a source of 
of international peril on account of incom- weakness rather than strength. 
petent administration. This is more espe- (5) With growing international responslbili- 
cially true if such country is so strate^rically ' ties upon her hands; with a considerable part 
*. \ \ \ ' 1 1 . "r of her military forces at present immobilized 
situated that it may become a subject of by exterior possessions; with at least the possi- 
contention among other nations. Such is bility of emergency use for these forces previous 
precisely the situation in Cuba. to the completion of the Panama Canal, it is im- 
portant to the United States to have its relations 
THE FUNDAMENTAL CONDITIONS. with Cuba settled upon a permanently satisfac- 
tory basis as soon as possible. 
Stated tersely, therefore, the two funda- 
mental conditions which must govern all re- ^ factor in the Cuban problem, also de- 
lations between the United States and Cuba manding promptness, is the paramount neces- 
are these: sity for permanently satisfactory sanitary 

/ N T-i TT • t f- ,,. , conditions in Cuba. Her communication 

(I) Ihe United States must establish a capa- -.i *u ..i ^ i ^u tt -^ j 

ble government in Cuba, with which it must es- ^^'^^'^ V"^ southern ports of the United 

ti^blish such permanent relations as are necessary States is so direct and short that continuance 

in the event of a war in which the Panama of peril to the American public from the 

Canal would play a part. (2) The United ydlow fever pest, the cause and prevention 

States must maintain such stability of that gov- ri-i n j^j- 

ernmem, and such a system of administration ^^ which are now so well understood, is 

of Cuban laws, that Cuba shall never become a unthinkable. Our Government would be 

source of international peril on account of in- worse than recreant to its duty to its own 

competent government. if [^ should fail before the termination of 

The obligations of the United States the present intervention to impose some sat- 

above stated are the foundation of the pres- isfactory guaranty that this peril to the 

ent American occupation of Cuba. They American public shall be forever suppressed, 

are recognized not only by the Government in so far as proper sanitary precautions in 

of the United States and by that of Cuba, Cuba can accomplish that result, 

but also by the revolutionary elements of Economic relations here also play a part, 

the Cuban population, as shown by their The differential duty on sugar is just enough 

prompt laying down of arms as soon as to compel the export from Cuba of the raw 

American intervention was assured, in Sep- material, mostly to refineries in the United 

tember, 1906. States. These, of course, like all protected 

The live question is what form the future interests, will stoutly resist any solution that 
relations between the two countries shall entails curtailment of their privileges. Sim- 
assume. The answer to this question is the ilar protests will come from the tobacco in- 
solution of the Cuban problem. Some ele- terests, probably, and from every American 
ments of these relations can be determined: interest that fancies it has a little to lose by 

(1) They should be of such permanent na- ^^^'^' commercial relations with Cuba. As 
ture as not to require continual readjustment. ^. matter ot practical expediency, the solu- 
Ihe prosperity of both countries depends on tion must be as little objectionable to these 
this condition ; that of 'Cuba much more so than interests as possible. 

that of the United States. 

(2) They must be so adjusted that Cuba will ANNEXATION WOULD RESULT IN ANOTHER 
not be a source of weakness, but of more RACE PROBLEM 

strength, to the United States, in the event of 

any foreign war. This is of equal importance to Political considerations also enter. We 

both countries; to the United States because, olr^o/^tr Vioxr*. /^«o ,r^^„ „;„«^«. « «< u 

otherwise, her relations with Cuba would im- f^'^^^^ *'^''^ T f ^ vigorous race prob- 

mobilize some portion of her fighting strength; '^"^ .0" ^ur hands. At the present time 

and to Cuba because/ that island relies upon the there is no race problem in Cuba. The races 



HOU^ THE CUBAN PROBLEM MIGHT BE SOLI/ED, 67 

live together amicably. But if Cuba enters rights and obligations existing by force of 
into the political system of the United necessity. Similarly, it imposes no conditions 
States, immigration from the States will upon Cuba. It only defines a part of con- 
soon create a " race problem," and one that ditions imposed by necessity, under which 
will be far more difficult of solution than conditions government must exist in Cuba, 
that in the Southern States. We must steer whether they be defined at all or not. Geog- 
clear of that rock. A country that cannot raphy, history, and commerce have created 
maintain a stable government of its own will these conditions ; not the Piatt Amendment, 
not lend greater stability t© existing Ameri- But the Treaty of Paris did impose a con- 
can institutions. The '* State of Antilla '* dition that must be respected until the terms 
is a beautiful dream, but absolutely imprac- of the treaty shall have been fulfilled. That 
ticable of realization in the present genera- condition is the one which gives to Spain 
tion. The Supreme Court has held that the same rights as to the United States in 
free trade with colonies does not follow the matters of commerce in Cuba for a period 
flag; hence future commercial relations of ten years, which will end on February 
with independent Cuba can be regulated by 4, 1909. This condition is one imposed 
treaty or by Congress, as may be necessary, not by natural laws, but by man. The 
The court has also held that citizenship, in United States might tolerate free trade with 
so far as exercise of the suffrage and enjoy- Cuba, but could never permit free trade 
ment of the " Bill of Rights '* are concerned, with Spain also. Consequently a perma- 
does not follow the flag. These privileges nent adjustment of commercial relations 
are conferred not by occupation, but by with Cuba must necessarily wait for the ex- 
specific legislation. Hence these matters are piration of that treaty in order that its pro- 
capable of regulation, if the theory of an- vision giving equal right in Cuban ports to 
nexation is abandoned. Spain may be eliminated from the Cuban 
Among the permanent relations that must problem. 

be considered, of course, are the treaties cuba's immediate needs. 

of the United States. Of these the Piatt 

Amendment is not the only one, nor even Cuba, it will be conceded, needs at once: 

the most important one, to be considered. (j) a great, practical, educational develop- 

The Piatt Amendment incorporates into the ment along the lines of practical experience in 

laws of the United States and into the con- self-government, exercise of personal rights, 

stitution of Cuba only a part of the mutual ?"n„Kf;l^;'° fl,'^ n^inv'/rlJI^^inf^"!'^ k^^'''*' ^"^ 
... , I • 1 republican lorm ot government can be success- 
duties imposed upon the two countries by ful without outside aid and support. 

their geographical and historical relations. (2) That aid and support must come from 

It would be the duty of the United States t^}^ United States. It is practicable to give this 

to establish and n,aintain a free and re- t^tT^T^^SS^ ^^J^"^^ 

publican form ot government in Cuba it States, thus adding an element of weakness, 

there had never been a Piatt Amendment; rather than strength, to our own institutions. 

free, because the genius of our institutions , (3) That. aid must come in the form of set- 

^0^',^^Uo r^f wyrs r^4-U^r- ^r'^,yA • •■««iikl.Vor, k»/^oiic<> "^^ commcrcial rclatious as soon as the termi- 

permits of no other kind , republican, because ^^^j^^ ^^ ^^^^^j^^ ^^^^^^ obligations will permit; 

no other kind is permissible under that su- and in the form of wise initiative, discreetly 

preme law from which our Government de- exercised, looking toward such changes in Cuban 

rives its only right to make laws or treaties, ^^ws as will develop in her people capacity to 

N#»i'fhpr Cnn(Tre<< nor thp Senate in com- ^PPreciate free institutions, and govern them- 

INeither ^.ongress, nor tne benate in com selves under a republican system. These changes 

bmation with the President, through the nmst look toward reduction of the paternal atti- 

treaty-making power, can possibly derive a tude of the central government, with corre- 

right to establish any kind of government spending exercise of greater power by local au- 

foreign to that Constitution from which both ^*^o^*^*^s- 

derive all the power and authority with There appears to be one way in which 
which they are invested. A temporary mili- these ends can.be accomplished within Amer- 
tary government for purpose of defense, in ican limitations without injury to the self- 
case of necessity, — ^yes ; but a non-republican respect of the Cuban people. The educated 
form of governnient, under the Constitu- Cubans see clearly that a period of tutelage 
tion, laws, and treaties of the United States, is necessary. The uneducated Cuban cares 
— ^ncver. So the Piatt Amendment confers nothing about politics, really; what he wants 
no rights, imposes no obligations, upon the is results. He would just as leave have these 
United States. It merely defines part of results flow from a paternal autocracy as 



68 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiElVS. 

from the most liberal democracy. He is foreign relations and against such outbreak? 

ignorant of the machinery by which results as that of August, 1906. She must have 

are accomplished; but he knows conditions more; the right of veto of the conditions 

arc hard for him, and will welcome what- which give rise to such outbreaks. Nothing 

ever ameliorates his hardships, provided it less will insure stability of any Cuban Gov- 

be a genuine amelioration. Promises alone ernment. 

will not keep him quiet ; they would only Initiative in the Cuban Government is not 

dam up the waters of revolution, to bring one of the rights of the United States under 

on another and worse inundation. present treaties. // is one of the necessities 

A " protectorate " over Cuba already ex- of the situation. It must be recognized and 

ists. We have the facts, however it may made a definite part of future relations. Yet 

be called. Names matter little. That pro- that initiative must not extend to any limit 

tectorate must take some form for the im- that will curtail true Cuban independence, 

mediate future which will permit of pre- for such a condition would be intolerable to 

ventive, as well as corrective, measures. The the pride of the Cuban people, and would 

present intervention is purely a corrective entail worse disorders than those which have 

measure, not initiated until the mischief was been so happily suppressed. 

done. For the future there must be a sys- ^ „ council of advisers." 
tcm that will prevent a recurrence or such 

troubles by terminating the conditions that One admirable result has been accom- 

crcate them. plished during the present intervention. It 

, consists in a system of actual supervision of 

WHY NOT FOLLOW ENGLAND S EXAMPLE IN , ; . x ^u r- u /^ 

:j various departments or the Cuban Govem- 

EGYPT? ^ . ,*^ ^ . I 

ment without in any known manner givmg 

The English system in Egjpt illustrates offense to the Cuban people. In each of these 

what must be done. The Khedive's govern- departments there has been detailed an 

ment has remained intact ; but Lord Cromer American, known as ** Adviser " to such a 

had the initiative in such measures as were department. He is an American official, 

deemed essential by the British Government, without function under the Cuban Govem- 

An exactly similar system in Cuba is not ment, and without pay therefrom ; but his 

advocated. It would be plainly impractica- presence gives the tone and balance neces- 

ble, owing to our different form of govern- sary for the smooth running of the machine, 

ment at home, with responsibility to a legis- It would not be possible, or even de- 

lative body, as well as to the executive. But sirable, to save the coming Cuban Republic 

some of the features of England's Egyptian from all mistakes, for that would prevent 

system might well be incorporated into the it from obtaining the best experience, 

future relations between Cuba and the With governments, as with individuals, the 

United States. best results come from learning to avoid re- 

For the United States the indispensable peating the same mistake. Hence the re- 
things are: tention of an American adviser in each de- 

(i) Adequate control to prevent revolutions Partment of the new Cuban Government 

and extravagance. would be unwise, even if all errors could 

(2) Adequate initiative to introduce the grad- thereby be prevented ; but the retention of 

ual education in democracy that must occur in g^me American advisers, to exercise the 

Cuba before any repubhcan system of Rovern- x » i_ • i* 1 11 

ment can be successful without outside help. necessary functions above indicated, would 

appear to be the logical outgrowth of a tried, 

For Cuba the indispensable things are: approved, and successful system. 

(i) Stability of system, with gradual ad- The collective body, when assembled, 

vancemcnt toward complete independence by the might be designated " Council of Advisers," 

development of capacity for self-control in and and might exercise the necessarv powers 

among her people. •*.! ^ ir c 1 11 '11 

(2) Readjustment at the earliest possible ^v»thout offense. Such a body would consti- 

datc of commercial relations with the United tute, in tact, an anxihar>- to the legislative 

States, in such a manner as to give to Cuban body, a check on the executive, and a power- 

^"^^bl^ ^^^'^ "^*"^^^ "^^^^«t as "^^'■^y ^^^« as ful stimulant to right progress. 

^' As the present tentative system works 

This means to be exercised by the United out, each department l\as its ** adviser." Each 

States merely tw-o things: initiative and adviser has his assistants in the various 

veto. The veto she has now over Cuban provinces, who maintain toward the Provin- 



HOH^ the cub a hi PkOBLBM MIGHT BE SOLVED. ed 

cial Council a position similar to his own in enjoyed by the Cuban Repubh'c : the right 

the central government. Herein lies the to diplomatic representatives abroad ; to coin 

germ of a suitable system. It would work money; to fix weights and measures; to 

out as follows: regulate internal and external affairs, the 

Previous to the date on which the Treaty latter subject to the same restrictions now 

of Paris terminates, February 4, 1909, a new imposed by treaty; to make and enforce 

treaty should be negotiated with the Pro- laws; to maintain a Cuban judiciary, inde- 

visional Government of Cuba, to take effect pendent of foreign interference, and to 

at that date. This treaty should contain maintain such national forces as may be 

not only a definite adjustment of commercial necessary in the Cuban Republic. With 

relations betw^een the two countries, but also these sovereign rights all intact, the Cuban 

the necessary authority to institute and main- people could well pride themselves upon 

tain a Council of Advisers in Cuba. The their own free and independent government, 

re-establishment of the Cuban Republic, like acknowledged by all the nations as such, — 

its first organization, should be made condi- a position for which so many Cuban heroes, 

tional upon its acceptance of the provisions and martyrs fought and died upon the field 

of this treaty. of glory, and for which the whole Cuban 

The Council of Advisers should con- people have made so many sacrifices, 
sist of one president, one adviser for each In the foregoing plan no system has yet 
department of the Cuban Government when been proposed by which can be determined 
necessary, as for example, the Treasury De- the delicate questions arising from the pecu- 
partment, Sanitary Department, and that liar relations between Cuba and the United 
of Foreign Affairs, and one for each prov- States. The defect of the Piatt Amendment 
ince. Each member thereof should be an is that, essentially, action under it is cor- 
American, entitled to the diplomatic privi- rective, but not preventive. Before inter- 
leges in Cuba, and an official of the United vention could occur Cuba had to be re- 
States, not of Cuba. duced to a condition of anarchy, through the 

The functions of these officials should be annihilation of all legally constituted gov- 
threefold : to observe, to propose, and to eminent. That was the condition which re- 
exercise the judicial functions hereinafter suited from the resignation of President 
described. Thus each adviser to a province Palma and all legal successors to the presi- 
would exercise the right of proposing meas- dency. Not until then was it possible to 
ures to the Provincial Council. The ad- intervene, and then only by the use of armed 
visers to the several departments of govern- force. It is greatly to the credit of Mr. 
ment would exercise a similar right. The Palma and his advisers that they perceived 
Council of Advisers as a body should have this; especially so to Mr. Palma, in his 
the right to propose such legislation as marvelous exhibition of self-abnegation in 
might seem expedient to the Cuban Con- order that the conditions might be fulfilled 
gress, and in their collective action would under which the right and duty of the 
exercise the judicial function to be described. United States to end the civil war would be 
All proposals would be merely advisory in unquestionable, 
character, and therefore would not curtail 
the legislative rights of the Cuban bodies. 
Diplomatic privileges are given to render 
these officials as nearly independent and im- Preventive as well as corrective measures 
partial in the discharge of their duty as are necessary. The fatal defect of the Piatt 
may be humanly possible. It should be pro- Amendment is that it creates no automatic 
vided by the treaty that no adviser may hold machinery for so regulating relations that 
or acquire any property interests in Cuba inter\'ention will never be necessary by force 
during his incumbency, nor receive any of arms. That machinery must be created, 
emolument or perquisite whatever from the its functions defined and incorporated into 
Cuban Government or from any citizen the future relations of the two countries in 
thereof during his incumbency. the same manner as the Piatt Amendment, 

NO INFRINGEMENT OF CUBAN SOVEREIGNTY, before Stability in Cuba can be assured. 

1* ortunately, the system above outlined 

These measures provide for initiative and lends itself perfectly to this necessity. It is 

restraint. They leave absolutely intact all true that under the actual relations of the 

the essential attributes of sovereignty now two countries laws are liable to be enacted 



CORRECTING THE DEFECT IN THE PLATT 

AMENDMENT. 



70 THE AMERICAN RE^lEl^ OP REl^lEiVS. 

prejudicial in their operation to the interests States. When so convened, it would be de- 
of the United States and other foreign coun- sirable to add a suitable number of Cuban 
tries, either directly or through the hard- representatives to this tribunal, 
ships they work upon the Cuban people The foregoing does not, however, pro- 
by indirectly leading to revolution. It is a vide for that stability of relations and ad- 
consequence that flows from the immaturity ministration which is also essential to a 
of the Cuban people for democratic forms permanent solution of the Cuban problem, 
of government, above fully explained. It This must be had by outside aid for some 
is also true that there is at present no sys- time to come; and it can be arranged for 
tern by which the United States can exer- without offending that national pride which 
cise the necessary corrective measures over is a high asset of the Cuban people, and 
such matters except in the present extremity which is just grounds for hope of eventual 
of armed intervention to suppress resultant capacity for absolute independence, 
anarchy. But it is possible to amplify the *< ^ 

^ 11^- ^ 1 /-. -1 / A J SCHOOLMASTER WITH REAL POWERS. 

powers and duties of the Council of Ad- 
visers in such a way as to guarantee proper The interests of the United States in 
action on such matters in a legitimate way, Panama, of which Cuba is the key, require 
unobjectionable to the people of Cuba, and a considerable force in the Carribean, with- 
entirely satisfactory to the interests of the in striking distance of that possession. Her 
United States. treaty rights in Cuba include coaling sta- 
in the last analysis, the final governing tions, with the right to fortify and garrison 
body of the United States is the Supreme them. Nothing could be simpler than to do 
Court. Before its findings fall all acts of this at such points as Guantanamo, Bahia 
Congress, all executive decisions. Its inter- Honda, and such other points as may be 
pretations determine what is law, and have necessary, and to maintain there sufficient 
never been disputed. Probably it is the most force to give all necessary aid to her diplo- 
important, most powerful, and most digni- matic representatives in Cuba in the exer- 
fied body of men in the world to-day. A cise of their novel, important functions, 
similar body, with the function of passing Such a system would provide schoolmas- 
on those matters of mutual interest between ters with real powers to teach the art of 
Cuba and the United States as a judicial self-government to the people of Cuba. It 
body, would be unobjectionable to Cuba, would leave the Republic of Cuba as a dis- 
and would prevent the occurrence of " rev- tinct entity, still capable of negotiating 
olutions " like that of August, 1906, by re- treaties and maintaining relations with other 
moving their causes before abuses should nations. It would leave the Congress of 
grow into social crimes. Such a body would the United States free to regulate future 
be the medium through which the United commercial relations with Cuba, that coun- 
States would exercise that oversight in try being a separate international entity. 
Cuba now conceded to be necessary"^ in order It would insure all due initiative in ail 
to maintain stability of administration. necessary governmental reforms. It would 
Hence it is proposed that the Council of give ample assurance of a stable government 
Advisers shall be convened at stated inter- in Cuba in the po\^er of the Council of 
vals as an international court of revision. Advisers to summon to their aid American 
with power to determine whether such acts arms, in case* of necessity, to prevent" revolu- 
of the Cuban Government as might be prop- tion, rather than to suppress it. The date 
erly brought before it for judicial determina- of the inauguration of this system coinciding 
tion were prejudicial to the interests of the t\ith the expiration of the unnatural condi- 
United States under its treaty with Cuba, tions imposed by the Treaty of Paris, would 
and to annul, such laws and decisions mark the end of the Cuban problem, the 
as might be thus determined to be objec- beginning of permanent prosperity, and sta- 
tionable, subject to revision of its own de- ble, progressive, republican government in 
cisions by the Supreme Court of the United the Pearl of the Antilles. 



THE NEWSPAPER AND THE FOREST. 

BY W. S. ROSSITER. 

T^HE natural resources of the United items specified relate to what may be termed 

States have always been regarded as usual or commercial uses of timber. The re- 

practically limitless. There exists indeed a maining two items, — pulp and distillation, 

popular conviction that exhaustion in one — are merely the raw material of a finished 

section is sure to be offset by the discovery^ product seemingly having no relation to 

elsewhere of similar resources in even greater wood. Of these two uses for timber, the 

abundance. Although mere settlement of amount required for pulp is more than twice 

many sections of the United States resulted that required for distillation, and is increas- 

in the destruction of the timber covering ing rapidly. Moreover, the demand of the 

large areas, so much remained that the for- paper manufacturer thus far has been con- 

ests even of the Eastern States still ap- fined to certain varieties of wood, upon 

peared to be inexhaustible. It is not alto- which, in consequence, serious inroads have 

gether pleasant, therefore, to awaken to the been made, so that the domestic supply is 

fact, so seriously stated by the President in near exhaustion and importation upon a 

his recent message to Congress, that the large scale has already begun. The relation 

magnitude of lumbering operations, especial- of paper to timber, therefore, possesses so 

ly north and west, threatens the early ex- much present importance that it is consid- 

haustion of the timber supply of the coun- ered in some detail in the pages which 

try. This is especially significant and omi- follow, 
nous because large sections of the United 

C^ ^ • • Ml ^u u U THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER FROM WOOD. 

otates, comprismg possibly more than half 

of the national domain, have been settled Paper manufactured from the fibre of 

but a few decades, and no State except trees began to be a commercial product in 

Rhode Islan^ can be regarded as densely 1867, but did not assume great importance 

populated even at the present time. until 1890. During the seventeen years 

It was estimated by the Bureau of For- which have elapsed from that date, this 

estry of the Department of Agriculture that branch of paper making has grown to such 

the total annual cut of timber for all pur- proportions that it overshadows all others, 

poses in the United States at the present Wood paper has been produced so cheaply 

time is approximately 100,000,000,000 feet, and abundantly that all classes of the com- 

while the growth of timber approximates munity, from publishers to storekeepers, 

from 30,000,000,000 to 40,000,000,000 feet, have been enabled to use it w^'th a liberality 

Thus consumption is approximately three bordering upon extravagance, 

times as great as annual growth. The Bu- Thus far soft woods alone have been 

reau of Forestry, indeed, estimates that the utilized in paper making. Spruce furnishes 

standing timber of the United States will three-fifths of the total amount used and 

be exhausted within thirty-three years from hemlock one-fifth. The remaining fifth is 

the present time. The annual consumption composed principally of poplar and balsam, 

of timber is approximately as follows: In the United States these varieties of tim- 
ber are found, chiefly in the Virginias, New 

PRObUCT AND DISTRIBUTION OP TIMBER IN THE t- i j xT ^r I r» 1 • i i_ 

UNITED STATES, 1906. England, JNew York, Pennsylvania, and the 

Amount in Percent. Northwest. Unfortunately they are (or 

^•?Slli^'.°'. 97,86"736,ooo "' 100.0 Were) among the most important of all the 

8hS^« •:•.-. : : : ::::;::: ; : : "IfeioSoiooo ll ?°^* ^'°°'i^• *^*=. ""^J"' "^^'"^ ^'^ °^ ^°}'P'' 

Hewed cross ties 2,325,000,000 2.4 innumerable in American communities. 

cSoVI^«<;ck.:: •.■.•.•.:•.:: ifocT.ooS'.ooo \i Obviously the additional consumption of 

Kound mine timbers 993,000.000 1.0 great quantities of such timber merely as 

Laths 764,000,000 0.8 '^ .. • i r i i . j 

Wood distillation 857.000.000 0.7 raw material for an apparently unrelated 

po?^*" . : : : : ; : : : : : : : : : : : : : lio.oSo'.ooo ol p^duct could lead to but one result, since it 

Fuel, domestic and' miscel- ' ' proved to be a new use for the class of wood 

laneous 50,000,000,000 61.1 • ^ .. ^ J ^ j ^ j • i 

m greatest demand for every-day commercial 

It will be observed that nine of the eleven purposes. 



72 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

In 1867 the timber of New England, New consumption would not now threaten ex- 
York and Pennsylvania, compared with the haustion of the varieties of timber required 
present forest resources of that region, was if the demand had not "increased out of pro- 
practically untouched. The forests of the portion to the normal growth of an industry. 
White Mountains, Green Mountains and Constant progress has been made in the 
Adirondacks doubtless contained soft wood treatment of wood pulp and in the invention 
sufficient for the normal requirements of the of more perfect machinery for the manufac- 
Eastern States for an indefinite period. Be- ture of paper. A few years since the maxi- 
cause of proximity to raw material and mar- mum product of the largest paper machines 
kets, and also because these States were cen- in existence was 300 feet of news paper a 
ters of manufacturing industries, and hence minute, but at the present time in many mills 
of labor, machinery and power, most of the such machines have been superseded by others 
larger paper mills were established in New of much greater capacity, capable of pro- 
England, New York and Pennsylvania, ducing from 500 to 618 feet of paper per 
This group of States thus bore the brunt of minute, the sheet having a width of 164 in- 
the demand for pulp wood, and still con- stead of 100 inches. 

tinues to do so, although practically no ex- Unfortunately no exact information is 

tensive tracts of soft wood now remain in available concerning the amount of wood 

this section. In consequence of the decreas- paper used in newspapers and magazines, or 

mg reserve of pulp wood in the localities in connection with other requirements, in 

which have heretofore contributed a large 1880 or 1890. The consumption was meas- 

proportion of the raw material, several of ured, however, in 1900 and 1905, and was 

the more distant States are now being drawn as follows: 

upon to furnish the required supply Of ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^, 

these States, Wisconsm, Aimnesota, Michi- ixo thf census tear in newspapers and pebi- 

0__ 1 ITT „i • ^ ^,^ 4.1 ^ ^^:^ ODIOALS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES, 1900-1905. 

„ , regon and Washington are the pnn- ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

cipal producers, and considerable spruce and Totals ...*. 3,448,385.670 5,375,363!830 

hemlock, and also wood pulp, have been N^ws^^JperL'^an^d^p^ri'. '*' ^^'® 

brought over the border from Canada, The p^^^J,;«J« JncVease' * '^'^^^'^^^'^^^ i.82i,629,^30 

former enters free of duty; the latter is sub- ah othoi- uses. ..*.'.; 2,370,148,666 3,553,7^4.000 

ject to a tariff of 15 per cent, ad valorem, ^'^" ""°|- i°<^^<^a«<^- • • ••• 49.9 

amounting to from $1.66 to $5 per ton. During the quarter-century elapsing from 

The Eastern States in thus yielding their 1880 to 1905, the unusual increase which 



PRODUCTION OF WOOD TO BE USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER, 1900 TO 1900. 

f 1900. X f 1905. ^ , 1904. , , 1900. ^ 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent, 

of of of of 

Locality. Cords, total. Cords, total. Cords. total. Cords. total. 

Totals 3,661.176 100.0 3.192,002 100.0 3,050,717 100.0 1,986.310 100.0 

New Enpland. New York, and Penn- 
sylvania 1,901.080 51.9 1,737.899 54.4 1.663,410 54.5 1.058.944 53.3 

Far West (OroRon and Washington) 99.134 2.7 • ... t37,001 1.2 tl65.781 8.3 

Middle West, Minnesota. Wisconsin, * 

and MIchiiran) 634.141 17.3 486.662 15.3 477,616 15.7 207,565 10.4 

All other States 555.542 15.2 561,791 17.6 531,6,34 17.4 .348.687 17.6 

Canada 738,872 20.2 645,428 20.2 577.623 18.9 369.217 18.6 



• Not reported .separately. t Oregon. 



wood to the paper manufacturer have con- occurred in the total amount of paper con- 
tributed for comparatively small return much sumed was principally due to two causes: 
o{ their most precious natural resource, and increase in circulation and increase in the 
the one which in future years would un- number of pages per issue of newspapers and 
doubtedly prove of the greatest financial and periodicals. The increasing size of publi- 
natural value. Many land owners in New cations in turn has resulted from two causes: 
England deeply regret that within the last cheapened composition and increase in adver- 
twenty years they have sold timber land or tising patronage. 

timber from their farms which at the prices jj^^rease in circulation of newspapers 
readily secured to-day would represent a ^^^ periodicals. 

small fortune. 

However much it may be regretted that The aggregate circulation during the cen- 

the trail to raw material for paper led to sus year of American newspapers and period- 

the forest, it is possible that rfie resulting icals increased fivefold from i88o to 1905, 



THE NEIVSPAPER AND THE FOREST. 



mil 600. OOP AND OVER 

3 PRODUCTION C 



or from slightly more than 2,000,000,000 to increase in number op paces. 

nearly 10,500,000,000 in 1905. Increase of 

circuiation, however, is of course modified by In 1880, 1000 copies of newspapers and 
changes in population, and thus should be magazines averaged 91,5 pounds in weight. 
measured upon a per capita basis. In 1870 In 1890 this figure advanced to 118.4 
the per capita circulation of all publications pounds, in 1900 to 137.3, and five years 
issued in the census year was 39 copies, in 
1880 it was 41,2, in 1890 it was 72.2, in 
igoo, t03.o, and in 1905, 125.0. While a 
practically stationary condition is thus indi- 
cated during the first decade mentioned, the 
increase in each of the succeeding periods 
was so great that the people of the United 
States were patronizing newspapers and 
magazines in 1905 three times as liberally as 



I'car. perjear. Paper. 

1S!)0 126.8 lfl2.3 

liKW 08.3 BS.O 

men 31.4 88.8 

Great as was the increase in circulation, 
it is obvious that increase in consumption of 
paper was even greater. Since there is, to be 
expected a certain general relation between 
these items, it is clear, from the marked varia- 
tion here shown, that paper must have been ^ 
afiected by influences other than mere cir- 



'» THE ANNUAL. 
UMPTION OF NEWSPAFERS 



culation. AND PERIODICALS, 1870 TO 1905. 



74 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REylElVS. 

burr, in 1905. an average thousand copies of fluence in increasing the size of publications 

American publications weighed 176.4 pounds, in the decade from 1890 to 1900, and the 

Thus from 1 8S*o to 1 890, the average weight latter probably in the half decade so far 

increased 20.9 pounds, or 29.4 per cent., and measured, igoo to 1905. 

from iSc^ to 19c-.. 18.9 pounds, or i6 per ^^^ ^^^ ^^ coMiKJsmox IXFUATION. 
cent.: but from i<JiOO to 1905, a period but 

half as long as the others considered, the in- The beginning of machine composition 

crease was 39.1 pc-uncs, or 28.5 per cent., may be said to date from the close of the 

and :f the average thousand copies continues decade 1880 to 1890, but so few machines of 

to increase in weight during the second half this character were then in use that they 

of the present decade at the rate of increase were not reported at the latter census. Dur- 

thus shov.n for the first half, the ten-year ing the decade from 1890 to 1900 the use 

increase from 1000 to 19 10 will reach almost of these machines was extended to practically 

eighr. p-junus. or 58.2 per cent. In 1905 all the large newspaper offices of the country, 

the weight per thousand of the paper, and In 1900 there were approximately 4000 

hence the number of pages, in all newspapers machines in operation in newspaper offices, 

and perioviicals. was almost exactly double Thus while the larger establishments were 

that shewn f. r iSSo. equipped with t>*pesetting machines during 

The increase here indicated in the amount the decade mentioned, it remained to further 

of paper consumed is confirmed by the fact extend the use of machines during the prcs- 

pointed out in the Federal Census report on ent decade to smaller daily papers and to some 

printing for i<x^5, that the average number weekly papers, so that in 1905 more than 

of pages in all newspapers and periodicals in Oooo machines were reported to be in use in 

1880 was 4.4 pages, and in 1905, 8.8 pages, newspaper offices. The immediate effect of 

or double the average reported in 1880. the use of typesetting machines was a greatly 

In alm.ost all industries the amount of in- increased amount of composition for the same 
crease measures the change which has oc- expenditure formerly made for hand \i'ork. 
curred: shoes, for example, or hoes, pianos Not only did the output in pages of reading 
or pins and needles, are constant quantities, matter increase to a noteworthy extent, but 
but in the case of newspaper and periodical further increases often occurred by substi- 
increase. the product which reported a five- tuting nonpareil (a smaller face) for minion, 
fold increase from 1880 to 1905 is thus as the prevailing size of t>pe. In a news- 
shown to have been twice the bulk in 1905 paper office one machine is generally cx- 
of that repuncJ in i88c>, hence for the paper fleeted to yield an amount of composition 
required the forests of the United States equal to the work of five men. The 4000 
were drawn upon in 1905 for ten times the machines in operation in 1 900 were there- 
wood pulp required in 18S0. \Miat this in- fore equivalent (l**^ operators) to an army 
crease in size amounts to in pounds is best of i6,CKX^ additional compositors, thcoret- 
illustrated by com.puting the circulation of ically capable of setting nearly 41,000,000 
1905 in terms of the number of pages re- thousand ems during the census year, or 
ported in iS8v>. Upon the modest basis of enough nonpareil compi^sition to completely 
that year, when com.position was expensive supply the practical requirement of 418 daily 
and publishers had not learned to riot in newspapers, each printing eight pages every 
wood paper, the 191^5 circulation would have d.iy for one year.* 

required qo8.0I2,(.kX) pounds, or 913,017,- It is obvious that this extraordinar>' in- 

230 pounds less than were actually used, crease ottered to the enterprising publisher a 

Alere increase in the number of pages in chance to outstrip his competitors in the 

American newspapers and p>erioilicals in amount and variety of the reading matter 

1905 as compared with iSSc"* thus represents which he presented. In a^nsequence the size 

each year the soft w^wd product, — princi- of the daily issue increased to some extent, 

pally spruce, — of approximately 50,000 acres while the Sunday issue greatly expanded and 

of forest land. was made a medivmi for the publication of 

To a limited extent increase in bulk is general literature. In this way the Sunday 

the natural result of increased circulation, issues of important new spa|>ers have become 

but there are two far more important rea- practically huge mnga/incs, 

sons: the introduction and general use of — -rr ^_,. ,^^^1.1... , .1, .» , „ 

. . , , *» . . • Tho «|Wtt»fato <^>mpiV^ltU\n In all tno dally news- 

typesettmg machmes, and increase m adver- pap<^n« in the inittni st*te« »iurinR the whoio of the 

rising. The fonncr exerted its greatest in- iC'Snd ?«.. ''^'*" * "" "'•^"^'^""•"'•r »«»-OOO.ooo 



THE NElVSPAPEk AND THE FOREST. 75 

In 1905 there were 456 daily newspapers as follows: Advertising, 149; illustiacions, 

issuing Sunday editions, the aggregate cir- 89 ; reading matter, 150. The proportion of 

culation of which was 11,539,021. If each reading matter varied from 25 per cent, to 

of these Sunday newspapers averaged thirty- 56 per cent., and for all six issues was 38.7 

two pages, the paper required for each issue per cent., or scarcely more than one-third 

would have been sufficient to have formed a of the total pages. The reader, therefore, 

library of 5,907,978 volumes of 500 octavo who purchased these newspapers for literary 

pages each. edification was burdened with the equivalent 

In New York City alone, the aggregate of an octavo volume of advertisements of 

circulation per issue in 1905 for the six prin- 1192 pages, and of perfecting-press art of 

cipal Sunday newspapers was 1,803,000 712 pages. While entirely beyond definite 

copies. They averaged sixty pages per issue, statistical demonstration, it may not be amiss 

hence each copy represented the amount of to suggest that if the proportion of reading 

paper required for an octavo book of 480 matter, advertising, and pictures thus found 

pages. If the circulation of all Sunday to exist in New York Sunday newspapers 

papers and of the six leading New York were applied to all Sunday newspapers (it is 

papers be considered on the basis of aggre- reasonable to suppose that the proportions do 

gate issue for the census year, the total annual not vary materially) the " library " previ- 

circulation of the former slightly exceeded ously mentioned would contain 2,286,387 

600,000,000 copies, while that of the latter volumes octavo of reading matter, 2,268,663 

amounted to 93,729,000, or 15 per cent, of volumes octavo of advertising, and 1,352,926 

the total. volumes octavo of " art," the amount of ad- 
vertising thus equaling that of reading mat- 
ter. 



INCREASE IN THE COST OF WOOD PAPER. 



INCREASE IN ADVERTISING. 

The part which advertising has played in 
increasing the number of pages of news- 
papers and magazines has become increas- The changes which have been in progress 
ingly important during the period of pros- in connection with cost of paper used in all 
perity which the country has of late experi- periodicals are illustrated in the following 
enced. Prior to 1890 the receipts from ad- summary: 

vertising amounted to considerably less than ^^^^ ^^ p^p^^ ^^^ p^^^^ 

half of the total revenue of newspapers and ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^..^ 

, . . 1 1 M Items. 1890. 1000. 1905. 

magazines, subscriptions and sales contribut- ^n p^per used in newspapers 

ing much the larger share. In 1890 the pro- and periodicals 4.3 2.57 2.59 

portion contributed by each class of assets Newspapers in roils 1.7 1.9 

wa«; ahmif eniial • liter fhaf date receiots ^^^^^-P^P^" ^^ sheets 1.89 2.18 

was aoout equal, alter mat aate receipts ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ p^^p^^ 345 355 

for advertising rapidly outstripped those 

from subscriptions and sales, so that in 1905 The general facts here presented, how- 
advertising constituted 57.7 per cent, of the ever, are more clearly indicated by consider- 
total returns and subscriptions and sales but ing expenditures made for white paper by 
43.3. representative newspapers in the larger cities. 
It was recently stated to the writer by Selecting typical papers of Chicago, Boston, 
leading publishers in different cities that the New York, Philadelphia and Washington, it 
principal change which occurred during the appears that the average price per pound 
five-year period from 1900 to 1905 was a which they paid in 1900 was 1.6 cents, and 
decided increase in the number of pages per in 1905, 2.0 cents. It seems clear that the 
issue (especially in daily newspapers as dis- advance here indicated is likely to continue, 
tinguished from the Sunday issues), due to ^,,^ «„^«, ^,, ^„ .„^,^, .^ ,..««^.ot,^ ^^«r« 

. ^ . J . . ^- 11 J J- THE PROBLEM OF AVOIDING INCREASED COST 

increase in advertising, practically no addi- papfr 
tional reading matter being presented. In 

some cases the increase in size, due to volume There are three alternatives open to the 

of advertising, was so great as to represent publisher in attempting to avoid increased 

an average annual increase of from one to cost of the white paper which he requires to 

three pages per issue. maintain circulation and size. The first 

The issues of the six principal Sunday alternative is the one to which publishers 

newspapers published in New York City on are at present turning as practically the only 

December i, 1907, aggregated 388 pages, an source of relief. An amendment to the tariff 

average of 64.5 pages. These were divided laws of the United States which shall per- 



76 THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF kEylEU^S 

mit the entrance of paper and of wood pulp intelligence. It would, however, be possi- 

free of duty, in order that the forests of ble to decrease the amount of composition 

other countries (specifically Canada) may used in most newspapers and some magazines 

effectively supplement our own. It cannot without detriment to the publishers or loss 

be claimed that the plan thus proposed com- to the public. Much of the reading matter 

pletely adjusts the difficulty, since the supply which is now printed in Sunday newspapers 

of spruce and other pulp woods in Canada may be classed as " filler," and possesses no 

is by no means exhaustless and an export tax value to any one. The impression left upon 

appears probable. It is obvious, therefore, the reader's mind in connection with it, is 

that this alternative is an uncertain one, and that the editors of the different sections of 

at best merely postpones ultimate shortage, the Sunday papers have been straining every 

The second alternative may be better nerve to pad out their space with matter 
termed a scientific possibility: it is the de- which possesses no permanent and little or 
velopmcnt of a satisfactory raw material no passing value. It would be possible, in- 
other than the limited varieties of wood now deed, to reduce the amount of reading matter 
used. To that end already the chemist and presented in daily and Sunday newspapers 
inventor have long been at work. Even the by perhaps 20 per cent, before causing any 
federal Government is endeavoring to assist loss to the community; it would be possible 
in the solution of this problem. In his cur- also to decrease space which is now being 
rent estimates the Secretary of Agriculture devoted to advertising by increasing the rate. 
requests an appropriation of $10,000 to con- If all advertisements were condensed in the 
duct experiments in developing a suitable same proportion, it is probable that the re- 
raw material for paper. It must be admitted, suiting return would, for all concerned, be 
however, that the results thus far are not precisely the same as at present, 
commensurate with the expenditure of time He would be a bold reformer indeed who 
and money already made. The day appears obstructs the path of seeming progress by 
to be still distant when corn and cotton deliberately advocating reduction in the size 
stalks, plants, or straw can be utilized as a of American newspapers and periodicals, but 
satisfactory and thoroughly practical base, if the figures and assertions of the forest cx- 
Experiments have, however, resulted in the perts of the federal Government are correct, 
production of excellent white paper from and if no other satisfactory raw material for 
woods hitherto unused. From eighteen vari- paper is discovered, the near future will 
eties useful paper can now be manufactured, compel the paper and publishing industries, 
but the practical limitations in most cases willing or unwilling, to adjust themselves to 
still govern use; cither the product is satis- entirely new conditions, 
factory for particular uses only, or the Whatever the present opinion of publish- 
amount produced from a given unit of wood ers may be concerning the necessity or wis- 
is too small to yield a reasonable profit, or dom of a great number of pages per issue, 
there are mechanical, scientific, or natural thoughtful and intelligent persons generally 
difficulties yet to be overcome. find the bulk of modern publications, espe- 

The third alternative is much more radi- cially of Sunday newspapers, a source of 

cal. It has been shown that the increase in continual annoyance. The huge comic pic- 

the use of white paper has been principally ture supplements are often so puerile that 

due to two causes, — natural increase in cir- they induce a sense of melancholy; yet mere- 

culation, and rather unnatural increase in ly to divert thoughtless men and women for 

the number of pages in each issue of news- a brief Sunday morning hour with impossible 

papers and magazines resulting from ma- and extravagant pictures printed in loud 

chine composition and expansion of adver- colors, thousands of stately spruce and hcm- 

tising. lock trees upon the northern hills, which 

Obviously circulation cannot be decreased, have raised their graceful branches to the 

but on the contrary must continually in- sunshine and rain of many changing seasons, 

crease', as the nation advances in wealth and have lived, — in vain. 



THE GOLD FLOOD AND ITS PROBLEMS. 

BY J. PEASE NORTON. 

TN the present disturbance of business pros- the over-supply of gold. 

-*• perity there are at least four factors 

which are fundamental to all those economic That high prices exist, there is no ques- 
effects that are currently classed as causes, tion. All average price levels, whether Eng- 
namely: First, the world-wide deprecia- lish or American, show in eight years more 
tion of gold, which has been and is operating than 50 pver cent, increase. In other words 
to undermine the use of gold as a stand- it requires $1.50 to buy what $1 would pur- 
ard of value in various insidious and com- chase on the average eight years ago. If 
plicated, although sure ways; second, the these are not famine prices, because during 
ill-regulated practices of capitalization of eight years the crops have been bountiful, 
corporations proceeding under a .compara- progress extremely rapid, and the standard 
tively new combination of economic condi- of living throughout the world upon the in- 
tions, involving underwriting, investments of crease, then the causes should be sought in 
commercial and savings banks, trust compa- the depreciation of money. If the statistics 
nies, and insurance companies, and especially agree in showing the quantity of gold in- 
the methods of acquiring ownership by ma- creasing, the cost of production per ton of 
jority control for purposes of merger; third, ore diminished radically by new Inventions, 
the inadequacy of our currency system with and the w^orld's stock of gold showing a 
especial reference to the bond secured bank marked and sudden increase, little doubt re- 
note system, constituting a most important mains. The facts are plain. A golden del- 
problem in the field of currency as a medium uge is already upon us. In the year 1700 
of exchange; fourth, the rapid expansion of the annual production was $7,000,000, in 
the banking industry under the guise of trust 1800 $12,000,000, in 1900 $262,000,000, in 
companies without proper legal requirements 1907 $425,000,000, and the rate of increase 
covering reserves. is accelerating. When we remember that the 

Because these problems have suddenly de- larger amount of each yearns production is 
veloped new aspects on account of economic added to all that has been produced before, 
changes, the whole field requires not only unlike all other commodities, that at the 
careful analysis by experts, but also delicate present rate of acceleration the world's stock 
and effective legislation by Congress. From can double in less than twelve years, and 
a brief survey of the disturbing factors men- finally, that the causes of the gold flood are 
tioned above, which are at the root of the not sporadic and exceptional, but entirely ra- 
financial crisis of 1907, it will be possible to tional, namely, the ingenuity of chemists and 
discuss more intelligently the financial situ- metallurgists, who have succeeded in reduc- 
ation with reference to the remedies pro- ing the profitable working cost per ton of 
posed. ore from $14 to less than $2 at the present 

Although gold is the measure of the prices time, by new inventions, this question of gold 
of all commodities as a standard of value, depreciation becomes easily the financial 
prices may increase because of a cheapening problem of the age. For the amount of 
of the standard relative to commodities or cheap gold ore is unlimited in nature. Mr. 
because of an increase in the value of com- Frederick Upham Adams, in the August 
modities relative to the standard. In the one issue of Success, quotes Mr. John D. Rocke- 
case, inventions in gold mining and new dis- feller as saying : " It seems to me that one of 
coveries of gold would be active. In the sec- the most startling conditions this country 
ond case, above mentioned, short crops, defi- must face is the overproduction of gold." 

cient economic progress, and great pressure ^^^ resulting inflation. 
or population on the means of subsistence 

would be the effective causes for the high The situation is not complex. Instead of 
prices. Hi^ prices may, then, be classed his- a Congress as in the Civil War issuing mil- 
torically in two groups, (a) inflation prices lions of paper greenbacks which did not rep- 
due to a depreciated money, (b) famine resent the amount of work which good 
prices due to want money hitherto had cost, now a freak or 



78 THE AMERICAN REl^lEW OF RE^IEIVS. 

combination of nature and human science is heavily mortgaged at previous low rates of 
flooding the world with golden metal which interest gains largely, since the value of the 
docs not represent the value of the gold of propert>' will advance but not the debt. The 
yesterday; as the cost of to-day *s production man who holds the mortgage loses what the 
largely determines the value of all the stock other man gains. This inequality is ad- 
on hand, the sudden decrease in cost has re- justed by the increasing interest rates, 
suited in the ordinar>- phenomena present in It will be profitable for business men to 
all inflation. A rapid increase of prices re- carr}- large stock of goods, bought on every 
suits. A great speculation ensues to make recession in prices, and to advance the prices 
profit by the rise. Men borrow and pyramid without delay. Large profits thereby be- 
their profits in the speculation in commodi- come possible, on account of the appreciation 
ties, securities and land. Under this borrow- in the value of the stock. 
ing demand, interest rises until the increase The common shares of corporations repre- 
in the rate tends to offset the loss in principal sent the equities and correspond largely to 
to the lender. For, if normal interest is 5 the case of the man who purchases land on 
per cent., and prices rise on the average 5 mortgage. Common stocks will greatly ap- 
pcr cent, per annum, a normal interest for preciatc in value unless special reasons inter- 
such inflation must be 10 per cent. Other- vene. Among special reasons are: First, the 
wise the principal loaned will be impaired difficult}' of raising prices of services or goods 
when repaid by the borrower, measured in sold by the corporation, as in the street rail- 
purchasing power for the lender. way corporations, where the law fixes a 5- 
^.,^ ,,,^T,r<« T.^^T^T^o^ «.^r. cent fare; in railwavs, so far as rates may 

THE HIGHER INTEREST RATE. ^ , j-i . ,' ,, , j.^ / 

not be readily raised; secondly, the dimcul- 

Without going into a technical explana- ties of raising large amounts of new capital 

tion of the results of a world-wide gold de- at high interest where extensive new con- 

preciation, which have been fully described struction has been or must be shortly under- 

theoretically by Prof. Irving Fisher* of Yale taken. Otherwise, the stocks of companies, 

University in " Appreciation and Interest " the more heavily bonded at the old rates of 

in 1897, and later in his recent treatise, interest the better, provided net earnings may 

" The Rate of Interest," the subject may be readily increase and no new capital is re- 

usefully summarized in answer to the ques- quired, and always provided the management 

tion: Assuming that a world-wide gold dc- consists of honest men, should show great 

preciation is in progress, how may business profits. For the bondholder's loss becomes 

men and investors take advantage of thi> the stockholder's gain. 

great economic change, to the end of limit- It will be unwise to buy low interest 
ing losses in their present commitments, and, bonds unless the buyer has offerings of equal 
so far as possible, reaping profits by wise security to his present holdings on a far 
foresight in guarding their future financial higher basis than at present prevails. Dur- 
operations? ing the lulls, when general interest rates for 
Assuming ^y, per cent, as a normal rate a short time decline, largest profits will be 
of interest and 4J/2 per cent, as the average made in selling bonds when they rally ow- 
rate per annum at which prices have in- ing to lower interest, and immediately re- 
creased for the past ten years, the lender, in investing in the stock of companies, soundly 
order that his principal shall not be impaired managed, having low-priced equities and 
must exact a high rate, 9 per cent., which heavily bonded, the bonds dating before 
is no hardship to the debtor, since the land, 1901. 
the commodities and the securities (if equi- 
ties) will tend to rise in proportion to prices, 
namely, 4!^ per cent, each year on the Doubtless, the sale of $40,ooo,cxx) cor- 
average, with certain exceptions. porate stock and bonds by the city of New 

York will mark no less the commencement 

EFFECT ON MORTGAGES, STOCKS, AND BONDS, ^f ^ ^^^ ^^a of investment values than the 

The man who invests his own capital in necessity for early changes in the laws regu- 

real estate neither gains nor loses by gold lating tlje investments of savings banks and 

depreciation. The man owning real estate trust institutions. That we are on a new 

"■^T^nders interested m this moBt Important snb- investment basis few may longer doubt, 

ject should conmilt the wrltlngH of FiRher and Holt. That $40,000,000 ±¥2 pcr cent, bonds, tax- 

^"d "roipTrity •• ''^""""" '" "»"'' " ""'^ «"''''" exempt, should bring only 102 on the aver- 



THE NEW YORK CITY BOND ISSUE. 



THE GOLD FLOOD AND ITS PROBLEMS. 79 

age, a basis yield of about 4j4 percent., add- That the laws should restrict investments of 

ing the amount of the tax to bring this in- savings banks to bonds and mortgages seemed 

vestment into comparison with securities sub- safe to the law-makers because the thought 

ject to tax, said i^^ per cent., an equiva- of loss by depreciation of the standard of 

lent yield of nearly 6 per cent, for New value was lacking; moreover, the laws 

York City bonds, will prove for the majority helped the sales of bonds by large dealers, 

of financiers sufficient indication of the trend. In New York, Massachusetts and Connecti- 

The price of the New York City bond is- cut the laws were made drastic enough. Sav- 

sue represents the havoc which gold depre- ings banks were practically compelled so far 

ciation has wrought up to this date. How as securities are concerned to make only 

great is the fall in New York City bonds, loans to corporations (by being forced to 

few even now realize. In 1904 the New purchase the bonds) and restricted or rather 

York City 3^ per cent, bonds were dis- barred from investing in the equities which 

tributed to the public as high as 104. Since represent the growth of this great country, 

then a decline has occurred of twenty-four the richest in the world. Fixed investments 

points, or, say, 25 per cent, in this gilt-edged consist of two classes: Simple annuities un- 

investment security. From .the standpoint of determined as to annual rate, which in capi- 

the holders the comparison is even more dis- tal value are common stocks, and the combi- 

couraging, because the purchasing power of nation of an annuity of stated rate and a 

the dollar in the brief interval of three years principal sum due at the end cA so many 

has declined 10 per cent., as measured by the years, which in capital value are known as 

index number issued by Dun last May, when bonds. In former times such securities rep- 

presumably on account of the extraordinarily resented capital invested, because the rate of 

rapid advance in prices this ancient statistical interest in all industries was subject to com- 

landmark was abandoned. Consequently, paratively small differences. In foreclosure, 

the holder of the 3^*s finds that not only this value could be liquidated. On account 

has he lost 25 per cent, of his capital meas- of insufficient regulations controlling capi- 

ured in dollars, but that $80 will only pur- talization, worthless pieces of paper from the 

chase what $72 would three years ago. standpoint of liquidation under foreclosure. 

Therefore, measured in the real test of inasmuch as they represent simply contingent 

purchasing power, the holder has lost 32 earning power, have been sold to trust in- 

per cent, of his capital, and received in stitutions for investments, 
the meantime an interest return of 3^/^ per 
cent., little more than one-half the current 

time rates now ruling for a year. That the As a result of the speculation resulting 

effect must go farther, no sane critic can from gold depreciation and advancing prices, 

doubt. How far this movement may go, it and the immobility in the character of ccr- 

will be impossible to say for two years or tain investments of trust institutions already 

more, inasmuch as the conflicting tendencies pointed out, the tropic conditions natural in 

produced by political disturbances pending hot-houses of inflation rapidly developed, 

the election, confuse the effects of the depre- The volume of clearings increased not only 

ciation of the standard of value. in quantity but also in value, on account of 

That there has been secret selling of higher prices. The demand for currency to 

bonds of well-informed interests in amounts transact this hot-house business became 

reaching great proportions is doubtless within really a practical question for the bankers, 

the knowledge of a few. The difficulty in Without studying the causes. Congress has 

unloading bonds on account of the narrow proceeded to remedy this real, though un- 

market which many issues and specialties pos- natural, demand for more currency. Like 

sess makes it difficult to show the real quota- the man who, by tugging at his boot straps 

tions which many issues would bring. to reach a higher plane, pulled so hard that 

he not only seriously injured his back, 

SAVINGS-BANK AND INSURANCE INVEST- ^^^ ^^^^ the Straps OUt of his boOtS, SO the 

^ * insistent demand for more currency to trans- 
That a situation has developed in the act this unnatural business resulted in fur- 
finances of savings banks as well as in insur- ther inflation and increased speculation. The 
ance companies requiring changes in the laws increase in bond-secured notes has amounted 
regulating the investments of savings banks, to $400,000,000 within a few years, — an in- 
the New York City issue forcibly suggests, flation by fiat money on top of nature's in- 



THE DEMAND FOR AN ELASTIC CURRENCY. 



WASHINGTON COMES TO THE RESCUE. 



SO TH^ /iMEklCAN REI/IE]V OF RBf^IEtVS. 

m 

flation through the cheapening of gold. The nies carried little if any res^rvC^, tcdcpOSit- 

Aldrich bill assisted the bankers in this in- ing in other institutions. The result is that 

flation movement by directing the secretary within fifteen years the average reserves 

to deposit all the Government funds in the against deposits for the banking industry, 

banks. During every fall, on account of our which should include the trust companies, — 

inelastic currency and the genuine business since trust companies are little more than 

expansion on account of the harvest business, banks free of reserve regulations, — have been 

this demand has been intensified. on the average cut in two. As a result a 

This legitimate demand for an elastic cur- sudden run made it impossible to maintain 

rency, presented at successive Congresses by specie payments, because the reserves were 

the Hon. Charles N. Fowler, chairman of entirely inadequate for the business at- 

the House Committee on Banking and Cur- tempted. 
lency, has been consistently shelved by Con- 
gress, although the system of asset currency 

as used in Canada and elsewhere is in every The fright engendered by the failure of 

way sound and practicable. That the cur- the Knickerbocker Trust Company produced 

rency should be elastic and var>' with busi- a psychological- panic. It destroyed public 

ness demands Is not only reasonable, but con- confidence. Because the reserves were insuf- 

clusive. The short-sighted policy of Con- ficlent, institutions through the country sus- 

gress in continuing to make the bank note pended specie payments. Currency sold at a 

circulation depend on the Government debt, premium in Wall Street. The fear in the 

will, unless modified, produce In the end a land required Immediate allaying. Grasping 

great crisis. For in event of war, the $600,- the solution, the Administration acted 

000,000 worth of 2 per cent, bonds held by promptly in a way capable of accomplishing 

the banks against the bank notes, now selling the results desired. By immediately offering 

above par, would, if the Government issued bond issues of $150,000,000, all told, to be 

$2,000,000,000 or $3,000,000,000 bonds for used to provide an emergency currency, a 

war purposes, greatly depreciate, since so psychological impression was produced at 

large a sum would require at least 4 ptr cent, one stroke, largely restoring confidence, 

interest, on which basis the 2's would not be As soon as it became apparent that the 

worth over 60, jeopardizing the $600,000,- difficulties had been- met, and the intensity 

000 of the present assets of the banks by at of the crisis allayed, it was decided unneces- 

least 40 per cent. sar>' to actually sell more than a fraction of 

When, then, these conditions of inflation the amount offered. Had the smaller 
had been carried to a pitch, and many in- amount been offered at the start, little would 
vestments believed to be good were in reality have been accomplished psychologically. The 
only contingent annuities without value in move of the Administration, psychologically 
case of foreclosure, and the inelastic currency speaking, tended to balance in restoring pub- 
system was laboring under a heavy discount lie confidence, the extent such confidence had 
rate, which is the safety valve of an inelastic been destroyed by the opening event, the sus- 
currency, the psychological blow was struck pension of the great Knickerbocker Trust 
which caused the crisis to become acute and Company, the two events marking the bc- 
universal, — the failure of the great Knicker- ginning and the end of the great crisis, 
bocker Trust Company. Great credit Is due to President Roosevelt 

and Secretary Cortelyou in so splendidly 
coping with an alarming situation. 

A president of a large savings bank recent- Now that public confidence in a measure 
ly commented on the fact that the crisis did has been restored, and the time of normal 
no injury to savings banks and rather tes- monetary stringency is rapidly passing, two 
tified to their splendid solidity. As a mat- disturbing factors have for the time been 
ter of fact all savings banks retired behind tempered. The canceling of loans by banks 
the sixty days' notice clause. The national will proceed throughout the countr>% The 
banks remained solvent by suspending pay- volume of trade will lessen. In a short time 
ments. The suspension of specie payments money will begin to accumulate in the banks, 
was the result of insufficient reserves. The and business will pass into that state of tor- 
reserves of the national banks were insuffi- por which is most discouraging to business 
cient simply because trust companies. State men. 
banks, private banks, and insurance compa- In the dismay at fortunes wrecked and 



INADEQUATE BANKING RESERVES. 



THE GOLD FLOOD AND ITS PROBLEMS. 81 

profitable business swept away, the immedi- present Congress to advantage. But the 

ate mental reactions of men are two : Respon- danger to business is great, since a prolonged 

sibility for the crisis, in order to fix the currency discussion in Congress is apt to 

blame, and, second, remedies of many kinds throw the entire question into the presiden- 

largely designed to affect some of the innu- tial campaign, 
merable minor phases which have struck the 

. J X ^ • • -J REASONS FOR THE APPOIXTMENT OF A CX)LD 

mmds of men in vivid ways. 

^ COMMISSION. 

SOME SPECIFIC REMEDIES. ^, i / i i i • • / 

1 he remedy for the problems arismg from 
Many special interests under the guise of gold depreciation, from the irregularities in 
remedies for the crisis are suggesting changes regulations governing the investments of 
in our financial system dangerous to the in- trust institutions, and, finally, the suffering 
terests of our people. Leaving out of the caused by the financial crisis of 1907, may 
question the many impracticable suggestions, well be entrusted to a gold commission. Ex- 
the possible remedies, when financial, politi- tensive testimony should be taken, and thor- 
cal and commercial conditions are carefully ough investigation carried on in order to ob- 
weighed, are few. On the whole, it is prob- tain the statistical data necessary for final 
able that no direct legislation at all would be recommendations. Moreover, this is an in- 
most advantageous for the prosperity of the ternational question, and negotiations should 
country. Stripped of technicalities, the fol- be carried on with foreign countries. If the 
lowing measures, which are the substance of reasoning of experts that prolonged deprecia- 
several bills to be introduced, would be salu- tion tends to upset the relations of the vari- 
tary, provided a currency campaign shall not ous classes in a society is correct, grave social 
result. conditions must shortly develop. Extensive 

(I) Require the State banks, trust com- readjustments of wages must ensue if the 
panies, etc, to become national banks. present cost of living does not come down. 

(a) By extending to the national banks Already it costs 50 per cent, more to live 
complete powers possessed by trust companies than ten years ago. If, as has been stated, 
and requiring adequate reserves against notes prices may' advance in three years 30 per 
as against deposits. cent, more, this will mean that within thir- 

(b) By taxing all institutions upon de- teen years the cost of living will have 
posits by a graduated scale decreasing with doubled. 

the proportion of reserves held, similar in a From the standpoint of business, could the 
way to the 10 per cent, tax on bank notes of political and financial-legal conditions of dis- 
State banks. These two laws, if carefully turbance be removed, — now that the periods 
worked out, would insure uniform adminis- of malignancy of the disturbing factors are 
tration of banking institutions and enforce temporarily passed, — prosperity would rap- 
adequate reserves. Tryst companies and idly renew its course, and a bitter commer- 
State banks would be forced to become na- cial depression be largely avoided. For in peri- 
tional banks. ods of gold depreciation, crises although vio- 

(II) Give to the national banks the right lent are of short duration, provided political 
to issue bank notes, unsecured by Govern- factors do not intervene. The crisis of 1857 
ment bonds against which reserves should be was quickly passed, but the agitation pre- 
required, provided the bank has already out- ceding the Civil War immediately followed, 
standing say 60 per cent, of the present Gov- Could all interests agree to compromise by 
emment bond-secured notes. In this way the appointment of a gold commission with 
the transition to the Canadian system of asset extensive powers to investigate and recom- 
currency can be gradually brought about mend legislation to the Congress of 1909, 
without injuring the prices of Government this whole subject would be removed, to the 
bonds now held by the banks. great advantage of business, from the realm 

(III) Henceforth, Government bonds of politics as a disturbing cause. These ques- 
^ould not be the basis for circulation to a tions are too, perhaps, safer in the hands of 
total amount greater than the $600,000,000 experts than in the throes of partisan efforts 
now outstanding, although they may be and their misuse by unprincipled political 
given in exchange the privilege of becoming agitators. There are these two alternatives, 
the sole security for Government deposits. — a gold commission or a stormy campaign 

These remedies may be adopted by the disturbing business. 



THE STORY OF THE HOARDERS. 

BY WILLIAM JUSTUS BOIES. 

^J^EVER before in the history of this coun- taken out by the banks of Philadelphia, Chi- 

try has the mania to hoard money de- cago, Boston, Pittsburg, St. Louis, and other 

prived the people of so vast a sum as that points, the hoarding mania extended, and 

which has been withdrawn from circulation soon developed into a national movement of 

since the opening days of the October panic, grave consequence. 
It has been a most curious unre^oning but .. ^^^^^^^ „ ^^ currency. 

picturesque movement, with which the banks 

of the great cities have ever had to deal, and Although the craze began through the 
now that the different phases are becoming withdrawal by timid depositors who were 
better known, it is clear that all sorts and honestly concerned as to the solvency of their 
conditions of men have engaged in the prac- banks, there can be no doubt that much of 
tice, and that thousands of big and little the vast sum taken out of circulation was 
banks throughout the United States have withdrawn deliberately for the purpose of 
helped it along. The movement has been too securing the premium on the currency that 
broad for any one to trace closely, but it is the hoarders knew would be paid as soon as 
safe to say that, taking the country as a the currency famine became at all acute, 
whole, fully $100,000,000 in currency has Within a week after the loan certificates 
been locked up by timid individuals, banks, were issued, currency became so scarce as to 
and corporations. It has been estimated that make it difficult for the banks of New York 
fully half of that sum was withdrawn from to supply their customers with pay-roll 
the banks and trust companies in the imme- money. This led to serious complications, as 
diate vicinity of New York during the ex- hundreds of mill owners found themselves 
citement attending the unprecedented runs in a position where they could not meet their 
on three or four trust companies of the me- wage schedules, and were in danger of hav- 
tropolis. ing to shut down their plants. Although the 
The movement was given great impetus more intelligent class of laborers might be 
by the action of the New ^'ork Clearing content to receive certified checks and vari- 
House banks in authorizing the issue of loan ous forms of " token money," the greater 
certificates on October 26 last. It is true, proportion were too ignorant to be reasoned 
however, that hoarding had begun two or with, and could not be induced to take any- 
three weeks before this action was taken, thing but the actual currency. In the South, 
The banks were obliged to authorize especially, this trouble caused great embar- 
loan certificates because of the tremendous rassment, as was evidenced by a " hurry 
drain of currency to the interior, which call " from a cotton planter for a quick ship- 
largely accounted for the $I2,9(X),(XX) cash mcnt of 5000 silver dollars to be used in pay- 
loss shown in the bank statement of the day ing off negro help. The planter had to pay 
that the loan certificate expedient was re- a premium of :>I50 to make it worth while 
sorted to, and by the heavy withdrawals of for the Wall Street money brokers to scour 
currency by individual depositors. As soon the city one Saturday afternoon to procure 
as the newspapers announced that cash set- the coin. 

tlements by the banks had been temporarily This state of affairs soon made the buying 

suspended the safe-deposit companies re- and selling of currency an Important part of 

ceived applications for thousands of ** one the banking business, and by November 4 

month boxes." That meant that the hoard- the financial columns of the newspapers were 

ers wanted a safe place to store their money full of the announcements of money brokers 

pending the resumption of normal conditions, stating that they were ready to " trade " in 

and that they thought that the situation currency. That was the inducement that 

would be sufficiently settled within a month thousands of hoarders had been waiting for, 

to enable them to either re-deposit their and within two days the currency premium 

funds or invest them permanently. What became the most iniportant quotation in 

was true of New York applied in a way to Wall Street. The money changers did a 

other centers^ and as loan certificates were thriving business immediately, and as soon as 



THE STORY OF THE HOARDERS. 83 

their announcements were out there was a business point of view, was really very great, 

steady procession of shamefaced people to the As high as 4 per cent, premium was paid 

Wall Street offices bent upon selling what for currency in the New York market by 

currency they had. This throng of greedy interior banks. The record transaction in 

hoarders represented all tfie types of a great this way was the purchase of a $5oo,ckx) 

city, ranging from the rag picker of the East block by a Western bank that had to have in 

Side, who had sewed his currency in his its possession that amount of actual cash. It 

clothes for safe keeping, up to the rich men had considerable difficulty in securing the 

whose secretaries emptied huge bundles of money, even at a premium of 4 per cent., 

crisp, new bills on the money changers' which meant *that the bank had to pay $20,- 

counters. Hundreds of women joined the 000 in order to obtain the cash it needed, 

throng, and had it not been for the vigilance This was as high as was paid by the money 

of the Wall Street detectives and the known changers during the panic of 1893, when the 

terrors of the financial district to thieves. of business of buying and selling currency dur- 

all classes, many of the hoarders would have ing the period of financial disturbance was 

been relieved of their savings before they had first developed in a large way. 
a chance to sell them. It was a common 

^1 . ^ X -1 . 1 r • THE BANKS AS HOARDERS. 

thmg to see trail women take from insecure 

wrist bags great rolls of gold certificates and Between $40,000,000 and $50,000,000 in 

bills of small denomination to be sold. Some currency was traded in by the money chang- 

of the women hoarders drove hard-headed ers of Wall Street during this season's dis- 

bargains and forced the money changers to turbance. That was three-fold the volume 

pay them 23^ per cent, and even higher for of sales reported during the panic of fourteen 

their currency. In one instance two wealthy years ago, and this season's totals might be 

women were seen emerging from a Harlem greatly enhanced were it possible to trace the 

bank carrying huge packages, each contain- private sales that were effected between indi- 

ing $50,000 in currency, which they imme- viduals and banks. Although the country 

diately hid away in a safe-deposit vault lo- banks have been severely criticised for 

cated in the basement of the bank's own hoarding currency, it must be remembered 

building. that their position was peculiarly trying in 

The money brokers paid for the currency that many of them were without Clearing 

with certified checks drawn upon national House protection. Some of these banks saw 

Clearing House banks. The curious feature the storm coming months before it broke, 

of this arrangement was that the hoarders and prepared accordingly. In certain cases 

who were apparently afraid to leave their interior institutions having cash reserves 

money on deposit with the banks were will- averaging 40 or 50 per cent., — 15 per cent, 

ing to accept checks drawn upon these same being the legal requirement for national 

institutions. These checks they deposited in banks outside the reserve centers, — made 

the regular way and the credits were placed urgent appeals to the New York banks for 

to their personal account in the banks. This cash shipments, stating that they could not 

furnished rather conclusive evidence that the get along without the money. But they did 

hoarders, in withdrawing their money from get along without it, as soon as they found 

the banks, were governed more by a sense of out that they had to, so the New York 

greed than a sense of prudence. It must be banks, except in instances where legitimate 

remembered, however, that the 2 or 3 per need was clearly apparent, refused to send 

cent, premium which the hoarders received interior correspondents all the cash that they 

for the currency that they sold represented called for. Many of the banks that were 

as much as they would have obtained from so anxious to secure currency did not need it 

the trust companies for a year's interest, at all, but carried it as an emergency fund 

Then, too, after collecting their premium, — for use in case of panic. 

$200 or $300 on each $10,000 of currency Let me say here that I believe that the 

sold, — they could take the certified checks New York banks handled a very difficult 

covering the sum of their original withdraw- situation admirably and that they were not 

als from the banks, plus the premium paid guilty of withholding currency from their 

by the money brokers, and deposit it with Western correspondents at all. There have 

the trust companies on the regular interest been such charges made, but without, I be- 

basis. It will be seen, therefore, that the in- lieve, just warrant. Comptroller Ridgely, 

ceadve for such an operation from a cold in his annual report speaks thus of the 



84 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEWS. 

hoarding by banks: ''The banks have been ever carried^ and the combined drain was 

fearful as to what might develop, and finding naturally sufficient to continue the currency 

their usual reserve deposits only partially premium in force. In addition to these with- 

available, if available at all, they have been drawals, large manufacturing concerns, with 

compelled in self-protection to gather from other great employers of labor, were obliged 

every source all the money they could possi- to keep constantly on hand enough currency 

bly reach and to hold on to it by refusing to provide their pay-roll requirements a 

payment whenever it is possible and satisfy- week or two ahead. In the case of one in- 

ing their customers with the smallest possible dustry, located near New York, to which 

amount of cash." • the Wall Street banks were accustomed to 

NEW YORK BANKS NOT GUILTY. '^'^ f ^°°f^ ™°"^^ly '" P'y^fJ '°«'°^' " 

was round that the currency did not flow 

This does not apply to the New York back as formerly, and that it was being 

banks, since they gave up $52,000,000 in the hoarded. Investigation showed that the 

four weeks following the adoption of loan banks of the district were retaining all the 

certificates by the Clearing House. The currency they could get to meet a possible 

comptroller's own figures show that between emergency. 

August 22 and December 3, — covering not After the Comptroller of the Currency 

only the entire panic period but the pre- called on the national banks to report their 

liminary stages of disturbance, — that the condition, as of December 3, much of the 

New York banks lost $43,000,000 in reserve hoarded money was released. The banks 

money, as against the normal drain of only had long been expecting the call and the day 

$12,400,000 in the corresponding period of before it was issued the Wall Street money 

1906. This difference of $30,000,000 is ex- brokers did a thriving business in supplying 

plained by the withdrawals of currency by currency to interior banks that desired to 

interior banks and by the payments to the fortify their reserve position in anticipation 

" assisted trust companies " as well. In this of the demand. One Western bank came 

period, too, deposits in New York banks be- hurriedly into the market, bidding $lo,O00 

longing to out of town institutions ran off for a quick shipment of $500,000. Other 

$27,412,000. These changes show rather banks did the same thing, although in a quiet 

conclusively that New York has not with- way. As soon as this demand was satisfied 

held money belonging to the interior, and the premium declined from 2 per cent, to 

that the great banks of Wall Street, what- i|4 pcr cent., which was rather significant 

ever their sins in other directions, cannot evidence that the sudden rise had to do with 

properly be charged with hoarding money in the " window-dressing " operations of the 

this crisis. The very fact that they have banks. Since then the premium has dropped 

been for weeks unable to meet the pay-roll to I per cent, and under, 

requirements of their own customers, and What was called a currency premium, 

that they have been forced, on many occa- however, was not that at all. The premium 

sions, to go into the market and buy cur- on currency really meant that the checks of 

rency to provide the legitimate needs of their solvent banks were selling at a discount, 

own clients, indicates that they have had no since the banks themselves were not paying 

private hoard to resort to in this great out cash for their customers* checks. The 

twentieth centur\' emergency. premium has become the most important 

The New \'ork trust companies were quotation of the market and its daily fluctua- 

for a time rather conspicuous hoarders of tions have been followed with the keenest 

money, too, and in the nature of things interest by intelligent students of financial 

they had to be. Having just survived affairs evtry where. When the premium is 

a series of runs, during which two of abandoned altogether there will be genuine 

the companies were forced to pay out rejoicing among those critics who believe 

virtually all their deposits in cash, the other that there can be no permanent improvement 

companies were naturally desirous of " keep- until currency becomes sufficiently plentiful 

ing strong." That meant accumulating the again to give the banks of the country what 

heaviest cash reserves that these companies they need without bidding a premium for it. 



THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS MAN IN RETIREMENT 

BY ANDRE TRIDON. 

TPHE excellent article on retiring from satisfied that after years of toil he will be 
^ business in the United States, by Mr. able to rest and enjoy life, if life then be 
Marcus M. Marks, which appeared in the granted him. 

Review of Reviews for November, dealt It is at this point that Anglo-Saxons and 
with conditions which, in the main, are pe- Continentals have disagreed radically since 
culiar to American life, although, of course, the days of the Reformation. Puritanism 
Mr. Marks' general contention holds good taught that profitable suffering and work 
the world over. were the foremost accessories of a Christian 

In Europe the case is somewhat different, life, work being not only a necessity but a 
The fondest dream of every European duty as well. Catholicism, with its Greco- 
mother is to marry off her daughters and to Roman tinge of paganism, has steadfastly re- 
see her sons provided with government posi- fused to forget the carnal deities, and while 
tions. When the first of those wishes is left countenancing suffering of a rather unnat- 
unfulfilled, a convent may conveniently open ural sort, such as asceticism, has permitted 
its doors to the forsaken wallflower. But contemplative anchorites to set an example 
when the heir either decides to be a free lance of indifference to strenuosity, an example of 
or fails to come up to the requirements of a blessed idleness. Of course, it will be un- 
civil-service examination, lamentations are derstood that I do not oppose Catholicism 
the response of the entire family. As a to Protestantism, but to Puritanism, for, al- 
makeshift, and if the father happens to be a though England and North Germany are 
prominent merchant, his son may succeed both Protestant countries, they differ as much 
him in the management of his affairs. To on the subject as p re-Shakespearean England 
the average European mind, however, noth- differs from the England of, say, George 
ing is sweeter to think of than a desk and a Bernard Shaw. 

stool for life in the offices of some public or The result of such widely different teach- 
semi-public organization. ings is that to Anglo-Saxons work is an end 

Why should such " dry drudgery at the in itself, praiseworthy and even enjoyable, 
desk's dead wood," as Lamb puts it, appeal To the Continental it is only a means to an 
so strongly to Europeans, or, to be more ex- end, the end being an independent life of 
act, to Continentals, for the British have re- idleness, or, as we might prefer to put it, 
mained comparatively immune against the elegant leisure. According to Continental 
civil-service microbe ? The answer is : Be- views, whoever can secure for himself a daily 
cause of the old-age pension. Almost every pittance without toiling for it, ought not to 
one on the Continent who is able, physically toil, and no credit is given to the wealthy 
and mentally, to pass an examination, may in young man intent on increasing his^capital 
time become a pensioner, for not only the by engaging in some trade, nor to the man of 
governments, in most of the European coun- fifty or fifty-five who remains at work after 
tries, but banks, railroads, large business amassing a small competence, 
houses as well, pension off their employees Therefore, we meet in every Continental 
after twenty-five or thirty years of continu- city a large class of idle men, who, having 
ous services. ^ , dismissed for the balance of their life the 

When an American realizes the exact care of money-making, have no ambition be- 
amount of these old-age pensions he may yond that of living and enjoying life. That 
express some surprise. Few are above $800 their enjoyment includes but a meagre dole 
a year, and the majority are below $200. of life's material comfort is evident, but this 
That paltry $200, however, is a thing per- gives them a peculiar charm, 
fectly assured, a pittance which cannot pos- There is, however, a real value to the state 
sibly fail to be doled out to whomsoever has in their view of life. Many devote them- 
held a steady position for a quarter of a cen- selves to intellectual pursuits which routine 
tury or so. This pittance does away with all work made an impossibility in the preceding 
the worries concerning the future, and the years. A large number of interesting works 
bumblfst office holder may sleep peacefully, on military matters, science, history, biogra- 



86 THE AMERICAN REt^IEiV OF REVIEWS. 

phy, and memoirs, are due to the pen of generally the exhausted ploughhorse, whkh 

" retraites " from the army or navy, who, pity alone keeps housed and fed in a back 

owing to the importance the army plays in stable. He is not and cannot be '* up to 

European life, form a large contingent of the date." He is rarely exhibited to strangers 

retired class. and his opinions are usually held In scorn. 

Some of the retired Continentals engage The Continental grandfather, leisurely and 

in minor political activities. Town council- serene, is the educator of the young and 

lors are in the majority of cases retired offi- often the arbiter of the family's destinies, 

cers or former civil-service men, who, with This makes for conservatism. Not infre- 

their indifference to money questions, make quently, it must be confessed, it bUgJits 

perhaps rather poor administrators, but pub- useful initiative in the younger gcneratioo. 

lie-spirited and of an unimpeachable char- But those men who take their time before 

acter. deciding and acting give the family life a 

The influence of this great leisure class in wonderful balance and repose, 
the shaping of the nation's tastes and ideals is The man who, in order to earn the pen- 

a thing an untraveled Anglo-Saxon can sion granted to employees of twenty-five or 

hardly realize. Thanks to this " idle " class, thirty years* standing, has been compelled to 

literary and artistic salons after the fashion stick to one line of work, and put up silently 

of the eighteenth century are still a possibil- with all the little worries of his position, is 

ity on the Continent of Europe. In the late not likely to yield very often to temporary 

afternoon the " retraites " gather either excitement. The " retraites " are, indeed, to 

around the marble tables of some cafe and the active business workers of Continental 

play cards, or preferably meet at the fireside Europe what the Senate is to the Chamber 

of some hospitable hostess. These men of a of Representatives. 

mature age, who have ample leisure for Much of the quietness, meUoijmess and 

thoughts of the past and can observe the unconventional ity of European life can be 

present without haste, make the most de- traced to the influence of the care-free, inde- 

lightful conversationalists. pendent, slightly cynical " retraitfe." And 

The retired army man, to whom a wan- the artistic life of the country cannot but 

dering garrison life or cruises on the seven thrive under that influence. What a blest* 

seas have revealed every part of his father- ing it is for the actor to play before men who 

land and its distant colonies; the clerk, who have not come in quest of relaxation, but 

has scribbled many sonnets on official note simply with a desire to give their minds Kxne 

paper and is busy publishing them ; the finan- literary exercise. Painters and novelists have 

cier, who, from the battlefield of the money some one to cater to besides prudish old 

market, has brought perhaps only his knowl- maids, and their art fears not to beoome 

edge of human psychology; the college pro- a thrall to women's effete taste. Poetf 

fessor, who, forsaking the teaching of one find patient listeners to whom no prening 

specialty, may look at life from a broader business affords an excuse for hunying 

angle, and apply to actual events his critical away. 

faculty ; the diplomat who has bid an eternal If the European mother's dream of a 

good-bye to lands afar off, — all those men, thirtj-year desk ser\'itude for her son ex- 

from whose minds and from whose lives plains many of the Continent's shortoomingi 

hurr)' and bustle are definitely exiled, make in the business field, it Is also responsible to a 

the European drawing-room an intellectual large extent for the development of civiC 

paradise. cleanliness and of art, refined and manly, 

^Vhat peerless advisers they become for among the Latin, Germanic, and Slav 

the young! The Anglo-Saxon grandfather is nations. 



LEADING ARTICLES OP THE MONTH. 



THE FIGHT FOR THE FORESTS. 

'^'ATIONAL forestry began with Cleve- houses, wood yards, hotels, electric railroads, 

land's administration, when that exec- livery stables, summer resorts, mining camps, 

utive, under authority from Congress, set windmills, and even two cemeteries are to be 

aside certain forests from the national lands, found in these forests. 

National forests are farms of wood, of water Not only must they be protected against 
power, of grazing, all for the public benefit, misuse and trespass, but against their great- 
Waste and permanent injury to the forest est enemy, fire. Last year only one-eighth of 
cover are the only restrictions. Any man i per cent, was burned over and only three 
living near a. national forest can obtain free one-hundredths of i per cent, actually de- 
ail the timber he requires in one year up to stroyed. In all i lOO fires were extinguished 
the value of $20. If he requires more than by the forest rangers, at a total cost of only 
that amount he makes application in due $9000. This alone justifies the existence of 
form. Last year 14,000 of these free-use the Forest Service. The protective force last 
permits were issued. All the timber in a summer numbered 1200, giving each man on 
national forest is for sale and at a reasonable an average 206 square miles of mountainous 
price, but only ripe trees are cut, and in such wilderness, — that is to say, an area greater 
a manner as to protect the young trees from than nine Manhattan Islands. He patrols 
destruction. The work must be undertaken and polices this district, issues permits, builds 
within six months and completed within a trails, attends to the business interests and 
specified time, and, wherever necessary, fights fires, in addition to cooking for him- 
brush and tops must be piled and burned, self and caring for his animals. For the 
These provisions prevent "skinning" and- same area that we have one guardian, — 
the fires that succeed that piratical process, 206 square miles, — Prussia employs 120 
also holding for future speculation. men, and finds it pays. 

Lumber companies in California are heavy Moreover, the Forest Service adds to the 
purchasers of Government timber. One of nation*s wealth in other ways. It has in- 
these tried to grab, then to steal, and finally creased the yield of turpentine 30 per cent, 
decided to buy. Another was caught tres- with far less injury to the trees than former- 
passing in the Hell Gate Forest and was ly. It has demonstrated that the " lodge- 
mulcted in $20,000 damages. It paid and pole pine," considered worse than useless, 
immediately bought $200,000 worth more of after a certain treatment makes excellent 
the timber it had been stealing, says Mr. Ed- railroad ties. Western hemlock and South- 
ward Stewart White, in the American Mag- ern gum timber have also been made service- 
azine for January. Still the country's timber able by this body. It is now working on 
to the extent of four-fifths is in private other materials than forest woods for paper 
hands. Receipts from sales rose from $60,- pulp, and is nurturing a young plantation of 
000 in 1905 to $750,000 in 1906. willows, to prevent importation of material; 

Homes may be located, mines exploited, for basket-making. The Service has discov- 
and the grazing industry promoted in the ered that tannin may be procured from wil- 
national forests, but ** mushroom " settle- low bark, which must be of value to the shoe 
ments to further the land thieves in " skin- industry. By-products are being utilized 
ning " the forests are prohibited. Last year that formerly were discarded. 
7,000,000 animals were pastured therein, and It freely imparts information to the public, 
the small and local cattleman is given pref- and maintains an educational department to 
erence to the big raiser who lives farther inform the people by lectures and publica- 
away. All our irrigation and water projects tions on forestry matters. Against this ex- 
are dependent on the forest cover, which ab- cellent service a war has been waged in Con- 
sorbs the rain and moisture like a sponge, gress by the timber interests, who have com- 
and prevents floods and erosion. Reservoirs, plained that the forests are " vast and un- 
residences, pipe lines, ditches, stores, ware- productive solitudes," withdrawn from set- 



88 THE AMERICAN REI^/Eil^ OF REl^JElt^S. 

tlement and progress, and that the Forest better or more deserving, the writer urges 

Service is a resort for " invalids anH every reader to communicate by letter with 

dudes." Their fight failed last year, but its his Senator and Representative and inform 

renewal is expected at the present session. In them of his approval of the national forests 

the interest of the republic and of a branch and request these public servants to stand up 

of the public service than which there is no and fight for them. 



THE TRUE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PACIFIC CRUISE. 

lyfOST interesting and exhaustive, because The experience to be gained on this ex- 

digniticd and logical, is the discussion pedition is, in the writer's opinion, a per- 

of Capt, A. T, Mahan, U. S. N., on the fectly sufhcient reason for its undertaking, 

projected movement of our battleships to the It presents huge administrative difficulties, 

Pacific, in the Scientific American for De- particularly that of self-dependence, — with 



cember. Its effect, however, upon the imagi- no navy yard at hand. The renewal of si 

nation of several journals, despite its impor- and coal on the voyage is a big problem. It 

tance and grandeur from a national view- Is one of combination and of subsistence; a 

point, has been such as to suggest the bor- distinctly military problem. To grapple 

der line of insanity. with such a question is as necessary as fleet 

A measure designed to reach a practical tactics or target practice. Indeed, in his esti- 

soluiion of one of our most urgent naval mation, the voyage should have been begun . 

problems has been persistently represented earlier. For practice and proficiency it is 

as a menace to Japan, and to such an extent imperative. The mantcuvering of a body of 

that certain of the press of Japan have several ships in rapid movement, changing 

echoed the cr>'. This, in a sense, is true of from one position to another, must progress 

European journals, notably those of Great gradually, in order that commanding officers 

Britain. The latter, he points out, is singu- and their understudies may gain, not only 

larly inconsistent, in view of the fact that by ability, but confidence, based upon habit; 

May, 1908, 86 per cent, of the British bat- upon knowledge of what their own ships can 

tleships will be concentrated in or near home do, and wJiat they may expect from the other 

waters, probably in the North Sea, and rela- vessels about them. 

lively near to Germany. " We Americans," ( Fleet life can only be gained at seii and 

says he, " are attributing to other peoples a nie transfer of our ships from the Atlantic 

thinness of skin suggestive of an over-sensi- to the Pacific is wise and timely, for it is 

tiveness in ourselves which it was hoped we what they would be compelled to do if war 

had outgrown." were declared against us. They will be cn- 

Japan and America both know, says he, abled to judge of coaling and victualling f»- 

that international law or comity has no bar- cilitics, more vital than tactics or gunnery to 

rier to a nation's moving its navy from one a navy in wartime. The great strategist is 

coast to another; yet, certain of the press in ever a great administrator, as, for instance, 

this countr>' would have one think otherwise, Lord Nelson. Our captains will be given 

and would impute to our own Government an opportunity to test their admin istratire 

motives and purposes which cannot be ability. They will learn when to dear a 

known, and prima fade are less probable storeshjp, where to fill with coal, where to 

than the object officially avowed, take on water, etc. What anchorages arc 



ASSUBLD AT 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 89 

available outside neutral limits? If driven be followed.lsuch as Nelson fay personal ex- 

to coal at sea, where will conditions be most perience had of the Mediterranean and of 

propitious? Is the quietness of the Pacific the West Indies; of the facilities they of- 

between the equator and Valparaiso, suitable fercd, and the obstacles they presented. Such 

for colliers to lie alongside while the ships knowledge is experimental, gained only by 

hold their course? If so, at what speed can practice. It is demonstrable, therefore, that 

they move? the proposed voyage is in the highest degree 

' Our fleet, says the writer, cannot make practical ; not only advisable, but imperative. 

^his voyage once without being better fitted Nor should it be a single spasm of action, but 
to repeat the operation in war. It will re- a recurrent procedure; for admirals and cap- 
suit in that mobility which loses no time be- tains go and come, and their individual ex- 
cause it never misses opportunity. " Such perience with them. Why not annual ? The 
mobility can be acquired only by a familiarity Pacific is as good a drill ground as the 
with the ground, and with the methods to Atlantic." 



THE POLITICAL CRISIS IN PORTUGAL. 



npHE cause of Portugal's crises has always term of office cut by vacations; but if we count 
^ been the same. It has always been the '1'^ ""^^^ «f t^^ sacrifices made to prolong the 
, , .. - , existence of the cabinets, we see the error of 
result oi parliamentary impotence, the con- ^^,^[, ^^ opinion. At Lisbon the strongest gov- 
sequences of the errors of the two great par- ernmeutal party sufFers as much from the im- 
ties so long in power. From a political point portunities of its friends as from the dissen- 
of view,— and at the present time no other "^n^ provoked by its opponents in Parliament. 
,' . 1 , . -1 I- For example: to satisfy the ambitions of his 
pomt of view would be practical,— according fiends, and to answer to the spite o£ his ene- 
to an article in the Revue Generate {Brus- mies, the Progressist Prime Minister changed 
sels), Portugal's institutions are similar to his otBcials four times within eight months, 
the institutions of the other constitutional f . r- j l i^- - u 
monarehies of the old continent, but the gov- ^"'»' ^"f?" ""P"'' *'. ^""8 » '''fSe 
etnmental methods are very different, and '» <°™ " ■".'"""]■.. "J "'hm twenty-foor 
.he executive and legislative powers of Por- 1«>''«.I<>'™<I > "bj"" «' hj^ o»n associates, 
tugal dash more frequently than the corre- » "■nis"y composed »< »~."" »"■ ■" ever, 
spending powers of other countries. "■"','•' f' '""'• ..Whatever errors they 
may develop, they will have no skeletons to 
Often forced to act without the support of the confront them when their enemies open the 
legislative bodies, the government is accused of political closets of the past." The press had 
To^s^y^hIrtte^^'c'■a^led --dTc'trri-VT^^^^^^^ '-ded the Old parties too long to give favor- 
isler Joao Franco, is more to be blamed than his able notice to their successor, but the people 
""'"'' •■....-:.. -.-J .- i^reicomed the men who ask for nothing but 

) show what they can do. The gen- 

>inion is 

-jth the same weapons more than a quarter of a come too soon. 

century. Looking at nothing but the dates of When the deputies and peers came to the 

the reinstallations of the prime ministers, it j^j^™ g^j jqIj him that Franco had cast off 

won d seem that the rotary system of govern- ■■ a i- . ^ ^- c u- . t j- 

ment, the system of ministerial alterations, might his Parliament to satisfy his taste for die- 

have the advantage of giving a man a long fating the king might have said a good deal. 



J THE PACIFIC. 



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obi ret of high governmental attention. The 
jw^ple uphold the government because the 
tLoxcmment shows solicitude for them. Men 
who have few party interests stand for the 
Frankists government and against the con- 
sor>atism of the ancient parties. The nation 
alsii loves the royal family. 

** Portugal is in Africa," said a politician, 
rtvently, ** probably because the wealth of 
the colonies of Angola, Zambesi, and Mozam- 
bioue i*^ so great that the main countr)*^ might 
well live on what she draws from them." 

(^nc tliincj is sure: If Portugal is an eccentric 
ivnintry from a K'-'^srapliical viewpoint, she is 
i..r mt^rc like the ultra-Mediterranean countries 
\\.A\\ like Africa, and if we consider her politicak 
iNonis of the last few months she is not far 
\\y\\\ a footing with the democracies of the 
W'^rKl. I\) (jUMte Lord Salislniry, while condi- 
♦i '!!> are such *' no one can class Portugal among 
I'.'.e il\injj: naiion>." 

The Econonnic Future of Portufiral. 

With the A/ores and Madeira, Portugal 
uHMsures approximately ,^5,500 square miles. 
Her possessions in Africa and Asia cover 
SiM.iHx> square miles more. Her land is rich 
in aiiricultural resources and in mines, and 
luM- geoi^raphical situation is such that from 
the point of view of foreign relations she 
seenis to have been predestined for action as 
an intermediary betw een the neighboring and 
MM rounding countries and the new countries 
kA western Africa and South America. " We 
know that Portugal was tor a long time first 
auu>ng the nations, we know what abuses 
and disorders led to her fall," says a writer 
in tlu' Reruc pour Ics Fnim^niis, She is now 
the least of the powers. ** She may not have 
lU'Nerved her fate, but however abnormal the 
vouNcquences of her actions, they have been 
logical." This writer continues: 

\s ihe Portiij^iu'se nf tlie past found com- 
uKue iheir easiest and most eiheietU means of 
w^.dtli, ihey ignored the rich possihilities of the 
l.tuvl anil nejilected aj^ricnltiire as they ncRlected 
iiKlnstiv. When, l)y the double action of their 

J V wvssive ambitions and the efforts of their 
iix.iK, they were so reduced that they had to 
mill lo the native soil for support, they knew so 

\ l.iile of work and they had so little agricultural 

luiiiLiih, perserverance, and the pfitience requi- 

»'.%• u» the farmer's life, that the Lind gave out 

f '.'i returns. (lenerally speaking, when agri- 

^ ..luiie has been profitable, success has been due 

I ■ Oie lact that the farmer has been a foreij^ner, 

I- I.I ilie profits have fallen into the foreign 

I he iH)pulation of Portugal Increases rap- 

■ A. but the |MH>ple prefer emigration to 

, « .1 ..4iioi» of their country. The result is 

,%., .w^^^v \h4U half of the arable land lies 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 91 

waste. The land under cultivation yields tional treasury. Portugal is rich in minerals, 

little, because all the methods and imple- ^"^ ^^^ ^^"^ produces no combustibles. There 

^ J T 11 ^u ^ *ire no coal mmes, but all that sort of workmg 

ments are superannuated. In all that con- material could be easily procured at a loW price 

cerns industry, says this writer, further, Por- in Spain or in England. The earth abounds in 

tugal's inferiority is unquestionable. Slatis- copper, tin, zinc, antimony, etc. The country 

tics list the working population as 1,000,000, 1?^^ not much money, but it has the equivalents. 

1 . . 1 . ~c • 1 J it could give collateral for any amount of for- 

but that enormous figure includes every one ^ign capital. The merchant navy is the least 

who can be classed as a worker, no matter important of the navies of the world: seventy- 

M'hat he does or where he works. The sim- seven steamboats and 497 sailing vessels, with a 

pie day laborer and the man bent over his t^^tal^ tonnage of 114,000 tons, or a third less than 

needle and thread in his own bedroom help 

to enlarge the list. Portugal must make a serious effort. Her 

^ „ . . . . . , condition is not desperate. A little deter- 

wo^rS?arfthf p^vate^estTbrhm^^^^^^^^^^ for' ^^^ ^""''ff '°" ^"'^ ^" ^'"^ "°"'^ "*°"- 

eigners. None of the profits fall into the na- Jsh the world. 



THE FIRST TWO RUSSIAN DUMAS AND THE PROSPECTS 

OF THE THIRD. 

O^ *^^ results of the first two years of public opinion has indirectly secured some ofB- 

^ the Russian Parliament there were <^.'^' recognition of its relative weight. Along- 

, ,, . . Side of the political issues, the social and espe- 

many comments in the Russian press. Ac- cially the agrarian problem loomed up in full 

cording to an article in the Tovarishch the size, and forced the attention of those who had 

two first Dumas have not brought about any heretofore lulled themselves with the prospects 

actual results along the lines laid down in ^^? a^Lndla'mine."''^'^^'''"' ^""^ '^''"^'^ """^ ^*'^' 
the manifesto of October, 1905. There were 

no positive gains in the radical reconstruc- I" short, concludes the writer, it is enough 

tion of Russia on new principles. Still, Rus- to recall our very modest hopes and expecta- 

sia has made some headway. "Arrayed tions not only during the dark days of 

against us," says the writer of the article, Plehve, but even during the " vernal " days 

A. P. Tolstoi, " was the old rusty and rot- o^ Svyatopolk-Mirski, in order to realize 

ten, but deep-rooted mechanism of bureau- how much headway we have" made during 

cratic autocracy ; with us we had our inco- these two years. We are, it is true, in the 

hesive forces before and behind us in a * vul- ebb tide of the social and political movement, 

canized * country." hut this is a natural reaction against the one- 
sided high tide after qenturies of torpidity. 

We wanted too much and gained nothing. The symptoms of the healthy trend are 

But we have learned very valuable lessons and 3^^^ {„ ^^e increased demand for culture and 

laid the foundations of a new order. To weave t, r e 1^ i • 1 rr '-ni. 

it into the texture of Russian life will take many ^^^ iorms ot cultural social effort. 1 he 

years, but the foundation is there. growth of trade-unions and co-operative ex- 

. , , . 11-. periments among the toiling masses is an- 

Among the several points scored the writer ^^her sign. This, in connection with the 

names constitutionalism, which, though not awakened political consciousness of the peo- 

an inseparable part of the Russian Govern- pi^^ ^j^h a clearer conception of the political 

ment, has completely captured public opinion questions,— all this together is the desirable 

down to the bottom. Those who only yes- fo„xi of strengthening the foundation of the 

terday would have none of the idea of popu- ^^^ ^^der of things. A deeper conscious at- 

ar representation especially of that with ^j^^je toward the conditions confronting the 

legislative power, had to give us the Statute ^^^^^^^ ^nd the habit of persistently day by 

of the State Duma, and new organic laws, j^^ battling in united effort for achieving 

They had even to submit their law bills to the their ends, will prevent the former danger of 

Duma and answer its interpolations. Again, the the movement's dwindling to one-sided puny 

representative regime is on the aggressive while attempts without political perspective, 

its opponents are now on the defense, being com- Altogether, development of the situation 

pelled to justify their unconstitutional and res- , . ^ , ' ^ . . . . 

torative measures. A number of semi-official ^^ring these two years is the natural and 

organs, headed by the Rossia, are a proof that characteristic appearance of the " Black 



THE AMEklCAN kEi^IEW OF REyiEWS. 



Hundred " forces, recruited from the bottom 
and upper strata. 

This was, of course, a natural effect of the 
progressive onslaught, and this reaction is quite 
handy for the reigning dynasty, which means to 
yield as little as possible to the new regime. But 
the ■■ Black Hundreds," on closer inspection, can 
hardly be regarded as a safe tnainstay of the 
government, as they come from the moribund 
layers of the people, doomed by history. In this 
respect the new election law of June 3 is too 
flagrantly contradictory to real conditions, and 
we need not, therefore, fear that such parlia- 
mentary representation will last a long time. 
Besides, these reactionary forces, once awakened, 
will not be content with simply upholding some- 
body, but will assume the role of power that can 
dictate its will, and this must precipitate a con- 
flict between them and the ruling bureaucracy. 

This is befjinning to show itself in the re- 
lations between the " League of the Russian • 
People " and . the j;overnnient, — relations 
that bear the character of authoritative 
claims. The bureaucracy, in so far as it will 
give a setback to these reactionary appetites, 
will subject these reactionary elements to a 
searching examination as to whether they 
have strength of their own, or whether it is 
confined to mere impudent fire-work and 1 
governmental favor. In so far, then, as these 
elements will fail to pass their examination, 
" they will have their weakness exposed and 
will, of course, prove a very poor mainstay 
for a reactionary regime." 

What of the Third Duma? 

In an editorial review in a recent issue of 
the monthly magazine Vyeslnik Yevriipy 
{St. Petersburg), edited by M. Stasyulevich, 
the following comments on the situation in 
Russia are noteworthy; 

Only two years have passed since the historic 
day when the Manifesto of October, 1905, was 
issued. What has become of the sentiment 
which had taken Imld of the whole Russian so- 
ciety? What has liecomc of all the hopes of a 
regeneration of the economic strength of the 
peasantry which had reached the state of des- 
peration? Where arc the dreams of a condition 
of life under legal rights, of a participation in 
the legislation of the best representatives of the 
people freely elected by the people, of new 
laws and of an emancipation from the arbitrari- 
ness of a corrupt bureaucracy? All this is far. 
far behind us. All this has already become the 



] Iiui 



On October 17, 1907, two years later, 
this editor points out, St. Petersburg and 
Moscow elected representatives to the third 
Duma on the basis of the election law of 
June 3, and here ts the situation: 
This law has prevented the n 



from effectively expressing their will. The priv- 
ileged minoritj', with the help of the reactionary 
administration, have elected the majority of the 
members of the Huma. Freedom of speech, of 
assembly, of association, and of personal inviola- 
bility exist only for the " yellow shirt " hood- 
lums, for the " Archbishop's fusion " of Minsk, 
for the conventions of the nobility and of the 
new type of Zcmstvoisis, for the anti-Semitic 
press, for the demonstrations of " the league of 
the Kus.sian people," and for the propaganda of 
the absurd assertion that the defense of the prin- 
ciples of the manifesto is a criminal act incur- 
ring the death penally. 

The cause of tliis new departure, we are 
told, lies not only in the unstable policy of 
the government, but also in the excesses of 
the extremists of the radicals which have 
called forth excesses on the part of the gov- 
ernment to such an extent that it seems to 
have given up entirely the idea of popular 
representation in the Duma. 

The question of the real character of the 
present form of government in Russia was 
recently discussed among representatives of 
the administration. Inone of the confer- 
ences of the St. Petersburg municipality, un- 
der the chairmanship of the city governor, 
the majority of the members of the adminis- 
tration came to the formal conclusion that a 
constitution really exists in Russia. 

The governor, however, protested and de- 
clared categorically that there is no constitution 
of the people whatever, and that the Czar remains what he 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 93 

has been, — an autocratic monarch. The Prime Peter the Great, is to decide the question who is 

Minister, Stolypin, found the protest of the gov- right, — whether the government officials, who ac- 

ernor justified, and presented the case lo the de- knowledge the Russian monarch who calls him- 

cision of the first department of the Senate, self an autocrat (o be a constitutional monarch, 

From this moment a cond-tion is created, for or the governor, who categorically does not ac- 

the Senate, which has no equal since the lime of knowledge the c 



TWO CENTERS OF REAL MUNICIPALIZATION. 

T TP in the Province of Ontario, with Late acres of valuable land fringing Thunder 
Superior on one hand and an unbroken Bay, which means about one-half acre for 
wilderness on the other, lie two obscure and every taxpayer in the city. Fort William, 
relatively insignificant cities on the shores in the Kakabeka Falls, has a source of 
of ThunJer Bay, named, respectively, Fort water-power that could suffice for a city as 
William and Port Arthur. Thirty thousand large as Chicago. 

souls are their joint boast, but honesty and The " Twin Cities," as these small but 
morality in municipal administration are progressive communities are styled, aim for 
more noticeable than in the teeming marts perfection. They have killed municipal pol- 
of men that count their inhabitants by the itics and its graft and dishonesty. There 
millions. Street-cars are run and conducted are no party lines therein, and a candidate 
by police officers,— because all motormen who would seek office along party lines 
and conductors are policemen; and these, in would destroy the last vestige of hope for 
addition, act as parcel-carriers occasionally, success. To be elected to office is an honor 
for along their route, — so honest is every and a demonstration of civic confidence in 
one, — residents leave packages on the road- one's honesty and integrity. Mayors and 
side for these officials to take down town, aldermen serve without compensation, and 
Three years ago each city had a popula- any taxpayer may run for office if he appears 
tion of 6000, Their Joint increase to 30,000 on a certain day, announces his candidacy, 
gives them the distinction of being the most and is " supported " by one other city voter, 
rapidly growing communities in the world. On election day all the names appear on a 
There is not a franchise in either city that single slip of paper. From the aldermanic 
is not owned by 
the people, except 
the Bell telephone, 
and as only one of 
these instruments 
is installed in every 
eight telephones in 
use the cessation 
of the company is 
only a matter of 
time. The people 
of Fort William 
own their electric 
light and tele- 
phone systems, 
their water-works, 
a municipal thea- 
ter, and a city 
dance hall. Port 
Arthur owns the 
electric railway in 
both towns, i t s 
own electric light 

and telephone sys- ^^^ hospital conducted bv the city op fort wiluam, Canada. 

terns. Its water- dfoctors- bJllB and .Utond.inw chargeB at (his inatltutlon are IndDded In 

works, and 1500 the patients' city taiea.) 



U THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REl/IEH^S. 

candidates the voter may select eight names, railway during the last four ytSiXt equals 

There is no division by wards, or the like ; one-fifth of the total cost of the road. From 

the whole town elects each representative, its beginning it has netted the city a total 

To serve the city well is an advertisement ; profit of $90,898.38, and its franchise is cs- 
to have served it unwisely is " misjudgment," timated at $1,000,000, — for a nine-mile rail- 
perhaps excusable; to have served it wrongly way! All that the " Twin Cities " have ac- 
is a perpetual discredit. Thus is the moral complished was not won without molestation 
tone uplifted. The newspapers of both cities from corporation " pirates," who foresaw 
are owned by the municipalities and are the wisely the possibilities of the future. Tele- 
preachers of integrity and honest ambition, phone tolls are $12 a year for residence 
They are neither lurid nor purchasable, 'phones and $24 a year for commercial scr- 
But the citizens have carried matters too far, vice. These charges earn money for the 
says Mr. J. O. Curwood, in the November city. Fort William's profits for four 3^ars be- 
Reader, They have chosen splendid citizens ing $3,525, and Port Arthur's $5,239. The 
to superintend works of which they have writer attributes the remarkable success of 
absolutely no technical knowledge. The these towns to the direct and personal inter- 
man, rather than his particular abilit}% has est of their citizens, who feel that in every 
been magnified. This difficulty they will public undertaking they are working for 
overcome, doubtless. Their street-car service themselves. Fort William is now expending 
is respectable, their buildings substantial, $350,000 on a gravity system of water sup- 
their streets serviceable, and their theater ply, which will be one of the finest and 
modern in every way, seating 800 people, cheapest in America when completed, 
and paying 6 per cent, on the investment. In these remote little centers of popula- 
All plays are under the censorship of the tion, destined, as the writer believes, to be 
city, and some expect that the day will soon the doorways of Greater Canada, municipal 
dawn when the towns will be taxless, while ownership has reached its greatest develop- 
others go further and declare their belief in ment on the American continent, and has 
a future which will see the citizens receiv- wrestled with the problem of " city-owned 
ing dividends ! cities " in a manner unparalleled in Amer- 

The net profit of Port Arthur's street ican history. 



THE QUESTION OF FUEL WASTE. 

/^ERTAIN portions of Mr. Cochrane's This writer believes that not more than 
paper in the September Review en- 25 per cent, of the coal seams are now left 
titled " How Long Will Our Coal Supply underground as a permanent loss. How- 
Last?" have apparently stimulated interest ever, in estimates of unmined coal allowance 
in the fuel problem, especially among engi- is always made for this loss, 
neers. Mr. F. R. Wadleigh, a coal expert As to the waste of energy in the ordinary 
of Norfolk, Va., writing to the Black Dia- steam boiler, Mr. Wadleigh believes that it 
mond, of Chicago, says: will average not more than 40 per cent. 

T ,u \ 4. ac^ au t, X • X t Under favorable conditions, boiler efficien- 

In the last fifty years the best engineering tal- -^^ j j ^ . u i_ 1 Oi' 

ent of the world has devoted its time and ^*^^» on recorded tests, have reached 86 per 

thought to reducing the waste of fuel in gen- cent. The main loss is not in the burning 

erating steam and to developing the more eco- of the coal, but in the transmission of the 

"'''?li''^^u••'' ""^ t,^^e steam in the engine. steam from the boiler to the point where it 

Inat this work has been in a large measure ^«,r^^^^ -^^ 1 

successful is shown by the fact that about five ^ 7? ^,1 ,1 . V^* . - . 

times as much work is done now with a like -^I^* Wadleigh maintains, in conclusion, 

amount of coal as was done fifty years ago. that a great waste of coal might be saved by 

The pounds of steam used per indicated horse- improved methods of firing and stokine. 

power per hour have been actually brought F;r#.Tv.Ar. clir^,.U Ko,,- -^o*.. JT** 

down from thirty-three and over in the simple ^^^^n^C" should have instruction. 

non-condensing engine to as low as twelve in Improved furnaces will not show results un- 
the compound-condensing engine. The New- less properly handled. You must train your 
comen engine took twenty-six and six-tenths men to use them intelligently. The average fire- 
pounds per horsepower, while a modern, up-to- man knows nothing about combustion and is 
date plant will not take over one and five-tenths told very little. He is very poorly paid, consid- 
pounds, or, on tests, even less. ering the importance of his work. 



LEADING AkTiCLES OF THE MONTH, 95 

DEATH AND DISABILITY ROLL OF OUR RAILWAY 

EMPLOYEES. 

npERRIBLE is the indictment against the defective ties. Miles of track are patrolled 

inhumanity of our railroad service fur- by a foreman and one man, and many more 

nished in the death and disability roll of its miles are left without' supervision of any 

employees. Railroad officials admit that kind, at. a period when the heaviest freight 

many of these casualties are unnecessary, but and passenger business the country has ever 

the indifference of the press and public to known is being recorded. The tracks are 

the prevalence of this slaughter for many the same to-day as they were when equip- 

years, has developed an almost general belief ment was lighter and speed less. In addi- 

that it is their vested right to maim and kill tion, steel rails, it has been asserted, are fre- 

those who care for the transportation ser- quently defective when laid. What are we 

vice of the country. Forceful legislation is going to do about this calamitous situation? 
needed to give them an enlarged perspective, 

and to impress on them the enormity, the ^^ long as the death and disability list was 

1^1- _r 1 .. L a ' more closely conhned to the railway employees, 

brutality, of such a state of affairs. ^^^ public did not give much heed to the dangers 

Owing to the isolated nature of these of the service. But contempt for danger as it 

casualties they pass unnoticed by the general applied to the employees has been lost by the 

reader, but in the aggregate they are simply gradual creeping in of greater danger to the pas- 

ii* T7 ^..u J* T ^^ senger. He is commencing to sit up and take 

appalling. For the year ending June 30, ^^^f^^ q£ ^^ ^ ^ 

1906* 3807 railroad employees were killed 

and 55,254 injured, while in the perform- Government interference promises to be 
ance of their duties. Compared with the the only solution. Moreover, rules and 
fatalities of any great battle, our industrial practices in train operation are faulty and 
slaughter completely overshadows it. These confusing, and there are not sufficient em- 
injuries and deaths arise from many causes, ployees to properly inspect engines, cars, and 
of which practical railway employees are track. Railroad economy has been reduced 
fully cognizant. to a dangerous science. Freight trains are 

The track is the first important feature notoriously short-handed. Sometimes there 

that is neglected. The lOO-pound rail has are but two men to a freight train almost a 

been in use for many years, and ties of an mile in length, one to do the work, and the 

ancient standard. Engines, cars and train other to hold the flag. How can efficient 

tons have increased almost double since the service be rendered under these circum- 

rails and ties aforementioned were adopted, stances? Again, men. are started out on 

and the speed of our " limiteds *' has been long trips that will consume twenty-four 

greatly accelerated, with few additional hours or more. Neurologists declare that 

precautions for safety. On one of the Pa- such practices tend' to brain strain, epilepsy, 

cific Coast roads there have been twenty- and nervous prostration, 

five serious wrecks since January i, 1907, European railroads employ three times as 

and these have been attributed to over- many men as our own roads, and they are 

worked crews and defective equipment in reasonably safe. In this country, increased 

rolling stock or track. cost of operation invariably leads to a re- 

" The open statement was made," says duction in the operating force. It is the 
Mr. D. L. Cease, editor of The Railroad- fault of the financial system, that looks for 
Trainmen s Journal, in Charities and The dividends first, that has led to these results. 
Commons for December, " that the heaviest and some of the money that has come to the 
tourist business in the United States is being railroads, as the reward of their greed and 
done over a track that is absolutely rotten, the price of human life and suffering, they 
that spikes may be pulled out by the fingers, should be compelled to expend in the instal- 
and that ties are so far gone that tie plates lation of a block-signal system, the employ- 
are buried in them to the depth of an inch ment of more men for engine and train ser- 
or more." vice, for track and equipment inspection, 
. Track maintenance appears to be a lost and in the retention of practical men. If 
art. Inspectors who do not inspect are this w^re done, much good would be ac- 
many, and the section foreman on some complished and sacrifice averted. To such 
roads has no longer the right to condemn ends the people should address themselves. 



96 THE AMERICAN REl^IEW^ OF REl^IEIVS. 

WHEN MISSOURI OWNED THE RAILWAYS. 

A BOUT forty years ago the State of Mis- In 1861, the results of ten years' policy of 

souri tried its hand at railroad owner- State aid to the roads showed as follows: 

ship and found the experiment costly. The Pacific Railroad .$7,000,000 

2^1 u - d- , ^ ^,^ ^^^^ T'C^ r^^ Southwest Branch 4.500.000 

net loss was about $1 5,000,000. 1 he CjOV- iron Mountain 3,501,000 

crnor was the manager, establishing rates, pfatte^Smty". ■.*.*;.*.*.*.*.*.* .';;.*.';.'.';;;;.'! too.'ooo 

running trains, maintaining tracks, and even North Missouri '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.WW, '.'.'/, ',','.'.'. 4,35o|ooo 

adding betterments to the property. He ^^,^^1 $20,701,000 

kept the balance on the right side of the led- ^^^ Q^g ^f ^hese roads was complete. Fol- 

ger. Nevertheless, he reported to the Legis- lowing the war, in response to popular scn- 

lature that "the paramount want" was com- ti^ent for a railroad across the State, these 

pleted railroads. Hence the State disposed railroads were taken over by the latter, 

of its railroads, retaining its power to regu- Qnly the Southwest Branch, now a part of 

late. An account of the undertaking is. given ^^e main stem of the Trisco system, was 

by Mr. Walter B. Stevens in Appleton s operated by the State, under Gen. Clinton 

Magattne for January. B. Fisk, for about six months, with an cn- 

Owing to the presence of 2000 steamboats ^{^^\y creditable showing. It was then 

at the St. Louis docks, Missouri was slow ^^rned over to a company which guaranteed 

to build railroads, and not until 1851 was extension. Although all the other roads vir- 

the first railroad out of St. Louis con- dually belonged to the State by virtue of long 

structed. Prior to the Civil War railroad existing default on the bonds which the State 

charters enabled the carriers to fix their own ^ad issued to aid construction, not even ^ 

freight and passenger tolls, but this was minority sentiment favored the suggestion 

changed by legislation after 1865. State aid that they should be operated by the State, 

began in 1851. Bills were passed authoriz- Eventually the roads were foreclosed and 

ing State bond issues to guarantee railroad sold to companies who undertook to guaran- 

construction, the condition being that each tee their completion, subject to the right of 

railroad had to put up $50,000 of its own the State to regulate freight and passenger 

bonds for each grant of $50,000 bonds by charges. To the wisdom of Governor 

the State. In 1855 the free trial of this pol- Fletcher must this reservation be attributed, 

icy led to the discovery that the State had and he also endeavored to make the State a 

authorized the issue of $9,000,000 of bonds, sharer in the profits of the roads, but the 

that the building of the roads was progress- Legislature ignored his suggestion. In l86s, 

ing slowly, that the cost was twice or thrice ^^^hen the Fletcher administration entered 

the original estimates, and that the bonds upon the solution of Missouri's railroad 

were below par and selling at a discount. problem, there were 826 miles of road in tfie 

Strange as it may seem, even after this State. In 1868, when the last foreclosure 

unfavorable showing, the railroad companies and sale were completed, there were 1394 

obtained from the Legislature an additional miles. These roads are to-day the main 

$10,000,000 in bonds, this time putting up stems of 7000 miles of railroad, valued at 

$1 of their own money to $2 of the State's. $350,000,000, within the limits of the State. 



THE FUTURE OF OUR NAVIGABLE WATERS. 



R 



IVER and harbor improvement is reach- routes at one time were the only commercial 
ing a critical stage in the United highways of the nation. The railway's ad- 
States. In many sections public agitation has vent altered this, however, and the Civil 
been started in aid of the internal waterway War had much to do with the abandonment 
movement, and last month the National of canals in the North, through forcing it to 
Rivers and Harbors Congress met at Wash- extend its railroads to move the crops to the 
ington to impress on our Washington Legis- Eastern seaboard instead of by the usual 
lators the urgent necessity for more liberal route down the Mississippi Valley, 
appropriations for waterway improvement. Before the war our Western rivers had 
Commercial and non-commercial advocates been snag-infested and bar-obstructed, and 
alike arc interested in this project. Water after the struggle they were in worse condi- 



LEADING ARTICLED OE THE MONTH 97 

tion. Railway rates were lower than steam- provided to supervise river or harbor con- 
boat rates had been. Extravagance had de- struction work, and this has been responsible 
parted, and there was no longer any induce- in large measure for the non-utilization of 
ment to keep steamboats in operation. The our navigable waters. Military engineers 
mouth of the Mississippi was blocked by have been requested to supervise the con- 
bars, while New York was open to deep and struction along these lines in recent years; 
cheap-carrying steamships. Hence, river but this practice of employing civic appro- 
trade fell away and lagging Government im- priations for commercial purposes under the 
provement was never sufficient to produce a control of military direction, says the writer, 
channel to offset these handicaps. So, writes " is really the fundamental fault." By 
Mr. John L. Mathews, in the Atlantic training and inclination West Pointers have 
Monthly for December. no leaning toward trade and no experience 

In a region extending from the Alleghen- in business, and are unfitted for work of this 

ies to the Rockies, in which there are 20,000 kind. The result has been to establish a 

miles of river navigable, or susceptible of mode rather than a system of procedure, 

navigation, there is but one profitable and througl^ the co-operation between the War 

significant movement of cargo, — that of coal Department and Congress. Reports from 

from the Ohio to New Orleans. With the military engineers on trade conditions never 

railroads unable to do the work imposed on consider the real problems of the river val- 

them, in consequence of the tremendous in- ley, and are " rough guesses." Consequently, 

dustrial activity and commercial expansion of Congressional appropriations are ever inad- 

the country, the river problem is given a new equate. 

stimulus. The section particularly affected From this mode of procedure we had ( i ) 

by this transportation shortcoming is the no large outlook on rivers and harbors, and 

Mississippi Valley. Under existing condi- consequently no connection between any two 

tions it can neither get its products to sea- projects; and (2) no one whose business it 

board at reasonable rates, consistent with is to enter into and carry out projects for 

speedy carriage, nor obtain from seaboard waterway development, or who is certain of 

imports which are necessary. money to do so. The Roosevelt Waterways 

Pittsburg, notable for its coal, iron, and Commission is a remedy for the first, and, 
steel tonnage; Chicago, the principal depot for the second, the slackwatering plan for 
of the lakes, a manufacturing city of high the Ohio, adopted by Congress in 1875 on 
rank, and the greatest railway aggregating the reports of Majors Merrill and Weitzel. 
center in the world ; Minneapolis and St. Although their recommendations were ap- 
Paul, the chief flouring cities of the nation proved, and four years were estimated for 
and the collecting and distributing foci for the completion of the work outlined, it has 
the North and for the newer Canada ; Kan- not been completed to date, nor probably 
sas City, St. Joseph, Omaha, and Sioux City, will be in the next twenty years if the meth- 
the hoppers for the grain harvest of the West ods herein are not changed. " At present," 
and Northwest ; and St. Louis, a progressive says this writer, " the Ohio has been sur- 
city of large and growing manufacturing yeyed for a nine-foot slackwater channel and 
interests and a jobbing center of national it is estimated that $63,000 will be needed 
importance, are the chief cities into which to complete it to Cairo; but at the present 
pours the golden flood from our harvest rate of operations it will require about 150 
fields; coal from our mines; iron and steel years to attain that end." 
from our foundries, endless loads of manu- The Chicago trunk line, which formerly 
factured and natural food products, — to stag- earned $300,000 a year in tolls, now lies 
nate in congested freight yards; for so over- idle, a shallow canal, outgrown by trade, 
burdened are the railroads a loaded car connecting the Illinois with Lake Michigan, 
moves now but an average of twenty-five The Illinois has seven feet of water, the Mis- 
miles a day. sissippi above St.. Louis five of six. Chicago 

Each of these cities lies at the head of one is advancing its drainage canal toward Lake 

of the main divisions of the Mississippi sys- Joliet, having spent $50,000,000 to carry and 

tcm. It is reasonable, therefore, for the peo- deepen this waterway twenty-two feet to 

pie, in view of the circumstances aforemen- the Illinois, and leaving but $28,000,000 for 

tioned, to demand the transformation of Congress to spend to carry it to St. Louis 

these great arteries into proper traffic high- with a fourteen-foot depth, which the latter 

ways. There has never been a department abstains from doing. An expert commission 



98 THE AMERICAN RE^lElV OF REVIEWS. 

in 1884 took hold of the lower Missouri Slackwatering "a river produces a large 

problem and established that it could be electric power. By selling this power money 

made to carry a six-foot channel from can be procured for river improvements. 

Omaha and, probably, from Sioux City to Congress faces this discovery to-day, but is 

its mouth, even at low water. After doing too overworked to deal with it. What we 

this and opening the river to six-foot boats need, therefore, says this writer, is a trained 

for 275 miles from its mouth ii was abol- body to consider our waterway problem and 

ished. plan for its systematic development, a body 

Similarly did Congress fail to back up the like that suggested by the Cullom-Brecken- 

report of the Mississippi River Commission, ridge bill of twenty years ago. Add to this 

which demonstrated that by means of revet- a department of utilization to acquaint river- 

ment and contraction a ten-foot channel men and merchants, says he, in the use of 

from Cairo to the sea, permanent and safe, shallow and deep draft streams, and, in time, 

could be kept open all the year around. Not we shall have deep water in all our seaboard 

until St. Louis is made the head of the river harbors and rivers, fourteen feet from the 

trunk will the river below or above Cairo Lakes to the Gulf, nine feet to Pittsburg, 

attain the trade it should carry, or the Chi- six to Minneapolis, and six to Sioux City, 

cago route, the Upper Mississippi or the and a swiftly evolving, comprehensive, natu- 

Missouri begin to carry the trade to which ral system of routes, alive from year's end to 

each is entitled. Our river system is con- year's end ; with fleets of barges driven 

fusion and — chaos. This condition implies cheaply, and without undue risk, by econom- 

an enormous economic waste. ically designed power-boats. 



A GERMAN ECONOMIST ON OUR FINANCIAL CRISIS. 

PROFESSOR LEXIS, one of the most em- creased demand was occasioned partly by the 

^ inent of German economists, makes the f^'^ expansion of production, but partly also 

A . 11- 1 • • ^u • t)y the gigantic speculations in stocks and com- 

American banking and currency crisis the oc- niodities. Momentarily the exigency was met 

casion of an article in the fVoche (Berlin,) by drawing upon the future, without a real foun- 
in which he deals with it as part of a world- dation. If, for instance, uncovered bank notes 
wide phenomenon which was manifested in are loaned on hypothecated securities, no new 
^ . • • !_• T^ • capital IS formed thereby, but the price of ma- 
lts greatest intensity in this country. It is tcrials and means of production and the rate of 
noteworthy that, like other authorities of wages are raised by this artificial increase of 
corresponding rank in France and England, purchasing power. Through this and the simul- 

Professor Lexis discusses the developments t^"^«"f increase of the rate of interest the ex- 

, , , ^ , 1 \^ c \ ' .\ aggeratcd expectations of profit from the newly 

that have taken place as a result ot strictly invested capital arc disappointed, the economic 

economic causes, apparently ascribing no im- advance conies to a standstill, and, generally, 

portance to the political factors, — such as the the crisis then first assumes the shape on 'change 

course of President Roosevelt, whose name is ^^ ^ ^"^;^^" ^""^^ ^^ speculative stocks, 
not even mentioned in the article, — to which Tracing the cause of the scarcity of 

some of our journalists are fond of ascribing money from the time of the San Francisco 

the catastrophe. Coming to the analysis of catastrophe, this writer says: 

the New York crisis. Professor Lexis savs : -ru -i 1 1 • • j j 1 • , 

' 1 he railroads made increasing demands which 

The fact must always be borne in mind that were not satisfied ; they turned toward Europe. 

the money stringency of the past twelvemontTi, The consequent outflow of money from there 

in America as well as in Europe, is based, in the was stemmed in 1906 by the action of the Bank 

last analysis, upon a relative scarcity, not of of England and the German Reichsbank in rais- 

ready money, but of money-capital, which is, in ing the rate of discount ; the railroads continued, 

the main, represented otherwise than by ready however, to solicit gold upon hard conditions, 

money. A draft, for example, that a manufac- and it appears, furthermore, that they placed 

turer or merchant has drawn, based upon a sale great quantities of their notes with the Ameri- 

of goods, truly represents money-capital, even can trust companies. In the meantime a daring 

if its amount has not been transformed, through game with railway stocks held sway on the New 

the process of discounting and endorsements, York 'Change, culminating in a crash in the mid- 

into a bank deposit. The stringency arose die of March, 1907. This crisis reacted severely 

simply from the circumstance that the demand upon the Berlin bourse also. In Germany the 

for money-capital increased more rapidly than industrial development had likewise been ex- 

the creation of such capital, which can really be traordinarily auspicious during the last few 

created only by a. surplus of income. That in- years, but here, too, with the close of the year 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 99 

1905, a disparity became apparent between the banks has deteriorated through the depreciation 

demand for and the creation of capital, evi- of their assets; industrial activity has, on the 

denced by the 6 per cent, rate of discount of the whole, not been impaired, but fears are enter- 

Reichsbank. Industrial conditions continued, it tained of a future decline of orders. The check 

is true, entirely satisfactory throughout 1906; upon speculation by the withdrawal of credit on 

yet a vague feeling grew more and more wide- the part of the banks cannot fail to have a salu- 

spread that the meridian had been passed. Un- tory effect through promoting a restoration of 

der the pressure of the high rate of interest normal conditions in regard to capital ; and they 

prices of securities began to decline very mark- likewise appear, fortunately, to have kept aloof 

edly from the opening of the year 1907. Owing from co-operating to satisfy the American money 

to the New York crisis this retrograde move- exigency, 
ment was changed into a sudden fall on the 

14th of March, and since then a depression. It is a gratifying fact, concludes Professor 

with a greater or less money stringency, has L^^is, that the latest American crisis, which 
contmued m which the prices of all securities ', ^, ^uxr^^u \j 

have come within dangerous proximitv to the occurred pn the 19th of October, exerted no 

critical situation of 1901. The condition of the material influence upon the Berlin bourse. 



HAVE WE BEEN UNFAIR TO GERMAN COMMERCE? 

/^ERMAN opinion, as expressed in the There is little fairness in the present condi- 

^ newspaper press and the more delib- ti- of things.^^ The^new co^pact^on wWd. b^h 

erate monthly and weekly periodicals ot the tension. This was the view held by the mem- 
Kaiser's empire, on the commercial relations hers of the North Commission who had the 
between Germany and the United States, courage to announce their conversion to it in 
•J* - « «•«„,;«« ^.'ooo«-;c^o/>4-i*/^n ,.mVK ii-Vio*- their own country. Their example should spur 
indicates a growing dissatisfaction vvith >^hat ^^ ^^^ leading persons and corporations through- 

is frequently referred to as American un- ^ut the whole wide realm of the United States 

fairness." The Germans are insisting that to enter upon the path of fairness. It can only 

" In making a bargain the fault of ( the be to the credit and the honor of the American 

A • «ii ««\ 4.k^ ni,«-/>K ;e rv.'iri'nrr natiou, if it pursucs a course upon which the 

Americans as well as) the Dutch, is giving ^^^fidence of the friendly German nation can 

too little and asking too much. follow it. The advantages, in regard to tariff, 

A representative article expressing this opin- which the German-American agreement secures 

. ^ 'u ^ J ^ ^L T\ A IT/ L'^j. to US, are trifling. The sum which is thus saved 

ion is contributed to the Deutsche Forkamp- ^y Germany on her exports to America each 

fer, the monthly published in New York year, according to American statistics, is $208,- 

City " devoted to the mutual interests of the 168. The advantages which our lower tariff on 

United States and Germany," by Dr. Lud- in^Ports from America insures to that country 

. Tiyr i-iiji_ -n ' r* •! J result in the saving of $0,064,000 annually. Of 

wig Max Goldberger, Privy Councilor and American imports into Germany 967 per cent. 

member of the Imperial Commission for by the provisions of the new agreement are free 

Commercial Treaties, and author of the now of duty or are favored by the imposition of the 

celebrated work, "The Land of Unlimited J.^'y ^0^^^^ tariff. Only 1.4 per cent of the 

•n -LM' • » -nJ /--« ijt. • 'J German exports to America are allowed to par- 

Possibiiities. Dr. Cjoldberger reviews in de- ^3^^ ^f the concessions granted by the agree- 

tail the history of the various agreements and ment of 1906. 

compromises between Germany and this j^ j^ ^^^^ ^^ considering the number of 

country which have marked the trade rela- Q^rman concessions to America, this writer 

tions of the two peoples during the past year, continues, that the disproportion between the 

This history has been recounted and com- ^^^^^^j concessions of the two countries can 

mented upon a number of times in this j^^ comprehended. 

"Through It all," says Dr. Goldberger, J* '^ <l"»te conceivable that those in America 

tt , r 1 ^ « > ^ ^«^^ Y . . ^ ^ who are averse to the agreement and oppose any 

a cheerful and persistent determination to commercial compact with Germany can, even on 

maintain the friendly character of the Ger- the ground of the present one-sided arrange- 

man-American relations was exhibited by the ment, find occasion to arouse the suspicions of 

Gem,an Government and people." This at- t^n^STa^'hadliinTet;:'^^^^^^^^^^ 

titude, the German writer asserts, has not ^hi^h the members of the North Commission 

been maintained by the other side to the had failed to detect, and would have been un- 

bargain. He boldly asserts : " It is high time willing to concede. Even under the influence of 

to abolish the one-sidedness in German- Jf- P^^lt ;?s1^^"Sfe^ t^L^'A 

Amencan relations that has heretotore pre- ^gss for Germany. The benefit of^ the new 

vailed." agreement to Germany does not lie in the de- 



100 THE AMERICAN REHElV OF RE^IElVS. 

partment of tariff concessions, but in the obtain- treaty." Referring to Mr. Reynold's assur- 
ing of a long desired change in the principles ^^^^ ^.^^^ »' ^.^j ^y^^ honest exporter, no matter 
upon which the United* States consuls were ni- .„l,_.u_^ u_ ^p_j_ ..^ u- .^arp*; frnm rJermanv 
structed in nialtcrs pertaining to differences v\ hether he sends us His wares trom Ljcrmany 

arising from technical questions regarding the or from any other lands, we extend a helpmg 

applying of custom laws, in the concession that hand and strive to remove every technical ob- 

agents sent from the United States to Germany ^^^^^^ f^om his path," Dr. Goldberger says: 
must be '* personac gratx ; ni that the certili- 

cates from the German chambers of commerce These are good and fitting words. We have 

must ])e accepted as sufficient proofs, and finally, nothing to conceal, and we throw wide our 

in the new rules for the practical working of cloors to welcome the American commission, 

the customs administration. We ourselves desire to reach the object for 

This certificate supplied bv the German which Mr. Reynolds declares that he and all 

11 L ,. T^.. /^^MU«t-,r«^ .-o other Americans are strivmg. We have no sym- 

chambers of commerce Dr. Go Uibcrgcr re- ^^.^^j^^ ^^..^j^ fraudulent practises, on whichever 

gards as of great weight. He docs not be- ^jje ^\^^.y manifest themselves, and we are as 

lieve that American business men or officials unwilling to be cheated by a fellow countryman 

understand the value of it, since they per- as by the member of another nation. We are 

, , ^ • ^ ^1 ^ „«.-,,« ..flc; also fully convmced that the honest merchant 

haps do not appreciate the conservative ofb- ^^^^^^j^ ^^^ protected against the fraudulent 

cial character of chambers of commerce in j^^^ this protection does not consist in the set- 

the Fatlierland, and their fairness and integ- ting of snares or digging of pitfalls. We have 

ritv. Dr. Goldberger further admits the already met with many disappointing surprises 

f r , . 1 . r^^^ ,.,,, after concluding commercial treaties with Rus- 

value of the concessions made to Germany. ^-^ ,^^^^ ^^^^^^^ countries in our efforts to give our 

He says complimentary things about the resolutions full cfTect. These disappointments 

North Commission, which, it will be remcm- were generally atoned for by a friendly recon- 

bered, went to Germany some months ago filiation. lUit this has not always been the case 

1 , . ^1 1 1 ' ^^ c . 1 in our commercial dealings with America, 

to look into the whole matter ot mutual '^ 

commercial relations, and some uncompll- The reasons for this, the German writer 

mentary things about the selfishness of some contends, is the fact that " for twenty years 

protected American business interests. He past our trade arrangements with America 

then refers approvingly to the appointment have been merely of a provisional character." 

of the later commission, headed by Mr. He insists that some permanent, reasonable, 

James E. Reynolds. This Export Commis- and just arrangement must be made immedi- 

sion, however, he says, is only a " pacifying ately if the friendly commercial relations be- 

concesslon to the movement against the twcen the two peoples are to be maintained. 



INDUSTRIAL PEACE LEGISLATION IN CANADA. 



c 



AN ADA'S legislative measure known Investigation led to the belief that if the 

as ** The Industrial Disputes Inves- parties to a dispute could be brought together 

tigatlon Act, 1907," is one of the most Im- and given an opportunity to frankly discuss 

portant ever enacted in the Dominion. It their troubles, an agreement would be arrived 

became effective on March 23, 1907, and at. To secure this conference and result the 

was largely the outcome of the serious act aforementioned was passed. Under this 

dispute In connection with the coal mines at law. It Is Illegal to resort to a strike or lock- 

Lethbrldge In Western Canada. This dis- out until the dispute has been made the 

pute kept the mines closed for nine months, subject of Inquiry before a board of concilia- 

with all the attendant ills of industrial war, tlon and Investigation to be established by 

and contributed to bring about a fuel famine the Minister of Labor. This Is binding alike 

in Saskatchewan and Alberta during the most on employer and employee, and the procedure 

inclement season of the year. This painful that either must follow Is definitely set forth, 

experience impressed the government with When a dispute arises In an Industry 

the necessity for legislation which would pro- identified with a public utility, either party 

vide machinery for the adjustment of Indus- thereto may send to the registrar of boards of 

trial disputes, and prevent, if possible, a conciliation and investigation an application 

recurrence of strikes and lockouts In connec- for the appointment of such a board. That 

tion with mines and public utility industries official at once brings this request to the atten- 

until at least such an adjustment had been tion of the Minister of Labor. The appli- 

attempted. cation must contain ( i ) the parties to the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 101 

dispute; (a) its nature and cause* and the "If a settlement is effected, a memor- 
claims and demands to which exception is andum of the terms is drawn up," says Mr. 
taken by either party; .(3) an approximate John King, K. C, in the Green Bag for 
estimate of the number of persons affected December, " by the board and signed by the 
(because ten employees must be affected in parties, and shall, if so agreed, be binding as 
order to give the board jurisdiction) ; and if made a recommendation of the board under 
(4) the efforts made toward adjustment, the act." A, copy of the memorandum with 
The application must be accompanied by a the report is then forwarded to the Minister, 
statutory declaration that failing an adjust- If a settlement is not reached, the board re- 
ment, or reference, a lockout or strike will ports fully to the Minister the whole pro- 
be declared, and that the necessary authority ceedings, findings, recommendations, etc. 
for that purpose has been obtained. A copy Although the board's findings are not per se 
of the application must be sent to the other binding, by mutual agreement the award may 
party coincident with its transmission to the be made a rule of court and binding as if 
registrar, and the other party must prepare made pursuant to a reference to arbitration 
a reply and serve a copy on the applicant in on the order of a court of record, 
like manner. The first board established was in connec- 
Within fifteen days of receipt of applica- tion with the Western Coal Operators' 
tion the Minister appoints the board, con- Association in British Columbia, and affected 
sisting of three members, to which are added between 3000 and 4000 employees. An 
two others, chosen, respectively, by the em- effective settlement for two years was 
ployer and employees. These two select a reached. Another was between the Grand 
third, who acts as chairman, and failing to Trunk Railway and its machinists, when all 
do so ivithin five days the Minister appoints disputed points were adjusted. Others in- 
him. The board is sworn, equipped with all voking this law were the Cumberland Rail- 
necessary assistance, and when constituted is way, Canadian Pacific Railw^ay, Halifax 
invested with all the powers of a court of Longshoremen, Intercolonial Railway of 
justice. The proceedings may be public or Halifax, and the Montreal Cotton Com- 
private, as may be deemed expedient, and pany. Several important mining companies 
competent experts or assessors may be en- also had recourse to this law. 
gaged by the board. The parties to the Although in force only seven months, 
dispute may be represented each by three, or twenty-one applications have been received 
less, persons, or by counsel with the consent for boards of conciliation and investigation, 
of the board. During the conference the Eleven have been satisfactorily ended, three 
board may do whatever it deems proper to others were settled without a board, and in 
induce a settlement, and may dismiss any the others the proceedings had not been ter- 
matter which it considers frivolous or trivial, minated at the time of writing. 



EUROPE'S GUARANTEE OF NORWAY'S NEUTRALITY. 

\X^HEN Norway separated from Sweden, contents appeared. Nevertheless, it is certain 

two years ago, certain international that the four powers mentioned have agreed 

agreements affecting not only Norway her- to respect the integrity of Norway. There 

self, but also vitally concerning the balance seems to be no question of any " guarantee " 

of power in Europe, were rendered inef- on the part of these powers, and when this 

fective. The existence of one of these agree- point is brought out, authoritatively, the un- 

ments first became public knowledge when pleasant sentiment which his manifested it- 

a treaty to take its place was signed. self in Sweden on account of the agreement 

With regard to this treaty, concluded be- will gradually give room to a calmer judg- 

between the four great powers, England, ment. 

France, Germany, and Russia, with a view On November 2 last (October 20, Rus- 
of safeguarding the integrity of Norway, sian style), two treaties were signed, accord- 
which came into existence only two years ing to the Frankfurter Zeitung, in the For- 
age, there prevails as yet some confusion, for cign Department at Christiana. One of 
the text of the treaty has, thus for, not been these, which is termed a " declaration," and 
published, nor has any reliable account of its concerns the abrogation of a treaty of No- 



y 



102 THE AMERICAN REl^IElV OF REVIEWS. 

vember 21, 1855, is made between Norway, titude at the time of the dissolution of the union 

G^^««. i2^:«.o;» o«J TT^o^r-o ^.,V.;i« «.K.o /A«>V.of between the two countries. How is it, anyway, 

reat Britain and France, while the other — ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ concerned have not signed 

a treaty in regard to the integrity ot JNor- ^ declaration with Sweden, in regard to the ab- 

way, — has the signatures of the Norwegian rogation of the former treaty, at the same time 

Minister of Foreign Affairs and of the repre- they did so with Norway? 

sentatives of Great Britain, France, Russia The Paris Temps contends that such a 

and Germany. proceeding was contemplated, but later aban- 

The treaty of November 21, 1855, was prin- doned, on account of unreasonable opposition 

cipally directed against Russia, inasmuch as the in Christiania. The Paris paper adds that 

King of Sweden and Norway agreed not to per- Norway, in its inveterate haughtiness, in- 

mit the cession to Russia of any territory be- • ^ 1 ^ ^^^ -^ U'^k ,„«,jj i«^u 

longing to either of the two countries aforesaid, listed upon some security which would look 

nor to suffer the occupation by Russia thereof. liKe an alfrontery of Sweden.^ Instead of 

Furthermore, this treaty provided, that if Russia bringing the stubborn Norwegians to terms, 

insisted on securing any of the several priv- however, and teaching them notto abuse the 

lieges mentioned in the document, the King of ^. r j? . «u «.u« ^^ -«, 

Sweden should notify the Queen of England and Patience of Europe any too much, the powers 

the Emperor of France thereof, in order to gave m to the Norwegian Government, pre- 

procure from the latter " suftkient naval and sumably in order to get through with the 

military forces" for co-operation with the King's ^j^— j. -^^ ^^ort order, 
own forces m resisting the advances or claims 

of Russia. A Representative Swedish View. 

This treaty, of course, became invalid The Dasblodet, of Stockholm, gives in a 
through the separation between Sweden and recent issue what it claims to be a summary 
Norway, and it could have been annulled of the text of the integrity treaty. The 
two years ago, had it not been for a desire in declaration made in the latter, according to 
Norway, and also in England, to reaffirm, in the Swedish journal, contains four para- 
some other manner, the main purpose of the graphs, 
agreement. In the first, Norway agrees not to cede any 

Thp nrn^snert of Rn*;sia nrnniHno^ a nivil territory; in the second, the powers agree to 

baS on t^e coast n the Far N^ ^^'^^'^'^ ^^^^^^ ^" maintaining.its integrity, when 

basis on the coast in the l^ar Worth has always threatened, by such means as may be considered 

oa'rtrcularlv dfrin/the'lasf ^ Al "^«^^ ^"^^^^^^^ P^^^^^-P^^ 3 gives Norway the 

tCglfthJ Bri iTlf app^eh^'LioTin^'hfs" "^^^t^^ Z^'tLrr^TVlr^.^^^^^ 

i_ tf J I , -X . r j„«.:^ .• T>,.?c.i^,^ and Uenmark, in regard to the preservation of 

has been declared without foundation in Russian • :„.,,„^:^,, . • ^^..^„..^^i , :^ .f^^^^ 4.u«* ♦u- 

. . *• 1 1 ^ :ii „^„^:i,. Its integrity in paragraph 4 is stated that the 

quarters, yet an impartial observer will readily . 4.-i-ji-«.l juii 

• r \.u : i.u r> • 4. * u t,^,,"^ treaty is valid during twenty years, and shall 

infer that the Russian statesmen, who have , -^ ■ , , 1 4. *i • /• r i.u *. 

u u«. *! v ^ * 'o A^ ;« ^o f«^ 00 P^^ff he considered renewed at the expiration of that 

brought their country s domain as tar as Jrort . , , . * ^.i ^ i. u j 
A *u A u J.\A ^^* KoU. of fi,« \ri^^ ^f period, unless any party to the treaty has de- 
Arthur, and who would not balk at the idea 01 *, j r • 1 'x • / *• r 

'^. .'" ' "^ • u*. 1 4. f;^« ^( ^K clarcd, hve years previously, its intention of 

seizing Korea, might also get a notion ot ob- r r ^1 V r> 1 

tni-nmt 1 Rii^d-in naval ^^fiHnn on the Norwc- receding from the agreement. Renewal may, 

tammg a Russian naval station on the IN orwe i,^^,^^,^ g^in ^^ ^^^^^ between the remaining 

gian coast. Such plans, ought, however, now to -.^j.*:^^ 

have been abolished, once for all, through the P 

recognition even by Russia, of the integrity of i^ j^s commentaries on the text, the.Stock- 

Norway. On the other hand, if Russia could . , . , . ^ u ^ \ ^l ^ ^l 

persuadcNorway to cede a harbor "in pact" for ^^olm journal points out the fact that the 

ninety-nine years, this would certainly be con- treaty contains no insinuation against 

sidered as a violation of Norway's integrity, but Sweden, nor does its text, in any way what- 

England would not have to take up arms as it j^^^^if ^^^ suspicions which have caused 

would have been obhged to do under the treaty , •' .,. . ^t 

q£ jgcr the prevailing anti-lNorwegian sentiment m 

r^ . 1 XT • the former brother-country. In conclusion, 

Some time ago the present Nonvegian -^ ^,,^j ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^.^^ 

Premier Mr. Lovland, at that time Minis- ^^^^ j,^^^ modulated somewhat just on ac- 

ter of Foreign Affairs, declared that there ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^j^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^^ ^^^^ 

would be no question of guaranteeing sentiment 

Norway's neutrality. Such a " guarantee " 

through four powers, with Sweden excluded, Wien one considers that anv plans or desires 

would undoubtedly give the Swedes a good Zt^^:^l^::^I ^ll^J^^iZ^T^ 

reason -to feel hurt, since the guarantee Norway, arc out of the question, but that Eng- 

must be looked upon as a safety measure land has an interest in having the most impor- 

against eventual attack from Sweden's side, tant stipulation in the treaty of 1855 renewed 

through another measure against Russia, the 

The insult would be the greater, in consider- conclusion must be that, apart from Norway, 

ation of the dignified and peaceable stand taken the London government has been eager to close 

by Sweden in the face of Norwa/s insolent at- the new treaty. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 103 
A "MODERNIST" CRISIS IN THE JEWISH CHURCH. 

npHAT Modernism has not only assailed found in small groups, attached to his faith and 

■*■ the Church of Rome, but that it has I" t/aditions. The London Jew, for example 

1 ^ • ^ J ^1- • ^ f • i_ /■ T J • • IS at the present moment the strongest in pomt 

also tainted the ancient faith of Judaism, is ^f orthodoxy that remains in the world, the 

the opinion advanced by M. Paul Bernard, French Jew being on all counts the least tena- 

who writes in Etudes (Paris). At the cious of his faith or its observances. 

actual moment, the two great historic re- it Is in his treatment of the Bible, that 
hgions of the world are in the throes of the modern Jew is to be judged. Formerly 
combat with the forces of scientific unbelief, it was the light of his life, and his never- 
and not less than its eldest and most prolific failing hope. To-day he, more than any 
combat with the forces of scientific unbelief, other, savs, in effect, M. Bernard, applies to 
Mr. Schwab,^ in his work, "The Spirit ft the criteria of modern scientific discovery; 
and the Letter," proceeds the same authority, he, more than any other, is disposed to mock 
declares that the Jew, however much he at its mysteries. Not only are parents and 
may cling to the spirit of his tradition, no children indifferent to its teachings, but 
longer practices the teaching of his faith, even the abomination has penetrated into the 
He still teaches his children that religion holy of holies, and the priests of the ancient 
forbids them to work on the Sabbath, and faith of Moses are wavering in their beliefs, 
yet we find himself and his children work- Last year a conference of rabbis convened in 
ing on the most solemn of the feast-days in Paris, with the object of suggesting remedies 
their calendar. What Jew now obeys the for the situation, only succeeded in demon- 
injunction of the Mosaic Law against the strating to the world to what an extent 
eating of oysters? Which of them does not atheism and scientific dogma had under- 
smile when, in praying for the restoration of mined the faith of the majority of its 
the Temple at Jerusalem, he thinks of the members. 

strange figure a modern Jew must make on Like the Modernist who assails the de- 
the steps of that edifice? If we are not in posit of Catholic faith, the modern rabbi in- 
the presence of the death of a race, at least clines to belief in the Symbolical, leaving 
we are facing the close of an historic faith, the ritual practices and doctrines to take 
In the opinion of M. Bernard, all mod- care of themselves. They, too, have pre- 
ern research into the history of the Jew sented their manifesto to their high-priests 
goes to show that, down the long course of Jn which they allege their conviction that 
the ages, he has really ever been the con- religion, like everything else, must follow 
cealed champion of unbelief and atheism, and fts course of evolution. In every respect 
that to-day, in the fullness of his power, he is their Modernism coincides with that of the 
imposing his intellectual individuality upon pseudo-Catholic Modernists, and may be 
the beliefs of mank'^id. Says M. Bernard: termed a mixture of Pantheism and Ra- 
The Jew has been tAe high-priest of unbelief; tionalism. Nevertheless, reformers of the 
he has fostered mental revolt to further his own Jewish faith have sprung up. 
ends, and he has ever sought to struggle out of i- o r 
his Judaism, even as he strove to leave his Ghet- While the Modernist Jews proscribe both Tal- 
to, knowing well that -once received among the mud and Bible, and the orthodox Jews are heart 
Christians, he would soon obtain the mastery and soul for their retention, the reform party 
over them. His faith, its apparent intensity, and agree with the former to sacrifice the Talmud, 
its elaborate rites, were only instruments used and with the latter to preserve the Bible, but 
by him in finding the way out of slavery and with such restrictions, attenuations and compro- 
oppression. Once the hour of civil emancipa- mises that the principle of religion is almost 
tion sounded for him, the Jew was heard of no wholly threatened. What they ask is a mini- 
longer as a man of learning or piety, but as a mum of worship, a minimum of morality, a 
practical ruler of men. He had experienced so minimum of dogma. Everything, it is clear, is 
manjr reverses, had seen so many modes of life to be surrendered to the exigencies of the ma- 
in his peregrinations throughout the world, and terial world, — thus, the sacrifice of the day of 
had tried so many shifts in order to subsist, that rest, the suppression of fasts, liberty of choice 
nothing was so new to him that he could not as to foods and the abolition of the practice of 
adapt himself to its exigencies. In proportion circumcision. As for dogma, they retain, it is 
as he became modernized, he lost the distinctive true, their belief in the unity of God, but the 
characteristics of his race, threw off his pious Messianic prophecies are to be understood only 
traditions, laughed at his sacred books, and from the emancipation of the Jews. As to the 
foreswore not only his teachings, but also his moral prescriptions, they are to be reduced to 
exalted code of morality. In some of those their simplest expression, to wit : " Do unto 
capitals in which the real spirit of Christianity others as thou wouldst be done by." That con- 
still survives, the Jew is, nevertheless, to be stitutes the religion of the Jewish Modernist. 



104 THE AMERICAN HEyiEW OF REl^lElVS. 

HOW ANIMALS ACT DURING EARTHQUAKES, 

npHE news dispatches, it will be remem- seem to get premonitions of particular nat- 

bered, announced that on the eve of ural phenomena and events. 

the great earthquake at Karatagh, in Cen- t^us it is related that in 1805, during an 
tral Asia, on October 20, all the dogs of the earthquake, the cattle at Naples and its neigh- 
region set up a howling, horses stampeded, borhood set up a continuous bellowing some 
and cattle bellowed with fright. This re- time before the event, at the same time trying to 
... , r ^' e support themselves more firmly by planting the 
port IS in singular confirmation of some gen- forefeet widely apart; the sheep kept up a con- 
eral principles as to the conduct of animals tinuous bleating, and hens and other fowl ex- 
during earthquakes laid down in an article pressed their restlessness by making a terrible 
in a recent number of the Dutch review, ^-^^ket. Even the dogs gave many indications 
T/' , J Pi 01 uneasiness at the time. Ihe actions of ani- 
y ragen van aeii Uag, mals observed during the great earthquake of 
The writer of this article reminds us of 1783 seem to have been most remarkable. Thus 
the frequent contention that some animals the howling of the' dogs at Messina became so 
are able to feel in advance certain conditions unendurable that men were sent out with cud- 
r 1 1 1 . 1 u gels to kill them. Their noise was most marked 
of the weather or other natural phenomena, ^^^-^^^ ^he progress of the earthquake, while it 

and that they are thus, in this respect, better was difficult to pacify the animals in the vicinity 

endowed than man. for some time even after the cessation of the 

shocks. Dogs and horses ran about meanwhile 

Whether this power has been lost to man in with hanging heads, or stood with outstretched 

the process of civilization, or that it was never legs, as if aware of the need of planting them- 

possessed ])y him at all, we would not undertake selves firmly. Horses that were ridden at the 

to affirm. Although animals are not to be whol- time stopped and stood still without* orders, 

ly regarded as weather prophets, still by a close trembling so at the same time that no rider 

observation of their behavior under particular could remain in the saddle. Scophus tells the 

circumstances of the kind, something may be story of a cat during an earthquake at Locris 

gained in this line of human knowledge. which set up a most dismal caterwauling at 

the approach of each new shock, meanwhile 

In connection with the fearful catastro- constantly jumping from one point to another 

,. , , 'Ti/^i-i:- J The roosters kept up a continual crowing, both 

phies of recent date in Italy, Calitornia, and before and during the earthquake. In the fields 

elsewhere, which, like so many others of like Scophus observed hares so under the influence 

nature, will long retain a hold on human of the terrestrial disturbance that they made no 

memory, attention has. again been called to Sf ^yVs Xence. Xffock VsheTcolJfd 

the fact that many animals give intimations ^^^ be kept on the right road, notwithstanding 

of such great disturbances in advance by the efforts of shepherd and dogs, but fled in at- 

certain particular and often unusual con- frightened haste to the mountains. During the 

duct. It is particularly such animals as have ^^^ rLV^.^ol^J^tr.^^%^'^^ 
their abode under ground that often indicate, seen to flee from their huts the moment dogs 
days before the event, that something un- began to howl, asses to bray, or cows to bellow, 
usual in nature is about to occur, by coming Birds, also, seem to have premonitions of the 
out of their hiding places under ground into coming of such catastrophies.. During the earth- 
, ^ ^ ^ quake at Quintero, in Chile, in November, 1822, 
the open. ^^ gulls uttered all sorts of unusual cries dur- 
ing the whole of the preceding night, and were 
Aelian mentions that, in the year 373 before in constant restless motion during the quake. 
Christ, five days before the destruction of On February 20, 1835, the day before the earth- 
Helike, all the mice, weasels, snakes, and many quake at Conccpcion, in Chile, at ten in the 
other like creatures, were observed going in morning, great flocks of sea-birds, mostly 
great masses along the roads leading from that gulls, were seen to pass over the city landward, 
place. Something similar was noticed also, later, a phenomenon not to be explained by any 
though not to so marked an extent as in the stormy condition of the weather. It was fully 
case mentioned by Aelian. This leaving of their an hour and a half after their passage, at 11.40 
subterranean abodes by underground creatures of the forenoon, before the earthquake came, 
on such occasions mi^ht possibly be explained one so disastrous that nearly the entire city was 
by the emission of various malodorous and nox- reduced to ruins. Even the fish in the sea seem 
ious gases during these disturbances of the to be disturbed at the approach of an earth- 
earth, quake. Thus during the one of 1783, quantities 
„ , , . , ,. . 1 ®f ^^h were caught at Messina, of a kind that 
JKut not only^ do animals living under usually keeps hidden in its secret abodes at the 
ground furnish indications that something ocean's bottom. And Alexander von Humboldt, 
out of the ordinary is about to happen. The ?^e famous traveler and naturalist, tells of hav- 

1 • 1 \\ e 1. mg observed the crocodiles of the Orinoco leav- 

larger animals on the surface, such as cows, i„| t^e water and fleeing to the forest during an 

horses, asses, sheep, and many birds, even, earthquake. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 106 

RECENT PROGRESS IN CURING TUBERCULOSIS. 

A REPORT of the sessions of three growing for a long time in the human body, 
scientific associations, published in bacilli of bovine tuberculosis may undergo 
the last number of the Centralblatt fiir such changes in the characteristics that dis- 
Bakteriologie (Jena), includes accounts of tinguish those directly isolated from cat- 
two series of investigations of tuberculosis tie that they can no longer be distinguished 
that are of especial interest. from human bacilli. 

The first is a report of the Royal ^fter careful study and comparison of the 

Commission on Tuberculosis, under the effects of the disease induced experimentally by 

direction of which Dr. Eastwood made a tuberculosis from both sources, it was found 

histological and comparative study of the ^^^\ ^^^^^ ^^".^ ^^ \t^'^^}. P^o^uce^ symptoms 
e \ ^- i-i_ ^j that are typical for the disease in all animals 
course of the disease, which was generated susceptible to mammalian tuberculosis, although 
experimentally by tuberculosis, both of hu- germs derived from cultures of human bacilli 
man beings and of cattle, with also a fur- have relatively slight effect upon cattle. In ex- 
ther investigation and comparison of the two penments made upon anthropoid apes, the ani- 
1*1 r 1 -n- • •/: • 1 i^ iiials most closely related to man. typical tuber- 
kinds of bacilli, as seen in artificial cultures, ^ulosis symptoms were produced by bacilli from 
in order to get an understanding of the re- cattle, and also by treatment with the same cul- 
lationship between them. nwQs of human origin that had proved relatively 

Experiments were made upon a great "^'^lij^'^'^s for cattle. , , ,, , . , 
• e ' \ 1 1 • Ihere does not seem to be the least evidence 
variety of animals, such as calves, guinea ^f ^.^y characteristic of bovine tuberculosis that 
pigs, cattle, anthropoid and other species of renders it harmless to the human body, and fur- 
apes, goats, rats, dogs, cats, etc., both by ther comparison of various cultures, made on 

feeding and by injecting the tuberculosis ^r/.l^^^f^ media, shows that all tuberculosis ba- 

, ..., J J n ^,jljj ^^ mammals have common characteristics 

bacilli. jjfjfl fj^c nature of the disease is the same. 

In some cases, as a result of this treatment, l^'^e}''^'' Produced by one or the other kind of 

the animals developed typical tuberculosis, while "^^^ ^' 

in other animals there was no symptom of the The action of sunlight upon bacteria, and 

disease, although the tissues were full of the poneriallv unon fhp h^irilli* ni fnhprmlnci'c 

bacilli. Rats proved to be highly resistant to especially upon tne bacilli ot tuberculosis, 

human tuberculosis, for although the bacilli ^^^s discussed in a paper presented at an- 

might swarm in the body, yet its tissues would other scientific association by Dr. John 

be only slightly affected, and usually the animal Weinzirl, who believes that in view of the 

would show no evidence of having the disease, devastation wrought by tuberculosis, the 

The general results of the investigation question deserves much more consideration 
forced the writer to recognize the identity of ^"a." ^^ j^^^ received. He tested the direct 
the processes of the disease although induced f^^^on of sunlight upon the bacilli by smear- 
experimentally by means of the most differ- ^"/ f solution containing them upon a strip 
ent tuberculosis bacilli of human or of ani- ^^ grazed paper, exposing it to sunlight and 
mai origin. afterward inoculating an albuminous cul- 
ture medium with the dried residue. 

The violence of the attack which the animal rr xu i. -n- . i -n j i. .i. i- i ^ 
experienced varied with the amount of bacilli J^ ^^^ ^^^'\^' "^^^^ "^.^ H'"^"^ \^^^ sunlight 
injected, and with the resistance of the animal, ^^ere would be a luxuriant growth of them on 
but when very resistant animals, such as calves, ^j^^. culture medium in proof of their active con- 
were inoculated with bacilli of relatively slight ^Z^^^"' ^ut, as a matter of fact, the results 
virulence, typical masses of bacilli developed at ^hpwed that he bacilli were killed in about ten 
a distance from the point of inoculation that n^'nutes, while species such as Coh communis 
resembled the masses generated in cattle by which serves as a test for the presence of 
highly virulent bacilli, while in especially sus- ^>'Ph«»^» f "^ "^^^ spore-free micro-organisms, 
ceptible animals, such as anthropoid and other ^^^^^ destroyed in even less time, 
species of apes, more or less chronic or acute He believes that sunlight possesses a much 

fjnrbacnit' "''^"' ""''"' stronger bactericidal action than has pre- 
viously been realized, and that consequently. 

It has been found that the bacilli of as a hygienic factor, it is far more powerful 

tuberculosis are variable, and that after than has before been known. 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



(The great public interest aroused by recent events in the conduct of financial and indus- 
trial institutions, in security values, and in trade conditions, is bringing direct, simple, and 
well-written articles, meant for the aid and education of investors, into the periodicals. By 
grouping the most helpful of these in a new department, the Review of Reviews hopes to be 
of service to the many readers who should keep in touch with financial movements.) 

INVESTMENT SECURITIES. 

\\/^HILE accumulating money is a task of valuation and the character of the borrower, 
difficulty, Its subsequent investment because foreclosure suits are costly and tedi- 
is by no means an easy matter. Inquiry for ous. Moreover, such loans are not market- 
Information thereon Is daily increasing, and able or divisible, and cannot be rendered 
this can be accepted more readily when it is liquid, If needed before maturity, very read- 
understood that the wealth of the United Ily. Again, a mortgage loan is not converti- 
States Increases about $4,000,000,000 each ble or available as collateral, and it is diffi- 
year, or more than $10,000,000 each day^ cult to obtain a mortgage for just the amount 

The simplest form of Investment Is a loan, one may wish to invest for the period de- 

on which '' Interest " Is paid by the borrower, sired and secured by property sufficiently 

representing the value of the use of the bor- valuable. To overcome this objection, com- 

rowed money for the time agreed upon, panies have been organized to make large 

Nearly every form of Investment Is a loan, mortgage loans and to sell small participa- 

Money deposited In a bank, Invested in a tlons of $100, $500, or $1000 to investors 

mortgage, or In a corporation bond, makes of limited means. Sometimes the companies 

the owner of the money so applied in each guarantee these loans. 

case a creditor. Contrariwise, a purchase of Investment bonds form another available 

real estate, stocks, or an Interest in a busi- outlet for surplus funds. These are issued in 

ness enterprise, is an indicia of ownership, convenient denominations, are readily con- 

and Is not characterized by an expectancy to vertlble into cash, and as safe as anything in 

recover back the principal, plus Interest for the future well can be. Interest and princi- 

its use, but anticipates more particularly a pal are easily collected. If registered, the 

profit from the venture. owner receives his check by mail ; if a coupon 

In the North American Review for No- bond. Interest coupons may be collected 

vember " Financier " discusses the more through a bank, and the principal may be 

common forms of pure investment. " For collected in the same manner, or by presenta- 

the man who has a small sum of idle money,** tlon of the bond to the issuing corporation's 

says he, " which he wishes to use in such a agency. The usual denomination of a bond 

way that It will bring him' In some return, is $1000. Some are issued in $500 pieces, 

there is probably no better place for his funds and a few of $100 each are obtainable, 

than a savings-bank.** These are, as a class. Small issues are likely to increase in the 

conservative and the risk attaching to a de- future in this country, as prevailing in 

posit is not great. In New York, Massa- France to-day. 

chusetts, Connecticut and elsewhere the First-mortgage bonds of an established 

character of their investments is carefully railroad are perhaps the safest bond invest- 

presented. Not so In other States. In the ments. As a rule, railroad bonds are better 

latter case, savings-banks, in order to pay than those of an industrial corporation, be- 

dividends and an attractive rate of interest, cause railroad earnings are more stable, both 

occasionally make hazardous investments, in good and bad times, than those of any 

which sometimes end in disaster. other industry. This is due to the economic 

There are other suitable forms of invest- necessity of transportation at all times, 

ment which offer equal or superior security In the December issue of the North Amer- 

and yield better returns than the interest ican Review this writer refers to the business 

paid by a savings-bank. For instance, loans reaction of 1904 and reviews the earnings of 

secured by mortgages against real estate, a great industrial corporation, and likewise, 

The difficulty herein is this: The lender has of a prominent railroad. . In 1903 the net 

to acquaint himself with the property, its earnings of the United. States Steel Corpora- 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES, 107 

tion were $109,171,153, and in 1904 only the former devolves the dut>' of seeing that 

$73» 1 76,522, a decrease in a year of only the deed of trust is properly drawn and 

moderate trade reaction of ;i;^ per cent. On bondholders' rights thereunder adequately 

the other hand, the net earnings of the Lake secured. The investor, however, in addition. 

Shore & Michigan Southern Railway in should himself look into the mortgage se- 

1903 were $8,017,086, and in 1904, $7,- curing the bonds. These may be divisional 

976,773, a decline of only one-half of i per first-mortgage bonds, branch-mortgage bonds, 

cent. The railroads, generally speaking, dur- or temiinal-mortgage bonds, secured, re- 

ing 1904 maintained their records of 1903, spectively, by a lien on a division, a branch 

and the aggregate railroad net earnings of line or a terminal. The earning power of 

the country in 1904 were $639,240,000 the particular part. of the system is the cri- 

against $592,508,500 in 1903. In this ten- terion for their security. Terminal bonds 

dency of railroad earnings to remain constant are generally safe, because terminals are most 

or to increase is found the basis of the secur- essential to a road's operations. Neverthe- 

ity and safety of railroad obligations. less, first-mortgage bonds are safe only when 

Bankers usually secure railroad bond is- all interest charges are well within net 

sues and then sell them to investors, and on earnings. 



IF YOU CAN AFFORD lO TAKE A CHANCE. 

^^^\r Y Z is bound to rise in price, isn't and ultiniato profit, yon note that the Cliicago, 

^^ it? It's selling now at 30 per cent. ^^''''^ Island & Paciric collatcrril trnst 4 per cent. 

, , . ^ T ' -11 honds are selhng at 04 i ou thnik they arc, per- 

iess than it was a year ago. 1 can t possibly ^^^^^^ ^^^^.^^ \^q{ovq you make a pnrchase of 

go wrong in buying it at present prices, can them, you should ask many questions. Some of 

I ? " Thousands are asking such questions, the questions and tlie answers in this case arc 

now that security values have shrunk within ^^^^^^\^,^^- , , , „. , ^ 

^1 1 , „ ^ ft-y r^^r^^ r^^n^ r^r^r^ Q- Why arc thcsc bonds selhng so low? 

the year by some $3,000,000,000. a t*. • 1 * *t 1 1 4. vr 

T> i_ • • J J ^ «n „„ „4. «„„ A. It IS due to the general market conditions. 

But there is, indeed, now as well as at any ^.j^^^^ j^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^^ weakness about the Rock 

other time, a possibility of going wrong island to-day. 

with any investment that promises an un- q. What is the market record of these bonds? 

usual interest return or appreciation in value. A. They were listed in November, 1902, and 

No such purchase can be recommended " to fold at that time at about 86; they declined to 

1 u UUJ1U.. A ^^^c^^.r^^ 00 ^n the bad market of 1903-04; they rallied to 

the man who, by hard labor and persever- ^ -^ ^^^, ^^^ ^j^^^ sold at 77 early in the cur- 

ance, has amassed a small fortune in the sav- rent year. 

ings banks and seeks an absolutely safe in- Q. Is the interest well secured? 

vestment for that fortune ; nor yet to the ^ A. The report for 1907 shows a surplus of 

1 • • 4. .,4. i^^ 4.u^ rv^^*^^,r 94,450,000 after paying all the fixed charges of 

woman seekmg an investment for the money ^^^^^^^ ^ j ^ip^ Railroad, which amount is 

left, perhaps, from a life-insurance policy; about $3,700,000. The report seems to indicate 

nor yet to the * average investor,' a timid that the road was well kept up. 

man, unversed in financial matters." i ^' ?^^ ^^^ company should default what would 

So runs some very sound advice in the f^' ^^^^ ^onds are secured on $1,000 of the 

Worlds Work. It is intended, says the stock of the old Rock Island for each $1,000 of 

author, " rather for that larger class w^hich bonds. That is the ultimate security. 

seeks investment for its surplus, for unneces- Q- What kind of a market is there for them? 

L J i.u^4. r '^ «.u« u«^u T^u« l«,..,r/.^ A. Ihey can be bought and sold at any time 

sary funds that lie in the bank. The lawyer, ^^ ^^^ ^^^ york Stock Exchange. 

the young doctor of large practice, the mer- 111. 

chant, the editor, the salaried business ex- ^ "ere are the leadmg questions answered, 
pert, all these and a thousand other classes F?r assurance ask your broker to go over 
of men have revenues for investment in a ^^^^ you the last annual report of the corn- 
business way. None of them is compelled P^^y.' ^nd a copy of the mortgage on this 
to live upon the proceeds of the investment, particular bond. He will probably support 
Most of them want the investment to grow." the summing up in the World's Work that 

the bond is fairly safe for its interest; it 

Let us take one bond and consider it, not j^ secured on stock that has for thirty years 

because it is by any means the best in the class, iii-ii 1^1 1 

but merely as an example. Suppose, being ^ad » high value and that represents a good 

anxious to make a purchase for large interest road m the Middle West, and one that seems 



108 THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REl^IElVS. 

to have fair prospects for a prosperous best informed Wall Street bankers, closely 

future. The price to-day is lower than it has in touch with the affairs of that company, 

ever been prior to this year. The last time were recommending the bonds and notes of 

it had a twenty-point decline, in 1903, it this company as perfectly safe. In the long 

rose twenty-four points when conditions run they probably are, but even the busi- 

righted themselves. The probabilities are ness investor does not care for * temporary 

that it will do so again." And every day the receiverships* along with his bonds." 
permanent trade improvement seems nearer. " In closing this article, the financial edftor 

Even greater precautions should precede desires to reiterate the statement that invest- 

a purchase of the bonds of any industrial ment along the line here outlined is not rec- 

company. " A month before the Westing- ommended to any but men and women that 

house Electric & Manufacturing Company are fit and prepared to take the usual risks 

went into the hands of receivers, even the of business." 



GILT-EDGED BONDS SELLING CHEAP. 

IlONDS are cheap this winter. And the practically the same causes which brought about 

^ right kind of a bond is the right kind the decline in stocks 

e . ^ c ^ 4. ^ Since railroad bonds are the most stable, the 
of an investment for a woman, a trustee, or following list, which comprises some of the best 
any one who cannot give the purchase con- known, is given for the benefit of small in- 
stant and expert attention, and who has no vestors: 

right to risk either principal or fixed rate of , Louisville & Nashville Railroad (Atlanta, 

. ° Knoxville & Cincinnati Division) Mortgage 4s, 

income. j . , . , due in 1955. The interest is payable May and 

Stocks cannot be advised in such cases, — November. This bond may be bought at 82, and 

not even the standard railroad securities, the yield would be about 4.90 per cent, 

w'hich appear so attractive at present rates. Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Gold Deb- 

The management of any railroad, no matter $V*"'^ 1.'' xt"^ '''u^^'wI-^^ interest is payable 

, i_i- u 1 J V u *. ^ .. ^lay and November. This may be bought for 

how established, may deem it best to cut, g^ ^^^^ interest, and the yield to the investor 

defer, or pass the dividend on its common would be about 5 per cent, 

stock, if poor crops or manufacturing shut- Baltimore & Ohio General Mortgage 4s, due 

downs cause a loss of traffic and thus of earn- j^, ^948. The interest is payable April and Oc- 
tober. 1 he present price is 90 and interest, and 

^^?^' the yield would be about 4.55 per cent. 

But the holders of a properly secured St. Louis & San Francisco Mortgage Refund- 
mortgage bond are as independent of busi- ing 4s, due in 1951. Interest is payable Janu- 

ness disasters as any investor can be. Their ^fy ^"^ J^^y- }^^^ P"^^ is 69, and the yield is 

' r A \ • • • I • J about o per cent, 

income is fixed ; their principal is secured up Northern Pacific-Great Northern Joint Col- 

to its full face value by real and tangible lateral Trust 4s, due in 1921. The interest is 

property, through a mortgage held in their payable January and July. The present price 

behalf by a responsible trustee. This prop- ^^^ ^4^, which would make the yield about 5J4 

erty belongs to them and to them only in case ^^chTcaio, Rock Island & Pacific General Mort- 

of the company s failure. bome bonds, gage 4s, due in 1988. Interest is payable Janu- 

equally desirable, are protected by other se- ary and July. The price is 89 and interest, 

curities of ample value w'hich they have re- which would make the yield about 4^ per cent. 

11 Chicago & Northwestern (Sioux City & Pa- 

A 1 . 111 . , . , cific Division) First Mortgage 3^s, due in 1936. 

As to choosing the bond ; an article in the Interest is payable February and August. At 

Saturday Evenini^ Post, under the heading: the present price of 84 and interest, the yield 

" Your Savings,— The Time to Buy Bonds," would be about 4.40 per cent 

^. ' 1 u- 4.^. Central Pacific First Refunding 4s, due m 

contains some good hints: ,^^ Interest is payable February and August. 

If you want to buy bonds cheap now is the The present price is 90 and interest, which would 

time to do so. Gilt-edged railroad bonds which make the yield about 4^ per cent. 

are legal investments for savings-banks in such Louisville & Nashville Unified 4s, due in 1940. 

States as New York and Massachusetts, where Interest is payable January and July. At the 

the savings-banks' laws are the strictest, and present price of 92^/2, the yield would be about 

which, under normal market conditions, would 4.40 per cent. 

yield about 3.80 per cent., may be bought now at Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (Illinois Di- 
a price to make them yield as high as 4.75 per vision) Mortgage 4s, due 1940. Interest is pay- 
cent., or even 5 per cent. able February and August. The present price 

This cheapness in the price of bonds is due to of 96 would make the yield about 4.20 per cent 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 109 

HOLDING ON TO STOCK BARGAINS. 

* * A FTER buying stocks do not watch It is good to remember that the great railroads 

^^ the newspapers with eager interest °^ ^^f ^^^^^^ ^^""^^^ ,^hose stocks are sug- 
.>. , , '^ '^ I 1^, , gested as an m vestment are cioing a big busi- 
to see if they have gone down. The chances ^^gg ; . . . that the country is really pros- 
are that they will go down after you buy, but pcrous, and that 4)eople and business must use 
do not let that excite you and make you sell the transportation lines. The country has al- 
out at a loss.'' This is the counsel of a re- ways emerged safely from these periods of fin- 

. I . , . • 1 1 << \z c ancial disorder and unrest. 

cent article in the series entitled Your bav- ^ ^^^ invariably happened that when inves- 

ings," appearing in the Saturday Evening tors have bought high-class stocks in the very 

Post, darkest hours of panic, and held on to those 

The advice must, of course, be qualified, '^^'^'> ^^^^^ ^^^^'^ "^ade a great deal of money. 

in the case of " widows and orphans," or any Below is the Saturday Evening Post's list 

others upon whose investments depends a of important railroads worthy the investor's 

total or necessary income. Such investors consideration. The prices and . yield have 

should stick to approved bonds. These are been corrected up to the date of going to 

cheap enough at present. And even to those press of the Review of Reviews: 

who draw on a surplus, independent of nee- Railroad. Prico. Yield. 

essary income sources, to pick up stock bar- ., . . ^„ rp ^ , „ „ t, ,„ ,- -n ^'^'^r- 

. •'- . iM 1 11* Atchison, Topoka & Santa Fe lO 8.r>o 

gains at times like these, no general advice Atlantic Coa.st liuc r,r» u.oo 

to "hold on" can be given unless each pur- cl^vl.rnl cinH ^'' '^'^^ 

chase has been thoroughly considered and ^^ !^^'^ ^'"^'"il'i .:li ZSi 

I iJflawarc & Iludson. . l.SS T 24 

well recommended. For a real stock bar- Groat NVjrtiiern/proKMrVd". '.'..".*!!!!!".! iiif) cios 

gain, even the active business man must stick Louisl!'nie'^& 'Nasiiviii;.: :::::::::::::: [^uo I'll 

to railroads whose conduct and situation i'iiJf'«g:^ &^ Northwostorn i :m 5.22 

. ,, /. . 1 f ^ Northern Pacific 114 6.14 

form reasonable assurance of increased future now York Central 04 6.37 

parnincTc IVnnsylvania Ill 6.30 

Cdniiii^. ^ ^ Southern Pacific 72 8.33 

The quotation above interrupted continues Chicago, Milwaukee & st. Paul loo 7.00 

. .. ^ ^ Union Pacific 115 6.08 

in this manner : Norfolk & western . 64 7.81 



THE LINE BETWEEN SPECULATION AND GAMBLING. 

"T S there such a thing as honorable or price of their own on their work, as if they had 

-■■ useful speculation? " asks a Unitarian performed, an act of original creation. \ye can 

, ^,*^ , T^ T-i 1 • u y#w .1- applaud Mr. Carnegie s and Mr. Rockefellers 

clergyman, Charles J?. Dole, in the Atlantic enterprise, but we denounce their system of 

Monthly. He replies w^ith an emphatic yes, tariff, their manipulation of railways, and their 

but immediately points out the qualitv that, appropriation of mineral lands, through which 

with most people, reduces speculation to pure ^heir speciilation has passed over from useful 

,,. *^. *^ * XT n • social service into the form of colossal extor- 

garabling,— Ignorance. He hrst cites some ^i^^ ^^ cannot even see the social use of any 

instances of worthy speculation: sort which has attended the building of the 

^ . ;. , , J Astor and other similar fortunes. The scout in 

Does not a farmer like to have a grand crop,— t^jg ^ase has merely seized and fortified a height 

a hundredfold over what he put into the ground f ^^^^^ ^^e city and become a robber-baron. 
Doe^ not every fisherman like to strike a school 

of mackerel or bluefish? All inventions and the Then there are the professional appraisers 

labor-saving application of natural powers are of values, — the expert dealers or manufactur- 

simply means to bring about the most rapid pro- ^j^^ u ^^^^ ^^j harvests and 

auction of wealth. ^ r ^ rr 111 '-nv. u 

The telephone was thus at first a great specu- movements of traffic and labor. 1 hey have 

lative venture. But this element of hazard did a certain normal relation to the values in 

not make it wrong to buy its stock at a few dol- which they are dealing. It is evidently these 

lars a share In fact, if some people had not ^^^ alone,— onlv a limited number,— virho 

believed m it and risked their money, the world ^ ^1 l J '1 • / • 1 

would have had to wait indefinitely for the use a^ the best can claim to confer a social ser- 

of this wonderful new instrument of civilization, vice by their speculations." 

We suspect that even Mr. Emerson would have In sharp contrast is the very large group 

been pleased with the re.sults, if he had trusted familiarly called speculators, "who are only 

the proceeds of one of his lectures in the infant . ^-^ ' , xt V 1 1 

enterprise. ignorant guessers or bettors. No doubt they 

The injustice begins when men set an excessive often act under advice of their brokers, but 



no THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^/ElVS. 

they contribute no particle of intelligent The pathos of speculation lies in this dir#c- 

study in the appraisement of values. This ^o"- It is not wrong that the village school- 
I "^ 1 f 1 . • master, or the country minister, or the dress- 
class surely are of no sound economic use in ^^^^^ ^^^^ her scanty earnings, wishes to have 

crowdmg upon the market, bo far from a share in the fabulous wealth which modem 

helping to fix or maintain values, they prob- society is accumulating. They rightly think "it 

ably add an element of exaggeration, excite- would be fine" if their bit of investment in the 

1 1 * 4.U A 4, c \. -^^^^ wonderful mine described in their denomma- 

ment, and peril to the conduct of business. ^-^^^^ .^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ successfully as they 

Their presence and the stakes which they hope. What they do not see is that they have 

wager tempt the bona fide or expert class of no business to hope for this success; they do 

speculators to play upon their hopes and "o* know enough. No one has taught them that 

their fears and tn rreate artificial ' booms ' ^^^^^ "^^^"^ °^ promising kind of speculation 

tneir tears, and to create artinciai Dooms depends upon effort, skill, experience, the play 

or panics, and actually to unsettle values, of intelligence upon the conditions of each new 

In short, the people who * take flyers ' are problem. Honorable speculation is a form of 

mostlv gamblers pure and simple. They pay science. It is never mere cheap guesswork, 

their 'monpv tn snnnnrt a rnnQlrlerahle and ^"^ *^^^^ innocent people,— a great host of 

tneir mone> to support a considerable and them,— are daily matching their ignorance 

expensive group of bankers and brokers. 1 o against the loaded dice of those whom their 
the honest question: What actual social ser- credulity tempts to make a business of floating 
vice do you render through your speculative all kinds of plausible and worthless enter- 
transactions, such as might justify you in P"^^^'^^ ^j,j ^^^ ^^^j^ ,^^^^ ^^^ ^^p^^^^ j^^ 
pocketing your expected wmnmgs, abstracted of life? We have no right to expect to receive 
doubtless from the common wealth? they when we give no equivalent return. We have 
can give no rational answer. They are not "o right to expect ordinary gains, unless we give 

merely trying to get something for nothing, ^^ If^} ordinary service. Much less have we 

t i 1 u right to extra gams from our investments, 

—a harmless amusement,— but they are try- ^^ere we put in no extra skill, foresight, or 

ing to get what does not belong to them." other form of service. 



WATCHING TRADE BAROMETERS. 

A RE "times" good, or are they bad? and railroading, along with a multitude of allied 

how good or bad are they ? The busy businesses. , ^ , , ., , 

•I /: 1 ^ / u'^^^}^ k,. When it is remembered that the railroads are 

investor can easily find out for himself by ^^^„y ^,^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ .^ ^,^ 

keeping in touch with the three sensitive be seen how well the heart action of business 

trade barometers: The state of steel and iron may be determined by scrutiny of these eam- 

manufacture, of combined railroad earnings, ings month by month. 

and of bank clearings in the difiFerent prin- Bank clearings represent, of course, the ebb 

cipal cities. These figures appear in any ^"^ ^^^ ""[ business as this passes through 

• 1 n ' ^ J i money institutions. The volume of chedcs 

newspaper with a proper financial depart- j,^^^ ^p^„ ^^^^^ i„ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ j„ ^^^ ^.^^ 

ment, and they are placed opposite corre- week shows accurately, of course, the amount 

spending figures for the past year, so that an of money required to handle the business of that 

exact comparison of increase or decrease is city in the course of that week, and, therefore, 

apparent. J. H. Gannon, Jr., In Pearsons f^e amount of business actually transacted. If 

Magazine ^ comments on these three " ba- Jt is compared with the business transacted 

•^ „ . y, ^ previous week, or in the same week of the prc- 

rometers as toUows : ceding year, the picture of the business situation 

^1 TT •. J o. . o. 1 /- .• , s^ ^^^ ^s ^^^t particular city is concerned is com^ 

The United States Steel Corporation has as- plcte. 

sumed such a leading position in the steel and 

iron trade, through its attraction to itself of Below the editors of the Review OF Re- 

many of the biggest plants m the United States, ,^^,,.3 f^^^j^j^ ^e latest '' readings " of the 

that a knowledge of its business fortunes is , ,< 1 » ^r^ ««"*b^ "* "■*- 

really accurate information of the situation with ^^"^^^ barometers. lo follow such rc- 

ali other steel and iron-making concerns. Iron Ports as they appear, and to form deductions 

and steel are in this age the basis for so many constantly improving In accuracy, adds intcr- 

diflFerent kinds of activity, finding extended use est to daily affairs, and is a habit that every 

in the construction of skyscrapers and buildings investor should cultivate. 
ot many kinds, as well as in railroad work, such i?* *. ...u 1 ^ ^ 1 <■ » 

as bridges, rails, and equipment, that when the ^ ^1''^^^^ ^*^^ latest quarterly report of the 

Steel Corporation reports a falling-oflF in orders ^^^^^1 Corporation is quoted. The item of 

it means declining trade in real estate and in " unfilled orders " is always significant: 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



Ill 



UNFILLED ORDERS ON HAND. 

Tons. Tons. 

Sept. 30, 1907. . 6,425,008 June 30, 1904. .3,192.277 

June 30, 1907. .7,603,878 Mar. 31, 1904. .4,136.961 

June 30, 1906. .6,809.589 Dec. 31. 1903.. .3.215,123 

Mar. 31, 1906. .7,018,712 Sept. 30, 1903.. 3,278,742 

Dec. 31. 1905.. .7.605,086 June 30, 1903. .4.066,578 

Sept. 30, 1905.. 5,865.377 Mar. 31, 1903. .5.410.719 

June 30, 1905. .4.829.655 Dec. 31. 1902.. .5,347,253 

Mar. 31, 1905. .5,597,560 Sept. 30, 1902.. 4.843,007 

Dec. 31. 1904.. .4,696,203 June 30, 1902. .4,791,993 
Sept. 30, 1904.. 3,027,436 

Commenting on this table, Chairman E. 
H. Gary said, on October 29: 

In view of the fact that there has been some 
recession in business during the last three 
months, which has resulted in numerous in- 
quiries from stockholders, I feel justified in 
making to you a frank statement. 

On June 30, 1907, our companies had on hand 
unfilled orders aggregating 7,603,878 tons. On 
September 30 this tonnage had been decreased to 
6,425,008 tons. This has since been decreased by 
about 400,000 tons. The bookings in August 
were about 18,000 tons per day. In September 
they were about 20,000 tons per day. There 
were further increases during the first half of 
October, but since that time the bookings have 
decreased, and are now at the rate of 18,000 
tons per day for the month. 

Since November i, the corporation has 
cut dow^n Its output more than 50 per cent. 
But it was run at top capacity for the first 
ten months of the year, so that the total pro- 
duction for 1907 will be the greatest of any 
year in its history. 

In the table of net earnings which fol- 
lows, notice especially the last line, which 
shows the heavy increase for the first three 
quarters over the similar 1906 period. This 
means that the net earnings for the fourth 
quarter of 1907 could decrease more than 
$1 3*500,000, and still leave the corporation 
•with net earnings equal to those of the pros- 
perous year of 1906. 

jnST EARNINGS FOB NINE MONTHS ENDING SEPTEM- 
BER 30. 

1907. 1906. 

January $12,838,703 $11,850,375 

February 12,145,815 10,958,275 

March 14,137,974 13,819,840 

First quarter $39,122,492 $36,634,490 

April $14,600,838 $12,581,902 

May 16,056,832 14.041,601 

June 14,846,035 13,501,530 

Second quarter $45,503,705 $40,125,033 

July $13,804,167 $12,242,098 

August 15,279.173 13,158,860 

September 14,720,945 12,713,666 

Third quarter $43,804,285 $38,114,624 

Total nine months $128,430,482 $114,874,147 

Next IS shown the latest monthly report 
of bank clearings, exhibiting a decrease for 
the whole country of 29.3 per cent, as com- 
pared with 1906. Least falling off appeared 
in the Soutli Atlantic and Western sections. 



November. 1907. 1906. Per ct. 

New England. . $065,159,589 $852,r>22,128 —22.0 

Middle 836.210.609 1,003.506.127 — 16.7 

South Atlantic. 247,779,142 271,638,428 — 8.8 

Southern 518,549,437 631,814.752 —17.9 

Central West. . 1,203,402.734 1,431,162.354 —16.0 

Western 407.200,872 419.446.046 — 2.9 

Pacific 273,051.371 428,490,531 —36.3 

Totals $4,151,359,754 $5,038,580,302 — 17.6 

N. Y. City.... 5.500,742.102 8,007.987.812 —36.1 

United States.$0.G52,101,91G $13,040,568,174 —29.3 

The New York City figures are larger 
than all the rest of the country's put together, 
but are less significant of trade conditions 
than the others, because of their connection 
with the transactions on the two great stock 
exchanges. Stock " purchases " and ** sales " 
have fallen off radically during the autumn 
depression ; but only a minor proportion of 
these transactions represents actual business, 
as distinguished from speculation. In spite 
of the heavy decrease in New York City, it 
is reassuring that no banking institution of 
established conservative reputation was 
forced to close its doors. 

The third table, that of the latest re- 
ported gross earnings of railroads, looks a 
little pessimistic at first glance, but some 
allowances must be made for special condi- 
tions. The figures given are those of rail- 
roads reporting to the Commercial and 
Financial Chronicle, of New York City. 

55 RAILROADS, JANUARY 1 -NOVEMBER 30. 

Year. Gross earnings. Mileage. 

1906 $540,238,902 72.766 

1907 590,965,575 74,037 

Increase, 9.S9 per cent. 

56 RAILROADS, MONTH OP NOVEMBER. 

Year. Gross earnings. Mileage. 

1906 $53,425,317 73,168 

1907 54,770,493 74,439 

Increase only 2.52 per cent. 

In Other words, the November, 1907, in- 
crease of 2.52 per cent, was little more than 
one-fourth the average increase for the 
eleven months of 1907, — 9.39 per cent. But 
the situation is not as bad as it looks. 
Although business depression undoubtedly 
played some part in the lessening of the 
increase, two great agricultural conditions 
were largely responsible, — the delayed move- 
ment of Northwest grain and of Southern 
cotton. The farmers are holding this traffic 
back for higher prices. 

However, it is still too soon to prophesy 
accurately the extent of the threatened trade 
reaction merely from railroad earnings. 
There were sufficient unfilled orders on hand 
October i to keep most factories and mines 
at work for several weeks. The December 
figures for railroad gross earnings, available 
about the middle of January, 1908, may be 
expected to make even a lighter showing. 



THE NEW BOOKS. 

NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 

ILLUSTRATED EDITIONS. day, Page & Co.), entitled "Daffodils, Narcissus 
Among the holiday books with classical or and How to Grow Them " and " Water-Lilies 
semi-classical subjects which have come to us and How to Grow Them, give an abundance of 
for notice are : " The Story of Sir Launcelot and helpful suggestions to the rapid y mcreasmg 
His Companions'* (Scribners), written and il- number of men and ^vomen who take a personal 
lustrated by Howard Pyle; *' The Story of interest m the growing of hardy plants. The 
Joseph" (Baker, Taylor), retold from the Old writer of the daffodils book, A. M. Kirby, gives 
Testament, with pictures in color, by George Al- ^ chapter on flowering daffodils m winter and 
fred Williams ; " Gallantry " (Harpers), an eigh- also on water culture m the house, containing 
teenth century "dizain in ten comedies with an Practical sugestions for people who are inter- 
afterpiece " by James Branch Cabell, illustrated ^sted in the indoor cultivation of those bulbs, 
in color by Howard Pyle; " God's Calendar," il- ij^e authors of the book on water-lilies, Prof, 
lustrated in color from photographs (Jennings ^^"O^ S. Conard and Mr. Henn Hus, have 
& Graham), by William A. Quayle; "Favorite made a special study of aquatic plants, gmng 
Fairy Tales" (Harpers), the childhood joys of sP^^ial attention to practical methods for build- 
representative men and women, illustrated and *"^. enective water gardens. ^ 
with colored marginal designs by Peter Newell; ,. ^ popular guide to American mosses and 
'The Holly-Tree Inn and a Christmas Tree," Ijchens has been compiled bv Nma K Marshall, 
of Dickens, arranged (Baker & Taylor) with il- ^J^^ author of The Mushroom.Book (Double- 
lustrations in color and line by George Alfred ^ay, Page). Numerous cuts interspersed 
Williams; Longfellow's " Hanging of the Crane " throughout the text, together with the full-page 
(Houghton, Mifflin), illustrated in color by Ar- P^atf^' several of which are in color, afford a 
thur Keller, with designs by Florence Swain; ""^ady means of identfying many of our com- 
" The Rivals," Sheridan's famous comedy, "^^y^'* ^P^/^^^ and lichens, and the author adds 
brought out by Crowell with an introduction by "seful information concerning the uses and 
Prof. Brander Matthews and illustrations by M. methods of preserving these plants. 
Power O'Malley; "Alice's Adventures in Won- ,, ^^ \ttle book by James Buckham, entitled 
derland" (by Lewis Carroll), brought out by Afield with the Seasons (Crowell), gives a 
Doubleday, Page & Co., with twelve drawings in series of mterpretations of nature in its varying 
color and pen sketches by Arthur Rackham and '"^^s as related to the recurring changes in the 
a poem by Austin Dobson ; and " The First Nan- ^^^A^^"^• . , . , , .,i t 
tucket Tea Party" (Doubleday, Page), illus- A" American bird-lovers will welcome a new 
trated, decorated, and illuminated by Walter book by Upt brilliant young naturalist, Mr. Wil^ 
jj^tlg nam L. rinley, of Portland, Ore., whose photo- 
Other holiday books depending almost exclu- ^^^P^^ /"^ ^ird life as they have appeared in 
sively for their attraction upon their illustrations some of our leading illustrated magazines dur- 
are: "The Harrison Fisher Book" (Scribners), >."? the past few years have commanded general 
a collection of drawings in colors and black and "interest. The studies forming the^ basis of the 
white, with an introduction by James B. Car- Present volume - American , Birds Photon 
rington; "The Astonishing Tale of a Pen and graphed and Studied from Life (Scribners),- 
Ink Puppet" (Scribners), "being some gentle were largely made in the West, but representa- 

sarcasm on the genteel art of illustrating," by ^^'t ^a'a^-^""?^ ''*^^'' ^^'"^^?^*l'u '''''"'i'^ *^^ 

Oliver Herford; and "The Teddyssey" (Life included m the survey so that, the work as a 

Publishing Company), a scries of good-natured '^^''}^ is national in its scope Many of the 

thrusts at the President by Otho Gushing. photographs employed were made by Mr. Her- 

A beautiful edition of " Hymns of the J"^" \ Bohlman, with whom Mr Fm ev has 

Marshes," by Sidney Lanier (Scribners), is il- ^^^" ^^^^^^^ associated in studying bird life for 

lustrated from nature by Henry Troth, whose ["^"^ y^^^l^' T^ .f^c^l^-^ ^uch photographs as 

drawings are aptly fitted to the verse which they these involves in itself a study of the subjects 

accomoanv which goes far to insure the general accuracy 

^ ^' of the observations recorded in the text. 
NATURE AND OUT-OF-DOOR BOOKS. About ninety American birds are described in 

_ , , , , , . ^ • a volume entitled " Feathered Game of the 

So marked has been the recent increase of the Northeast," by William H. Rich (Crowell). 

output of American " nature books " that a The author is a practical sportsman and has him- 

change has taken place in the customs and self hunted nearly every bird in New England 

methods of publishing houses. The publication which he describes in this book, 
of this class of books is no longer confined to The first volume in the " Animal Behavior 

the spring or summer months, but is distributed Series" (Macmillan) is "The Dancing Mouse, 

throughout the year. It happens that during A Study in Animal Behavior," by Dr. Robert 

the past autumn an unusually large number of M. Yerkes, instructor in comparative psychology 

books having to do with out-of-door life, both in Harvard University. This book is as useful, 

vegetable and animal, have been issued from the perhaps, as a disclosure of the methods by which 

P'^S?^* . ^ ^^^ behavior and intelligence may be studied as 

Two volumes in the Garden Library (Double- for what it contributes concerning the particular 



THE NEIV BOOKS. 

animal under investigation. To people who have 
not followed the recent developments in this 
field of science the book is a revelation. 

In a little book entitled " The Natural His- 
tory of the Ten Commandments" (Scribners) 
Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton develops his theory 
that the Commandments are not arbitrary laws 
given to man, but are fundamental laws of all 
highly developed animals. In an interesting way 
Mr. Thompson-Seton traces through the animal 
world the consequences following upon a breach 
of the ten great principles on which human so- 
ciety is founded. 

In a volume entitled " Great Golfers in the 
, Making," edited by Henry Leach ( Philadelphia : 
George W, Jacobs & Co.), a number of the most 
celebrated players of this ancient Scottish game 
give autobiographical accounts of their early 
progress, " with reflections on the morals of 
their experience." These men answer, each in 
his own way, the question : " How did you come 
to take itp this game?" The several autobio- 
graphical chapters not only answer this ques- 
tion, but they indicate in large measure what are 
the secrets of the success of these great players. 
BIOGRAPHY AND UEUOIRS. 

" Memorials of Thomas Davidson, the Wan- 
dering Scholar," collected and edited by William 
Knight (Boston: Ginn & Co.), will appeal to a 
great number of students in America and Eng- 
land, many of whom may never have had an op- 
portunity to know Professor Davidson person- 
ally, but had grown familiar with his writings 
as the^ appeared at frequent intervals in the 
magazmes and reviews for many years. David- 
son, a Scotchman by birth, had been drawn to 
America by his desire to found a sort of fellow- 
ship of ethical propaganda and social reform, tary life from the beginning of the Peninsular 
Before coming to this country, however, he had War to the end of the Russian campaign. It 
wandered over Europe, coming into contact with will be remembered that this history of Napo- 
leading minds in the chief universities. All leon, complete in four volumes, is only a por- 
these experiences lilted him for the lectureship tion of the author's "History of the Art of 
on the East Side of New York to which tlie War," which was begun in i8go with the life of 
later years Of his life were devoted. The bib- Alexander. In this work political events are 
liography printed in the appendix to this volume barely touched on, and personal matters arc al- 
of memorials gives an amazing exhibit of the luded to only for the purpose of throwing light 
range of Davidson's work in the fields of specu- on Napoleon's career as a soldier. Although a 
lative philosophy, ethics, and sociology. Profes- part of the larfjer history, this military life of 
sor Davidson died in 1900, at the age of sixty. Napoleon is still of itself a complete work. 

Owen Wisler's " Seven Ages of Washington " Colonel Dodge's ability as a military writer is so 
(Macmillan) is a biography of a new and at- well known as to require no extended comment 
tractive type. Such a departure from the con- in this place. 

ventional lines might be hazardous in the case Concerning the Hon. William Pitt Fes,';enden 
of most of the great men of American history, of Maine little is remembered to-day save that 
but in this instance we believe it to be fully justi- he was one of the seven Republican Senators 
fied, since the great number of biographies al- who voted against the impeachment of President 
ready in existence may be counted on to supply Johnson. His brief period of service as Secre- 
the average reader with the necessary ground- tary of the Treasury in the last year of the 
work of data. . What Mr. Wister attempts to do Civil War is almost forgotten. Yet the two vol- 
is to paint a picture of Washington at successive times which make up t!re aiilhoriiied "Life and 
stages in his career, beginning with his boyhood Public Services of William Pitt Fessenden," by 
and ending with his retirement from the Presi- his son. General Francis Fessenden (Boston: 
dency. It is safe to say that from Mr. Wister's Houghton, Mifflin & Co.), show that he was an 
250 pages the American boy or girl will come important if not a conspicuous figure in the stir- 
away with a clearer image of the Father of His ring legislative annals of the Civil War and Re- 
Country than could possibly be formed by read- construction epochs in our political history. 
ing the ponderous volumes that made up the Senator Fessenden belonged to that group of 
earlier " fives " of Washington. committee workers, the members of which made 

Two additional volumes in Col. Theodore A. up hy assiduous attention to public duties what 
Dodge's "Napoleon," in the Great Captains they lacked by wav of newspaper fame. 



114 THE AMERICAN REyiEW OF REVIEWS. 

strange that his menioirs rcmsineil unpublished 
until one of his sons, after much delving in 
public and private records, was able to prepare 
this full and very satisfactory account. 

In view of the bicentennial anniversary of the 
discovery of Ihe Hudson River it is eminently 
appropriate that a good popular account of the 
episode sliould be given wide circulation. To 
this end Mr. Edgar Mayhew Bacon, who has 
written acceptably before on the Hudson River, 
has prepared an interesting sketch of " Henry 
Hudson, His Times and His Voyages" (Put- 
nams). As the title indicates, this work in- 
cludes much more than an account of Hudson's 
exploration of the Rhine of America, although a 
la^e proportion of Ihc space ts naturally de- 
voted to that exploit. Mr. Hacon has made care- 
ful studies of all of Hudson's voyages, and em- 



Fronllsiileei; (rciliieed) Irom '■ Honry nudaon." 

I i shed in the English language. \[r. Pollak 
gives us the setting of the Ufe and times which 
produced the plays covering almost all the Met- 
icmich regime. The volvimc is an outgrowth of 
a scries of lectures on Austrian dramatists de- 
livered by the author at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
-ily. 

An intimate personal story of Ihc life and 



bodies in this work a great lica! of information 
that will be new to most American readers. 

"Grant, Lincohi, and the I'recdmen " (Long- 
mans, Green & Co.) is the title given to a vol- 
ume of reminiscences by the late Gen. John 
Eaton, United Stales Commissioner of Educa- 
tion. These reminiscences have (o do chiefly 
with the Civil War, having special reference to 
the work for the contrabands and frecdmen of 
the Mississippi Valley. An interesting biograj)h- 
ical sketch of General Eaton, prepared by Miss 
Ethel Osgood Mason, serves as an introduction 
to the volume. 

The name of Franz Grillparzer is so little 
known to American lovers of the drama and 
literature that a real welcome will be accorded 
Mr. Guslav Pollak's study of this dramatist. 
which Dodd, Mead & Co. have just brought out 
under the title " Franz Grillparzer and the Aus- 
trian IJrama." This, if we mistake not, is the 
first biography and critic.il estimate of the fa- 
mous Viennese dramatist which has been pub- 



THE NEtV BOOKS. 



career of " The Real Sir Richard Burton," by 
Waller Phelps Dodge, comes from the press of 
T. Fisher Unwiti, of London, imported by the 
A. Wessels Company. This record of the life 
and aehievemenls of the great explorer, whose 
name ranks with those of Livingstone and Stan- 
ley, is intended to supersede all other lives and 
biographies of the cultured Englishman whose 
translation of " The Arabian Nights " has given 
him also an imperishable fame in the literature 
of our English tongue. 

The autobiography and life-work of the " king 
of conjurers," Robert Houdin, recently brought 
out in A volume in French, entitled " Confi- 
dences d'tin Prcstidigiteur," has been trans- 
lated into English by Coates & Co., of Phifa- 
delphia. This work, which has had a great run 
in Europe, is now presented for the first time 
to the American reading public. 

HISTORY. 

A noteworthj; human document of the Rosso- 
Japanese War .is Tadayoshi Sakiirai's " Human 
Bullets" (Houghton, Mifflin). It is the story 
of the experiences of a Japanese lieutenanl, 
written with the spirit and verve of a man of 
twenty-five who sees the world with the glow 
and courage of his years. The book refers par- 
ticularly to the siege of Port Arthur, and has the 
fascination of a novel as well as the intimate ap- 
peal of a personal diary. There is an introduc- 
tion by Count Okuma. It is interesting to note 
that the translation from the Japanese into Eng- 
lish is by a Japanese, Masujiro Honda, the Ejig- 




lish text, however, being edited by Alice Mabel 

" Old Paths and Legends of the New England 
Border," by Katharine M. Abbott fPutnams), is 
a richly illustrated volume of local history and 
description whi<;h supplements the author's " Old 
Paths and Legends of New England." The 
present volume deals in the main with portions 
of Connecticut and old peerfield, and the Berk- 
shire country of western Massachusetts. Some 
of the fiegalives made by well-known amateur 
photographers of the localities treated have been 
drawn upon for the half-tone illustrations, while 
a number of clever drawings supplement these 
photographs. 

In this field of local history no American in 
recent times has worked more diligently or to 
better purpose than President Lyon G. Tyler, of 
the ancient College of Wilham and Mary, in Vir- 
ginia. President Tyler's "Cradle of the Re- 
public " (Jamestown and James River) was the 
first serious attempt to tell of the topographical 
history of Jamestown and the James River. The 
discovery of new materials led the author to 
bring out a second edition last year, and this 
valuable work now has a companion volume in 
" Williamsburg, the Old Colonial Capital " 
(Richmond, Va.: Whiltet & Shepperson). Wil- 
liamsburg succeeded Jamestown as the capital of 
Virginia, and it was here that the spirit of the 



THE AMERICAN REyiElV OF REVIEWS 



(Scribners), very attractively illustrated in color 
by Edward Penfield. 

Mr. J. N. Leger, the Haitian minister to the 
United States, has completed his descriptive 
work, " Haiti, Her History and Her Detractors," 
which is published simultaneously in English and 
French by the Neale Publishing Company. Mr. 
Leger treats his country from every standpoint, 
— historical, social, and political. His expe- 
riences and reach of view en tide him to re- 
spectful allenlion. He makes no particular 
claim for his country, — simply asks a hearing. 
The first part of the books deals with the his- 
tory of tiie island from its discovery to the 
election of Gen. Nord Alexis as President. The 
second Ircal.s ni the natural conditions of the 



At Sflch'jm's Head, fjulllord. In 111117. lUuKtratlon 
(rMlucciil from '-Old Talbs and UgL'nds of llii! 
New KngJiind llordtT.' 

Old Dominion found expression in the resolu- 
tions against the Stamp Act, the resolution for 
the Committees of Correspondence, and other 
legislative decrees which preceded the Declara- 
tion of American independence. As the seat of 
William and Mary College it is associated with 
the lives of Jefferson, Slarshall, Monroe, the 
Randolphs, and r.iany other great Virginians. 
Old Williamsburg's fame extended far beyond 
State boundaries and became a national heritage. 
The Albert Shaw Lectures on Diplomatic His- 
tory at the Johns Hopkins University in 1906 
were delivered by Dr. Jesse S. Reeves, assistant 

Sirofessor in political science in Dartmouth Col- 
ege. They are now brought out i[i book form 
under the title " American Diplomacy Under 
Tyler and Polk" (Baltimore: The Johns Hop- 
kins Press). The lecturer has discovered a 
thread of continuity in the foreign relations of 
the United Slates during the terms of these 
two so-called "accidental" Presidents. Tlie 
dominalhig questions were those relating to 
boundary. These two administration.^ accom- 
plished the settlement of three boundary ques- 
tions: the northeastern and northwestern 
through negotiation, and the southwestern by 
conquest. 

TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. 
Among the recently issued noteworthy books 
on those portions of the Old World which are 
always receiving pilgrims of art lovers, are; 
" Venice : The Golden Ages," a translation 
( McClurg) by Horatio F. Brown from the 
original Italian of Pompeo Molmenti; "Greece 
and the jEgean Islands" (Houghton, Mifflin), 
by Philip Sanford Rlarden; "The Cathedrals 
and Cloisters of Midland France" (Pulnams), 
in two volumes, by Elise Whitlock Rose, with 
many illustrations from original photographs by 
Vida Hunt Francis; "Italy, the Magic Land" 
(Little, Brown), by Lilian Whiting, copiously 
illustrated : " The Art of the Prado " (L. C. 
Page & Co.), an illustrated study of the con- 
tents of this famous gallery, by C. S. Ricketts ; 
"Browning's Italy" (Baker, Taylor & Co.), a 
study of Italian life and art in Browning, by 
Helen Archibald Clarke, and "Holland Sketches" 



country, the custom,'; and manners of the people, 
and the political administration, 

A work of more than 300 large page.s, in, lar^e 
type, with many illustrations, devoted to "Fiji 
and Its Possibilities," is a new contribution to 
the descriptive literature of the season. The 
book is written with sympathy and evidently 
fiom a background of extensive knowledge by 
Beatrice Grimsliaw, and published by Doubifcday, 
Page & Co. 

A thoroughly up-to-date description of Mex- 
ico, territorially, politically, racially, and econom- 
ically, is Mr, Nevin O. Winter's "Mexico and 
Her People of To-day " (L, C. P.igc & Co.), il- 
lustrated from original photographs. Mr. Win- 
ter has endeavored to be expository rather than 
controversial, to make a complete and accurate 
presentation of his subject " rather than to ad- 
vance radical views concerning and harsh criti- 
cism of our next-door neighbors," The illustra- 
tions arc particularly interesting and helpful in 
supporting and amplifying the text. 

It is no new claim that the hi-ilory of mankind 
through all time has been largely governed by 



THE NEfV BOOKS. 



climatic conditions. A striking anc! new eon- 
lirnialioii of tliis theory, however, is to be fouiul 
in Mr. Ellsworth Huntington's recently issued 
book, "The Puisc of Asia" (Houghton, Mifffin 
& Co.), which gives a very readable account of 
a year spent in daring scientilic exploration in 
ihe deserts of Chinese Turkestan. Mr, Hun- 
tington's study of the primitive home of the 
Chantos convinces him that these are probably 
the nearest of all .existing races to the primitive 
Aryan slock. 

In Dr. Charles A. Eastman's "Old Indian 
Days" <McClure) wc mi-L-t Ihe trnilitional red- 



SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISCUSSION. 
In a little volume entitled " Some Neglected 
Aspects of War" (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.) 
arc included cSsnys by Capt. A. T. Mahan, Dr. 
Ilennr S. Pritchelt, and Julian S. Corbclt. Cap- 
tain Mahan treats of the moral and practical as- 
pects of war, w:(r from the Christian standpoint, 
and the Hague Conference of 1907 and the ques- 
tion of immunity for belligerent merchant ship- 
ping; while ex-Presid.:nt Pritchctt writes of 
" The Power that Makes for Peace," and Julian 
S. Corbett, lecturer in history to the Naval War 



skin, all strong and superb, his career all grandly 
heroic and breathlessly adventurous ; but, on the 
other hand, wc read authentic accounts of some 
curious national customs of the Sioux, rendere<I 
the more interesting through the author's com- 
paring these with latter-day Indian usages. The 
color plates, done by Groesbeck, adorning the 
volume, are briliiantlj' executed. 

Mr. Richard Harding Davis has made a very 
readable travel book out of his experiences in 
eqlalorial Africa, and the Scribners have 
brought the book out with the title "The Congo 
and Coasts of Africa." Mr. Davis saw a great 
many interesting things in the Congo region, 
some of them despite the assiduous efforts of 
the Belgian officials to prevent. The volume is 
illustrated from photographs taken by the author. 

A series of first-hand views of London life on 
its pathetic side, with much of sociological in- 
terest, is brought out (McClurc) under the title 
of " The Soul Market." The authoress is Olive 
Christian Malvcry (Mrs. Archibald Mackirdy). 



"H0t-SANn-YE.\H-OI.n HIKDl! TEMPLE 

rpduccd} trum "The Tulae of Asia." 



THE /tMERIC^N REyiElf OF REI^IEWS. 



(rodiiccd) from " Hn:t 



Course, contributes a paper on " The Capture of 
Private Property at Sea." 
The lectures on socialism delivered in various 

iiarts of lliis country last year by W. H. Mal- 
ock, at the invitation and under the auspices of 
the National Civic Federation, have been slightly 
recast and published by Mr. ^lallock in a book 
entitled "A Critical Examination of Socialism" 
(Harpers). Wr, Mallock's attitude, while emi- 
nently fair, is in general that of a n on- Socialist, 
His analytic and literary powers, as sliQwn so 
brilliantly in his former well-known work, " The 
Reconstruction of Religious Belief," characterize 
also this little volume. In his preface he admits 
the justice and value of some of the criticisms 
made upon his lectures by American Socialists. 
These criticisms, however, he maintains, indicate 
how far " modern Socialists thus are unable, so 
far as fundamental principles are concerned, to 
controvert the main arguments brought forward 
in this volume." 

A new book by the editor of the Review of 
Reviews is entitled " The Outlook for the Aver- 
age Man" <Macmillan). The appeal of this 
work is chiefly to those young men of our day 
who feel that in the changing social and eco- 
nomic conditions which nmst now be faced the 
3ld landmarks are lost or obscured, while even 
a moderate degree of success in life's battle 
seems to require a wholly new kind of equip- 



ment. Dr. Shaw has a message of encourage- 
ment tor the " average man " of our time. Never 
before, in his view, was the young man's op- 
portunity greater than it is to-day ; but the best 
investment that any young man can make is in 
his own training for useful and etTeclive work 
hi the world. "If trained capacity has been a 
valuable asset in the past, it becomes the one 
indispensable asset under the new conditions." 
The five college addresses which make up this 
volume are all rich in suggestions derived from 
many years' observation and experience. 

ESSAYS AND GENERAL LITERATURE. 

Prof. George E. Woodberry's " Appreciation 
of Literature, which comes to us from Baker 
& Taylor, consists of a series of studies includ- 
ing Keats, Byron, Milton, Goldsmith, and I.amb, 
written in the author's happy, optimistic spirit. 
Professor Woodberry's other recent volume, 
" Great Writers " (McClure) considers Cer- 
vantes, Scott. Montaigne, Milton, and Shake- 
speare. Mr. Robert A. Willmott's " Pleasures 
of Literature" (Putnams), on the other hand, 
IS less of a study of literary masters than a 
(ileasantly written compendium of sound advice 
to those who would make writing a profession. 

Among other studies of literary masters re- 
cently issued we have received Dr. William 
Wharton Payne's " Greater English Poets of 
the Nineteenth Century" (Holt): Dr. Elmer 
James Bailey's study of " The Novels of George 
Meredith" (Scribners); and of course the in- 
evitable Shakespeare studies, including " Shake- 
speare as a Dramatic Thinker" (Macmillan), 
by Prof. Richard G. Moullon, and a recast old 
edition of the immortal bard's sonnets under 
the title " Shakespeare, England's Ulysses," be- 
ing the masque of " Love's Labor Won " drama- 
tized from the sonnets of 1609 by Latham Davis 
(press of M. N. Willey, Seaford, Del.) 

The mystical, seductive charm which charac- 

■ terizes all the writings of the late William 
Sharpe (" Fiona Macleod ") fairly saturates 

■ the two little volumes just brought out by Duf- 
field: " Pharais, The Romance of the Isles " and 
" The Sin-Eater, and Other Tale-;." 

" Culture by Conversation " (Dodd, Mead), by 
Robert Waters, is a pica for the resurrection of 
the old lost art of conversing, which, says the 
author of this volume, i,s as superior to books 
as living men and women are to the post mor- 
tem stories of their lives. Another phase of the 
same subject,^ — treated, however, more technical- 
ly,— is Prof. M. V. O'Shea's " Linguistic De- 
velopment and Education" (Macmillan). 

In " Inquiries and Opinions " (Scribners), 
Prof. Brander Matthews, who is one of the few 
living masters of the essay, discusses literary 
craftsmanship and the tcchniiiue of the drama. 

Maurice Maeterlinck's " Intelligence of Ihe 
Flowers " is ostensibly a nature book, but the 
delicate imagination and exquisite literary style 
of the author are so pervasive and charming 
throughout the bonk that it is really a work of 
literature. The English translation is by Alex- 
ander Teixeira de Maltos, and the publishers 
are Dodd, Mead. 

"Daj-s Off" (Scribners), by Dr. Henry van 
Dyke, IS a series of " digression -s," as (he genial 
Doctor pi:ts it. meaning holiday oiilings and par- 
ticularly fishing trips. These digressions are 



THE NEIV BOOKS. 119 

written in the Doctor's own inimitable style, and Bible" CMacmillan). This excellent work has 

the book, which is well illustrated, is dedicated already been noticed in these pages, 

to ex-President Cleveland, " whose years of A few years ago the term *' Christocentric 

great work as a statesman have been cheered by theology " was much in use. Perhaps one rea- 

days of good play as a fisherman." son why the phrase is less familiar now is that 

The latest addition to the Little Journeys what was once a designation of a particular 

series of Elbert Hubbard is " Little Journeys to school is now used to characterize the whole 

the Homes of Eminent Orators," including trend . of modern theological thinking. Prac- 

studies of Pericles, Mark Antony, Savonarola, tically all theology nowadays is Christocentric. 

Martin Luther, Burke, Pitt, Marat, Beecher, The word is no longer needed to distinguish a 

Ingersoll, Henry, King, and Phillips. special phase of thought. The very titles of 

pi?T iriniiQ Aisin thpot nriPAT wopk«? theological treatises indicate this tendency. 

RELIGIOUS AND THEOLOGICAL WORKS. .. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^j j^^^^^ ,, ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

The approach of Christmas is always heralded (Scribners) ; ** The Christ That Is to Be," by 
by the . appearance of a number of books on the author of "Pro Christo et Ecclesia " (Mac- 
religious or semi-religious topics, some of them millan) ; '* Epochs in the Life of Jesus," by 
exclusively ecclesiastical in subject, others of a Dr. A. T. Robertson (Scribners) are among 
more general philosophical or popular tone, the books of the past autumn. The Rev. R. J. 
Dr. William Trumbull's "Evolution and Re- Campbell's "New Theology Sermons" (Mac- 
ligioh " (Grafton Press) is a study of the great millan) is another volume devoted very largely 
religions of the world, ostensibly by a confirmed to an exposition of the power of Christ in the 
evolutionist in talks with his children ; Dr. world as interpreted by modern scholarship. 
James Orr's "Virgin Birth of Christ" (Scrib- Turning from the doctrinal to the purely his- 
ners) is a collection of lectures delivered during torical aspects of Christ's career on earth, an 
the past year to Bible teachers, aiming to re- exceedingly interesting contribution has been 
establish faith in the miracle of (Thrist's incarna- made by Rabbi Aaron P. Drucker, of Austin, 
tion; "Christ and Buddha" (American Baptist Texas, in a brochure entitled "The Trial of 
Publication Society), by Dr. Josiah Nelson Jesus, from Jewish Sources" (New York: 
Cushing. is a reverend, comparative study of Bloch Publishing Company). Jewish traditions, 
the sublime figures in the title. as indicated by Rabbi Drucker, while they differ 

Among strictly ecclesiastical studies we have from the New Testament narratives, do not 

received Dr. Caspar Rene Gregory's " Canon really oppose or contradict those narratives, but 

and Text of the New Testament," in the Inter- rather confirm and corroborate them. The 




the fourth edition of this work, now brought the Jewish people were betrayed by the Romans. 

out by Jennings & Graham contributions to science. 

Of volumes of sermons and rehgio-philosophic 

studies there are many, including among the " The Conquest of Cancer " is the somewhat 




veil), by Dr. Charles F. Aked : "The Empire ment of malignant growths by specific or can- 

of Love" (Revell), by W. J. Dawson; " Signs crotoxic ferments. The author, of course, would 

of God in the World " (Jennings & Graham), not go so far as to maintain that the disease has 

by John P. D. John ; " The Infinite Affection " been actually conquered, but holds that there is 

(Pilgrim Press), by Charles S. Macfarland; warrant for belief that the new mode of attack 

"This Mystical Life of Ours" (Crowell), by indicated and initiated by Dr. Beard "gives us 

Ralph Waldo Trine; and " The Temple of Vir- the key to the enemy's position, and that so soon 

tue" (Houghton, Mifl[lin), by Paul Revere as this advantage is pressed home the conquest 

Frothingham. of cancer will be an accomplished fact." 

Two very welcome English versions of im- , Prof. William Herbert Hobbs, of the Univer- 
portant philosophical and religious works of sity of Michigan, has written a book on the sub- 
European masters are: Nietzsche's "Beyond ject of earthquakes (Appletons), which ought 
Good and Evil," a prelude to a philosophy of to suggest answers to many of the questions 
the future (Macmillan), the authorized trans- which have arisen since the California disaster 
lation by Helen Zimmern, and the " Religion of April, 1906. Professor Hobbs represents the 
and Historic Faiths " of Dr. Otto Pfleiderer field geologists, whose interests in the subject of 
(University of Berlin), translated from the earthquakes has only recently been aroused. In- 
German by Dr. Daniel A. Huebsch and pub- deed, the study of the subject, as Professor 
lished by B. W. Huebsch. Hobbs points out in his preface, has been largely 

" The Representative Women of the Bible " left to mathematicians at the observatories, who 

(Jennings & Graham), by Dr. George Matheson, compute the direction of earthquakes and fix the 

and " The Story of the Covenant and the Mys- location of disturbed districts. But the geolo- 

tery of the Jew " (Broadway Publishing Com- gists are now awake to the fact that earthquakes 

pany), by J. L. Woodbridge, are historical are but manifestations of the forces which are 

studies with religious subjects. active within the earth's crust, and so constitute 

We are glad to note, also, a new edition of a most important province within their field of 

Prof. Richard G. Moulton's " Modem Reader's study. 



THE NOVELS OF THE SEASON. 



05t itnporlant con- 
is offered by tlie lit- 



UNDOUBTEDLV the i 
■tribution to the scasi 
ture, — litcraliirc, not books,- 
tle group of four ladies, Iwi 
Etiglisli, with ibe discussion of whose latest pub- 
lications we may therefore appropriately begin : 

" The Fruit of the Tree," ( Scribner) , by Edith 
Wharton. 

"A Fountain Scaled" (Century), by Anne 
Douglas Sedgwick. 

"The Shuttle" (Stokes), by Frances Hodg- 
son Burnett. 

"The Helpmate" (Holt), by May Sinclair. 

Our arrantjcment is not intended as a classifi- 
cation by merit, but is merely to indicate the 
titles and authors, the first pair being the Ameri- 
cans, In gener;il, it seems to us, the most ar- 
tistic psychologic;d analysis stands to the credit 
of the American couple, while as to the building 
of effective narration the English writers have 
reached the higher standard. But, altogether, 
ovels represent the best literary work 
being done by the women of the two 



these 

that ■ 



FOUR LADY SATIRISTS. 



t to o 



because she is also much of a melodi 
Shakespeare, however, was both, one should re- 
member ; and so was Byron. " The Shuttle," 
indeed, shows the least acute sensibility in char- 
acter-drawing of the whole quartette. The vil- 
lainous villain of a British aristocrat who m<ir- 
ries an American girl for her money is villain- 
ously vile beyond all plausibility. An English- 
man of his class and bringing up might strike 
his wife in a moment of ungo\-erned fury, but 
would not systematically waylay and open her 
letters. He would no more do this than a young 
American lady of Rosalie Vanderpoel's education 
and refinement would use bad grammar. Such 
and other defects, however, by no means pre- 
clude the total impression of " The Shutlk " 
from remaining a powerful one. — emotionally, 
decidedly so. And Mrs. Burnett's inciusivi-. 



HODGSON BURNETT. 



sweeping aspect of both English and American 
life is wonderfully broad. Such an enlightened 
paragraph as this, in " The Shuttle," well de- 
.serves remembrance ; 

"' In the United States of America, which have 
not yet acquired the serene sense of conserva- 
tive, self-satisf action and repose which centuries 
of age may bestow, the spirit of life itself is the 
aspiration for change. Ambition itself only 
means the insistence on change. Each day is to 
be better than yesterday, fuller of plans, of 
briskness, of initiative. Each to-day demands of 
to-morrow new men, new minds, new work. A 
(i-day which has not launched new ships, ex- 
plored new countries, constructed new buildings, 
added stories to old ones, may consider itself a 
failure, imworlhy even of being consigned to 
the limbo of respectable yefiierdays. Such a 
country lives by leaps and bounds! " 

Mrs. Burnett long lived in America, and Miss 
Sedgwick spends nuich time in England, so that 
"A i-'oimtain Scaled" likewise partakes of dual 
nationality, as it were. Leaving aside Miss 
Sedgwick's Britons, we find her representation 
of Imogen Upton the subtlest piece of satiric 
portraiture recently achieved on either side of 
the Atlantic. So fine is Miss Sedg^vick's method 
that she begins by Raining one's sympathy and 
admiration for a girl subsequently revealed as a 
self-centered, phrase-making, pharasaical egoist 



THE NOVELS OF THE SE/ISON. 



Eminently successful, too, must be declared her 
picture of that rhetorically and vapidly bom- 
bastic pseudo-philanthropist, Mr. Potts. If Mr. 
Potts lacks the succulence of Dickensonian char- 
acters, he is also free from their incredible gro- 
tcsquery. Miss Sinclair's Anne Majendie, — see 
"The Helpmate," — shows less thoughtful con- 
ception and minute elaboration than Imogen Up- 
ton, but exhibits a satiric pungency sometimes 
bordering on farce. Mr. Majendie's helpmate, 
a. devout woman, endued with all the intoler- 
ance of inexperience, appears as relentless as 
she is reli^ous ; she typifies the sort of good, 
sincere, pious Christian dame so enormously 
^ood Uiat she can't forgive her fellow-Chris- 
tians their sins. Miss Sinclair has few illusions 
left about life, and skins its hypocrisies lo the 
bone. " The Help- 



"The Fruit of 
the Tree," again, 
embodies that 
sharp perception 
of human charac- 
ter which first 
brought Mrs. 
Wharton deserved 



the quality of sa- 
tire does not take 
m<mopolistic place, 
for satire is not 
an object in itself, 
and all these* lady 
authors have writ- 
ten their books 
with a more or 

less strong concur- ^ . , , . ., 
rent vein of oa- Coverdeslen (reduced), 
thos. Among the 

ladies Mrs. Burnett speaks with the most directly 
appealing pathos, while Mrs. Wharton's keener 
cleverness leaves you with your feelings funda- 
mentally unshaken. 

BYOONB DAYS. 

Marion Crawford, whose " Mr. Isaacs " and 
" Saracinesca " are still bought and talked of ,-- 
as his publishers, the Macmillans, will testify,— 
though without weight as a psychologist or 
philosopher, still maintains his standard as a 
very phed story-teller. His latest book, in 
fact, IS considerably richer as to incident, and 
more dramatic as to suspense, than his recent 
novek have been. The scene of " Arethusa " is 
laid in fourteenth-century Constantinople, and 
the plot turns upon an attempt to dethrone the 
usurper Andronicus, with the object of restor- 
ing his father Johannes. Arethusa, the beauti- 
ful heroine, is given out to be a slave, but there 
are surprises in store for those who have actually 
r^carded her as such. 

Another historical novel, just published by the 
Harpers, takes one a hundred years further 
down the current of time and over a thousand 
miles westward on the map, to the charming 
region of old Poitou. Here readers of " Qucn- 
tin Durward " will meet with their old friends 
lUng Louis XI. and his quaint familiar, Olivier 



le Daim ; and here docs Master Frangois Villon 
disport himself not only as wit but as swords- 
man, not only as lyrist but as lover, so that he 
meets and defeats his most formidable foe in 
single combat, and at the last wins the lady of 
his heart's desire. Mr. J. H. McCarthy lends 
the amenities of his iiuent, agreeable style to 
this narration, which has come out as " Needles 
and Pins." The Renaissance period, too, has 
furnished Mr. Duffield with a romantic theme, 
though we are bound to say that "The Angels 
of Messer Ercole " (Stokes) interests chiefly 
through the admirable photogravures of Peru- 

?ian scenes and of classic masterpieces by Ra- 
ael, Perugino, and others ; from the pictorial 
point of view, this little volume merits positive 
praise, while the author's part as undoubtedly 
deserves the reproach of lacking distinction. 
"Stolen Treasure" (Harper) suggests, without 
exposition, Howard Pyle's lively buccaneering 
episodes, occurring in the seventeenth and eigli- 
tcenlh centuries, and illustrated by himself. 

Bej-ond these tales of various date and dinie 
English history provides three others. Agnes 
and Egerton Castle in " My Merry Rockhurst " 
(Macmillan) depict Charles Il.'s corrupt court 
by means of affairs' of gallantry and mtrigue. 
But the Egerton couple must share with Mau- 
rice Hewlett, who issues "The Stooping Lady" 
(Dodd, Mead), the imputation of "preciosity," 
that is to say a style artificially elaborate, con- 
sciously elegant, and affectedly recondite, — the 
manner of the bluestocking. Otherwise, Mr. 



THE AMERICAN REI^IEiy OF REflEU^S. 



Hewlell's capacities serve to make his novel 
about a certain lady who stooped to one be- 
neath ber, — in the days of Cobbett's glory, — an 
entertaining one. Closer to our own day comes 
A. E. W. Mason, with "The Broken Road" 
(Scribner), slifihllj reminiscent of "Mr. Isaacs," 
in that Britain's political complications with 
Afghanistan arc brought into play, the rnler 
of that wild eonntry, Shere Ali, dominating in 
Mr. Mason's well-knit narrative. 

OLD AND NEW SPAIN. 

One of the step.s in Spain's forefated descent 
from influence and power in the western hem- 
isphere has just now been given grapliic exhi- 
bition by a promising young scribe. Mr. Eugene 
Lyle. Jr., and it seems to us thai our lillest com- 
ment upon his "Lone Star" (Donbleday, Page) 
would be to quote some lines at the end of the 
hook, describing the horribly decisive battle of 
San Jacinto, in the Texan war of 1836: 

" They were coming by leaps and bounds 
through the high grass, gripping Iheir rifles, 
their ranks breaking, the whole long line be- 
coming irregular as some outdistanced others, 
and over the center waved the flag of the Lone 
Star. The sun shone on the eager Texan faces, 
and reddened hare chests and arms. They sang 
and shouted as they came. Houston was gal- 
loping up and down tn advance of the line. The 
line ducked to a volley of musketry from the 
barricade, and men flung rifles to their shoulders, 
Houston swung his arms wrathfully. I could 
hear his deep voice bellowing over the, tumult, 
' Damn you, hold your fire I ' Whips were crack- 
ing, horses plungmg, and there was the swift 
rumbling of wheels. Then, within eighty yards, 
our two cannon opened up, and bags of canister 
crashed through the barricade, , , . The af- 
fair was henceforth more a brawl than a battle. 



a free hand-lo-hand fight, the most glorious 
brawl in all the warfare of all the world. All 
bcmbiaiice of alignment was lost at the first con- 
tact. Officers, orders, tactics, were useless. 
Each Texan was a captain, as Houston had 
promised. Better than that, he was a man in a 
personal fray. When his rifle and pistols were 
emptied, he used them as clubs until they broke. 
Then he unsheathed his bowie knife, and sprayed 
the brains of the nearest fleeing Mexican; then 
on to the next, with sweep after sweep of his 
bared arm. Over all the field every man of the 
700 was working in the same way, until the high 
grass was wet as after a shower. They wrenched 
escopctas from Mexicans who still opposed them. 
They caught up loaded rifles stacked about the 
camp. Then they used their bowie knives again. 
Altogether it required just about fifteen minutes 
for the winning of Texas," 

The capture of Peru, Mr. C, B. Hudson, an- 
other young author, more of a scholar and less 
oi a partisan than Mr. Lyle, sets forth with con- 
siderable eloquence in his appropriately named 
" Crimson Conquest" (McClurg). Pi zarro's per- 
sonal rapacity, and the general spirit of wanton 
lust for riches, pervading the Spanish host, come 
out in fierce- colors in relation to the topic of 
Atahualpa's ransom; as to his half-brother's, 
Huasca's, manner of death, the author opines 
that the fact of bis being drowned in the river 
Andamarca seems proof to support ihe theory 
that be perished while attempting to escape from 
captivity. 

Contemporaneous with the beginning of 
Spanish martial ascendency in the New World 
was the height of the Inquisitorial authority at 
home, and in so far as romantic writings can 
offer any sure ground tor comparison, Rider 
Haggard's "Margaret " (Longmans) reveals the 



THE NOl^ELS OF THE SEASON. 



same sort of blind ferocity employed in the name 
of religion as the " Cr'mson Conquest " and 
" The Lone Star " show it the agent of patriot- 
ism. Mr. Haggard, chiefly successful at thril- 
ling by speed and action, to the prejudice of thi^ 
finer literary arts, again demonstrates his ex- 
pertness as a chronicler of exciting events. 
Movement also, in the most literal sense, char- 
acterizes the Williamsons' new automobile story, 
whose hero is a Spanish nobleman. Though 
under sentence of exile, he yet follows an Eng- 
lish girl all through the land of his birth, dis- 
guised as a chauffeur, eventually receiving King 
Alfonso XlII.'s spoken permission, — at a bull 
fight,— to wed the pleadmg, palpitating, pretty 
young person. Quite " up-to-date," this novel. 
"The Car of Destiny" (McClure) ! A still 



faster pace is set by "The Scarlet Car " (Scrib- 
ner), whose flashing course Mr. Richard Hard- 
ing Davis however confines to the neighborhood 
of New York. 

THB WILD WEST. 

Much more American than Spanish in signifi- 
cance is Mr, Janvier's symposium of Ncw-^Iexi- 
can episodes, the hero-villain of which, half 
parson, half cardsharper, fleeces unwily stranR- 
ers with the aid of a disreputable wench nick- 
named the Sage Brush Hen. And we select this 
book by Mr. Janvier, " Santa Fc's Partner " 
(Harper) for first notice under our very in- 
clusive beading. The Wild West, because of 
the firrt sentence in that same book : 

"I've been around considerable in the West- 
etn country, — mostly some years back, — and I've 
seen quite a little, one way and another, of the 
folks living there, but I can't say I've often 



MABCAREr APraAKEB DEStE.ViJI.NG THE BHOAD OAK 

Frontispiece (roduccd) from " Margaret." 

come up with them nature's noblemen,— all the 
tune at it doins stunts in natural nobihtv.— the 
slory-lH)oks make out is the chief population of 
them parts." 

For the chief fault of those who write on 
Western life is not only to invent characters 
supernatu rally noble, but to represent that life 
as far more romantic, exciting, picturesque, and 
lawless than it actually is or ever was. Bret 
Harte no donbt is largely responsible for the dis- 
semination of such false ideas as may be met 
with ill O. Henry's " Heart of the West," pub- 
lished with fine taste as to external dress by the 
McClure Company. The same publishing house 
_must be congratulated upon Wveth's splendid 
pictures accompanying the text of the book by 
Stewart Edward White, namely "Arizona 
Nights"; nor would it be fair to omit commen- 
dation of Russell's excellent marginal pen-and- 
mk drawings which bring so vividly before the 
mind's eye the intended impression.* of B. M. 
Bower, whose "Lure of the Dim Trails" the 
Dillingham Company publishes in most attrac- 

One should by all means rc.id tlic " Arizona 
i\ight,s " and the " Uirc of the Dim Trails " if 
one descres information about ranch life so far 
as coitcerns its wi)rkailay activities, like roping, 
lirandmg, and rnimdinK up cattle, or even some 
oi lis recreative sprirliiic phases, like coyote 
hunting or card playing. Such matters in them- 



124 THE AMERICAN RE^IEiV OF REVIEWS. 

selves, one finds treated upon not merely instruc- other atmospheric tales. 

lively but entertainingly by both authors ; only 

one must set aside tlie deeds of violence,— all of Passing from the Western to the Eastern 
a conventional type,— artificially interspersed States, from (supposed) turbulence to quietude, 
with the object of producing high temperature a typical New England village tale, entitled 
and rapid pulse-beat in the library. Mr. Jack "The Old Peabody Pew" {Houghton, Mifllm), 
London, again, forces too much criminality upon 
those denizens of the Arctic regions who people 
his "Love of Life" (Macmillan); he cannot, 
■learn, it seems, to dissociate power from brutal- 
ity, and, by the way, describes a certain execu- 
tion in " Love of Life " with a good deal less 
verisimilitude than Mr, Janvier gives to a lynch- 
ing scene in " Sanla Fe's Partner." The mildly 
humorous tone of the book just named no doubt 
goes far nearer to the truth than the rollicking 
burlesque of that irresistible fun maker, O. 
Henry; no book of the season will make you 
laugh more than "Heart of the West," and none 
contains characters more improbable. Perhaps. 
the truest stories written are the dullest.— who 
knows ? 

The Harper Brothers issue two Western 
novels in addition to Mr. Janvier's volume, 
" The Settler," by Herman Whitaker, and 
" Money Magic," by Hamlin Garland. Mr. Gar- 
land lacks both the intellectual and artistic 
equipment to write impressively ; he does not, to 
begin with, appear to possess the vocabular re- 
sources to create illusion of the scenic mountain 
world, which he therefore ought to have es- 
chewed altogether. 



(reduFfd) rrom " 



FrontUplece {reducedl (rom " 



comes from the pen of Mrs. Wiggin, Anne War- 
ner adding another success to her reputation as 
ihe biographer of Susan Clegg and her circle. 
in this new story, " Susan Clegg and a Man in 
the House" (Little. Brown), Susan takes a 
boarder, one Mr, Doxey, — not my doxy, nor 
your doxy; neither orthodoxy, nor heterodoxy, 
— but Elijah Doxey. Elijah, appearing on the 
scene with an old printing press, proceeds to the 
enlightenment of the village community by 
original departures in newspaper publication. A 
celebration of Independence Day forms one of 
the most diverting chapters of this humorous 
, volume. A Southern romance is told, in his 
usual vein, — rather tepid,— by Mr. Egglcston ; 
i the Sum of it All" (Lothrop, Lee) 
. as the name indicates, the tender pas- 
sion, or, more specitically, three distinct eases of 
that agreeable ailment. The locality is Virginia, 
and the period Reconstruction. 

Miss Myra Kelly's new East Side school 
stories, "Wards of Liberty" (McQure), have 
received the following epistolary encomium from 
the President of the United States, one of the 
greediest of readers : 

" Mrs. Roosevelt and I and most of the chil- 
dren know your very amusing and very pathetic 
accounts of East Side school-children almost by 
heart, and I really think you must let me write 
and thank you for them. While I was Police 






THE NOl^ELS Of THE SEASON. 



125 



Conunisstoner I quite often went to the Houston 
Street public school and was immensely inter- 
ested and impressed by what I saw there. I 
thought there were a good many Miss Baileys 
there, and the work they were doing among 
their scholars (who were so largely of Russian- 
Jewish parentage, like the children you write 
of) was very much like what your Miss Bailey 
has done." 

Among this season's novels exhaling local 
European atmospheres we note Miss Dorothy 
Canfield's refreshing story descriptive of tlie 
fjords, "Gunhild," issuing from Henry Holt & 
Co.'s Twenty-third Street establishment, while 
from the Harper Brothers, downtown in Frank- 
lin Square, comes "Emerald and Ermine." This 
is a tale of Brittany, by the anonymous author 
of " The Martyrdom of an Empress," who also 
contributes a few pretty water-colors with her 
present offering. Gustav Frensscn takes us lo 
the North Sea coast once more ; " The Three 
Comrades" (Dana, Estes) again exhibits Pastor 
Frensscn's peculiarly spasmodic, throbbing style, 
expressive of highly intense feeling. 

But as exam^es of notably successful atmo- 
spheric authorship, we would point to two novels 
quite recently published, one by Doubleday, Page 
& Co., the second by Charles Scribner's Sons, 
and the only way we hope to secure just appre- 
ciation of the merits of these richly atmospheric 
writings is by quotii^t from each. The follow- 
ing we take from Miss Una Silberrad's Dutch 
tale " The Good Comrade " ; 

"At last they got clear of the taller trees, and 
struggling in thickets of young poplars, and 
other sinewy things. The sand was firmer, but 
honeycombed with rabbit holes, and tangled with 
brambles, and the direction was still upwards, 
though the growth was so thick, and the ground 
so bad, that it was often necessary to go a long 
way round. But in time they were through this, 
loo, and really out on the top. Here there was 
nothing but the Dunes, wide, curving land, that 
stretched away and away, a tableland of little 
hollows and hills, like some sea whose waves 
have been consolidated; near at hand its colors 
were warm, if not vivid, but in the far distance 
it grew paler as the vegetation grew less and 
less, till, far away, almost beyond sight, it failed 
lo grey helm grass, and then altogether ceased, 
leaving the sand bare. Behind lay the trees 
through which they had come, sloping down- 
wards in banks of cool shadows to the map-like 
land and the distant town below; away on right 



and left were other groups of trees, on sides of 
hills and in rounded hollows, looking small 
enough from here, but in reahty woods of some 
size. Here there was nothing; but, above, a 
great bli,e sky, which seemed very dose: and, 
under foot, low-growing Dune roses and wild 
thyme which filled the warm, still air with its 



CoTcr drtlgn (redneMI) from " Tbe Old Pcabod; 



matchless scent; nothing but these, and space, 
and sunshine, and silence." 

From •' The Weavers."— in the second place- 
Sir Gilbert Parker's engrossing romance about 
present day Egypt under British administration, 
we select this eloquently pictorial passage: 

" The bright, unclouded sun looked down on 
a smiling land, and in Cairo streets the din of 
the hammers, the voices of the boys driving 
heavily laden donkeys, the call of the camel- 
drivers leading their caravans into the great 
squares, the clang of the brasses of the sherbet- 
scllcrs, the song of the vender of sweetmeats, 
the drone of the merchant praising his wares, 
went on amid scenes of wealth and luxury, and 
the city glowed with color and streamed with 
light. Dark faces grinned over the steaming pot 
at the door of the cafes, idlers on the benches 
smoked hasheesh; female street dancers bared 
tlieir faces shamelessly to the men, and indolent 
musicians beat on their tiny drums, and sang 
national airs ; and the reciter gave his singsong 
talc from a bench above his fellows. Here, a 
flevout Muslim, indifferent to the presence of 
strangers, turned his face to the East, touched his 
forehead to the ground, and said his prayers. 
There, htnig to a tree by a deserted mosque near 
by the body of one who was with them all an 



THE AMER)CAN RE^IEU^ OF REy/ElVS. 



c-i'dl fri 



n -Domi 



.([cAdve 



hour before, and wlio I:nd paid the penally for 
some real nr imaginary crime, while liis fellows 
blessed Allah that the storm had passed them by," 

Oceania supplies a collection, l.iy Loiii^ Becke. 
of Australian hush life stories, which ihe Lip- 
pineotts liring out, — "The Selllers of Karossa 
Creek"; and G. B. Lancaster revisits his special 
place, the New Zealand sheep country, in " 1 he 
Tracks We Tread" (Doublcday, Page). 
DOMESTIC PROBLEMS. 

" I find it more difficult every day to keep a 
girl," laments a poor lady in Miss Mary Cut- 
ting's new story hook, " on account of Mr. 
Stryker Ithe lady's husband 1 ; there's always so 
much trouble about his meals. He has (o have 
his breakfast at half past six, and some nights 
he doesn't get home for his dinner until nearly 
nine o'clock, and then, after it's kept hot in the 
oven for him for a couple of hours, he often 
hardly eats a thing. I tell him men have so 
little consideration,— they never think of how 
much care they make for you." 

It will probably surprise no one to learn thai 
the title of Miss Cutting's volume is " The Su- 
burban Whirl " (McChire), nor that the servant 
question animates, — that's the word, — s mi dry 
pages of the three books to which we call atten- 
tion as novclistic treatises on Domestic Prob- 
lems. The other two are Mrs. Daskam Ba- 
con's " Domestic Adventures " and Mr. Bigelow 
Paine's " From Van-Dweller to Commuter," re- 
spectively brought out l)y the Scribner and the 
Harper house. Mr. Paine describes the vicissi- 
tudes of a family who wrestled long and hard 
with boarding-house ma'ams (and hash), trucu- 
lent janitors of treei^ing fiats, and other tyrants 
of metropolitan existence, — again, that's the 
word, — and who at last found peace and happi- 
ness in the suburbs, where they grew their own 
vegetables and the children had a jolly, healthy 
time tumbling about in the grass. In the course 
of Mrs. Daskam Bacon's tale a lire occurs, which 
leads to a declaration of love and the unexpected 
bliss of an unhoping spinster, A vein of placid 
humor and gentle sentiment runs through these 
three volumes, which discourse on highly prac- 
tical issues. 



as temporary loss of memory, thought transfer- 
ence, and spiritualistic visions. These, collected 
in a volume by the Harper Brothers, and issued 
under the title of "" Between the Dark and the 
Daylight," are too unimportant ti> affect Mr. 
How el Is' reputation, but, like everything he 
writes, they please through the author's mature 
serenity and his delightful literary style. Un- 
luckily for Mr. G. S. Viereck, this very young 
author's tirst work of fiction, "The House of 
the Vampire" (Moffat, Yard) must be men- 
tioned under the same heading as Mr. Howells' 
book. It is immature, sketchy, and hysterical ; 
and it smacks slightly of Oscar Wilde's " Pic- 
ture of Dorian Gray." But the central char- 
acter is cleverly imagined, — a writer who has 
the power to abstract men's unspoken ideas from 
their brains, taking credit for them as his own. 
Another romance, Miss Rives' " Satan San- 



MYSTERY A 



3 ADVENTURE. 



criminal. One of the chief episodes of the story 
is a game of cards for money, played on the 
communion table of a church, whose rector him- 
self suggests the game and participates in it ! 
The arrival of the rector's bishop upon this 
monstrously incredible scene gives Miss Rives 
occasion for a ridiculous linguistic display well 
fitting such an invention. 

Mr. A, B. Wenzeli, the well-known illustrator, 
contributes several color plates to Miss Rives' 
text, printed by the Bobbs-MerriU Company, 
who likewise ^tve out Octave Thanet's new 
novel, " The Lion's Share." dealing with the 
strange kidnapping of a boy to prevent his di- 
vulgence of a secret. Adventure and mystery 
combined agitate the pages of Mr. J, B. Ames' 
" Treasure of the Canyon " (Hoh) and Maurice 
Leblanc's French detective stories, "The Ex- 
ploits of Arsene Lupin " (Harpers). The Scrib- 
ners issue two tomes about naval doings, — " The 
Crested Seas." by J, B, Connolly, and "Major 
Vigourenx," by Quiller Couch ; Jo.seph Conrad 
has to his credit " The Secret Agent " ( Harpers). 



Mr, William Dean Howells, the Dean of 
American Letters, as he is sometimes jocularly 
(and justly) called, has written a few stories 
dealing with abnormal psychic phenomena, such 



(reduced I from 




THE NOl/ELS OF WE SEASOhl. 



m 



Mr. Conrad's story of anarchist machinations 
in London must compel renewed applause of 
this admirable writer's large knowledge of life 
and character, philosophic intellectuality, elo- 
quent, trenchant verbal expression, active dra- 
matic visualization. We say nothing of his faults, 
which, though sufficiently notable in the new 
book, cannot mar its pleasurable perusal for 
those who want excitement without having to 



that they were a tribe of smug, sleek, self- 
seeking Pharisees ; furthermore, he has never 
concerned himself particularly about the wel- 
fare of the most lowly and humble among his 
Christian brethren. But when he does come to 
this realization, John Gaunt speaks out. conse- 
quently incurring the wrath of his fat flock, and 
finally going out into the highways and byways, 
— according to his Master's bidding, — and estab- 
lishing a great, unselfish League of Universal 
Service, a new social force, that " League of 
Universal Service, whose emblem is the cross, 
whose motto is the union of all who love in the' 
service of all who suffer." 

Now, we do not assert Dr. Dawson's novel 
to shine forth as a literary masterpiece ; far 
from this, we could point out bad flaws in treat- 
ment, technique, taste. But we do affirm that 
here before us lies a book inspiring and uplift- 
ing through its clean, direct sincerity, integrity, 
virility. Whether the reader be Christian, ag- 
nostic, or pagan, matters little. It is sufficient, 
to be aware that there once lived on earth a 
Jew of sublimely noble character, called Christ, 
and that this man died for his convictions; 
every one who has the soul to venerate such a 
man cannot but admire John Gaunt, who tried 
to follow that immortal exemplar. 

8TOR1ES OF VARIED MOTIVE^ 

Of literature essentially mirth -provoking, the 
present season offers less than the usual half-" 



A CONVINCING RELIGIOUS NOVEL. 

The Fleming H. Revell Company, of New 
York, having for many years made the pub- 
lication of religious novels somewhat of a spe- 
cial effort, to-day produces one which must be re- 
garded as somewhat of a gei.eral hit. For the ap- 
peal of Dr. W. J. Dawson's " Prophet in Baby- 
lon " is by no means limited to the rehgious 
stntiment alone : his book will awaken a re- 
sponse in every heart open to humanitarian im- 
pulses, and the burning fervor of John Gaunt, — 
the central character.— to live and spread the 
truth as it stands supremely revealed to him, 
will inflame every spirit susceptible to admira- 
tion of manly honesty. 

John Gaunt, the rector of a prosperous New 
York congregation, awakens to the fact that, he 
has involuntarily retained their favor through 
never preaching to them such thinffs as might 
discomfort their unctuous repose. He has never : 
told them what Christ would have told them, — 



■' Tile Treasure o( tbe 



THE AMERICAN REyiEiV Oh REy/El^S. 



year. We have the satisfaction, however, of re- 
cording a new little story by the world's greatest 
comic genius, in which humor and pathos are 
effectively commingleii : Mark Twain's account 
of an equine career, related autobiographieally 
by the " noble steed " himself, and called simply 
"A Horse's Tale," comes from the Harper 
Brothers. Some true pathos and some arti- 



politic. The hero is an earnest, aspiring young 
Polish Jew, who emigrates to New York, there 
encountering all manner of vicissitudes in his 
attempts to upraise his people. A vein of sin- 
cere religious feeling runs through this interest- 
ing book. 

That very much abused situation, the love and 
marriage of a man and woman ideally mated in 
every way save that of age, is made the text of 
a strong, well knit novel by E. F. Benson, which 
Double day. Page & Co. bring out under the title, 
" Sheaves." 

Agreeable love stories by Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps and 'Mary Wilkins Freeman come from 
the Harper press under the titles of "Walled 
In," — by a serious accident, namely, — and " The 
Fair Lavinia and Others," Anthony Hope, Gelett 
Burgess, and Bcllina von Hutten also discoursing, 
in varied moods, on amatory topics ; their stories 
appearing under the imprints ot the McClure 
Company, the Bobbs-Merrill Company, and 
Uodd, Slead & Co., with the appellations of 
■■ Helena's Path," ■" The Head Line," and " The 
Halo." Miss Zona Gale invents an old match- 
making couple,^scc " The Loves of Pelleas 
and Etarre'* (Maemillan),— and Justus Miles 
Fortnan, in "A Stumbling Block" (Harpers), 
describes the career of a young author who 
marries the wrong woman, with consequences 
injurious to his work. For "Three Weeks" 
(Duffield), Elinor Glyn chooses a most unusual 



theme, treated with 



frankness of c 

vigorous, virile 
style of writing. 
She attempts to 






obled 



%ial may^l* found in "Fraulein Schmidt and 
Mr. Anstrnther," a volume of imaginary corre- 
spondence by the anonymous author of " Eliza- 
beth and Her German Garden," bearing the 
Scribner imprint. No such complex person as 
the said Fraulein ever dwelt upon this earth : 
but, fortunately, besides her comjilexity (and 
her prolixity), she possessed a saving sense of 
humor, which renders the perusal of her nvi- 
merous letters a fairly remunerative occupation. 
And since Fraulein Schmidt inhabited a small 
German provincial town, the seat of a univer- 
sity, sKe saw much to laugh at in the Philistines 
and pedants and pettifoggers there residing. 
Much to wonder at will be found in the Baron- 
ess Orczy's highly fanciful narration ot events 
happening within "The Gates of Kamt" (Dodd, 
ivlead), ^ city of ancient Egypt; and the Baron- 
ess sseem's to have quaffed at the inexhaustible 
fount of the "Arabian Nights," — taking a sip, 
now and then, at Rider Haggard. 

Professor Edward Steiner's novel, "The 
Mediator" (Revell), if without literary or art- 
istic importance, owns certain features which 
lend it sociological value. For it cannot but 
arouse thought on the great national problem of 
assimilating aliens into the American body 



through an illicit 
passion indulged 
with a very re- 
markable wom- 
an. Miss Alher- 

tors" (Harpers) 
tells chiefly of 
English social 
and political life. 



America. ''The 
Message "(Dana. 
- -O. by A. J. 



CoTpr doHlpn (rpdue^d). / J^'"' V'"'^ 

England by the wicked Germans. Robert 
Hichens lowers one's respect for his talents 
through his story of the Algerian desert, 
" Barbary Sheep " (Harpers) ; the standing 
of Eden Phillpotts and Thomas Nelson Page 
remaining unchanged by the publication of two 
volumes containing short stories, — '" The Folk 
Afield" (Putnam) and "Under the Crust" 
(Scribner). 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

f 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1908. 

Edmund Clarence Stedman Frontispiece New Business Standards at Wash- 

The Progress of the World— ington 190 

End of the Panic 131 By C. H. Forbes-Lmdsay. 

How Panics Come and Go 131 With portraits. 

Th:?ircKVndF:w^^^^^^ I33 Better Business Methods for aties. 195 

The Central Bank Idea ' 133 By William H. Allen. 

Guaranteeing Deposits in Oklahoma 134 With portraits and diagrams. 

Kansas to Follow Her Neighbor ^^^ \xtu^^ m^4. ^ " r>-*r4 r»*r>«c »» tr>^ «.u-> 

The Buane«i Outlook...... 135 ^hy Not a Red Cross for the 

Railroad Finances 135 Army of Industry ? 201 

A Proposed Tariff Commission 137 By Arthur B. Reeve. 

Navd Questions.^ 137 With Illustrations. 

The Seekins for Delegates 136 

New York;s Electric Tunnels 140 The New Anti-Vagrancy Campaign. 206 

New York's Charter 140 By Frances Maule Bjorkman. 

Unofficial Gvic Work 141 „ t^ t., • ^^ , 

Governor Hughes and the Race Tracks 142 How Poughkeepsie Deals With 

Coal Mine Disasters 142 Tramps 211 

Progress at Panama 143 ^,. * ., ^ • ^ ^.« 

Cuba toBeHerOwn Mistress Next February. 144 Chma and the Language Question.. . 213 

The United States of Central America 146 By Howard Swan. 

The Fleet in South American Waters 147 i_, •».t j * ▼ -r-* r • -«« . -..« 

Crisb in the Japanese Ministry 148 The Need of Law Reform in China. . 218 

Railroad Progress in China 149 By Charles Sumner Lobingier. 

Paul Miljrukov, a Constructive Statesman ... . 149 - ,. a_^» « r ^* m.m « 

The Genesis of the Russian Revolution 150 Leading Articles of the Month— 

The Rnancet of Prussia 151 The Mechanical Handling of the World's 

The Prussian Suffraae Right 151 Stock of Gold 220 

How France It Holding Her Own 152 In the Service of Uncle Sam 221 

France's Financial Dominance 1 52 The Bagdad Railway. 222 

British Politics 153 The Fighting Value of the French Army 223 

The Condition of British Trade 153 The Japanese, Canada* and South America. . 224 

Liquor Lenslation All Over the World 1 53 Our Greatest Coal- Mine Disaster 225 

Morocco^ Ab^inia* and the Congo 154 The Detroit I^ver Tunnel 227 

German, British, and Portuguese Africa 154 The Russian Budge* for 1908 229 

Mme. Tetrazzini't Triumph [55* Curacao a Really Successful Tropical Colony. 230 

Do Americans Really Love Good Music ?.. . 155 Swedish Experiments in Communal Owner- 

With portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. shb^and Co-operation 232 

Record of Current Events 156 2^r;Jr^l|^Vt:^^^^^^ j^ 

With portraits. jy^ Weaki«t of Germany's Colonial System. 237 

Political Cartoons of the Month 161 P« Work ol Ae "Polish Mother of Schools." 238 

Japan s Fint World s Fair 239 

The Tobacco War in Kentucky 168 Color Photooraphy 240 

By Martha McCuUoch-Williams. kP^'^^'^^r « ^ D«*roycd by Comets ?.. 241 
^ What Mars Is Really Like 242 

America's Interest in Lord Kelvin. . . 171 The Problem of the Roomer 243 

By J. F. Springer. Curious Life Cycles 245 

With portraits and other illustrations. With portraits and other illustrations. 

The Awakening of the Alaskan 177 Leading Financial Articles- 

D \T/*ii* A ^L .. r\ o bxperts Declare Thetf Conndence 246 

By William Atherton Du Puy. ^^ ^ ^^^,^ 247 

With map and other illustrations. -j^^ V'alue of a Banker 249 

George Meredith at Eighty 183 Signs of the Times 250 

By G. W. HarrU. The Ncw Books 252 

With portrait. With 4)ortraIts. 

TERMS : $8.00 a year in advance ; 25 cents a number. Foreign postage $1.00 a year additional. Subscribers may 
remit to us by post-office or express money orders, or by banlc checks, drafts, or registered letters. Money m 
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Conrtibb 1901. by Plite MuDoiuJd. pqt. si Men. Ncv Voik.' 

EDMUND CLARENCE STEDMAN, THE BANKER-POET. 

(A unique figure in American commerce and letters was removed by the death, on Janu- 
ary 18, of Edmund Garence Stedman, in his seventy-fifth year. Although a New Englander 
by birth and education, Mr. Stedman passed almost all of his life in New York City. Among 
his many single poems which have brought him fame, " The Diamond Wedding," " How Old 
John Brown Took Harper's Ferry," and " Pan in Wall Street " will be particularly remembered. 
His Victorian and American anthologies are too well and popularly known to need char- 
acterization here. Mr. Stedman did some noteworthy daily newspaper work during the Civil 
War, but at its close became interested in the financing of the first Pacific railroad. For more 
than thirty years he was a successful, respected member of the New York Stock Exchange.) 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

Vol. XXXVII. NEW YORK, FEERirARr, luos. 1 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

End '^^^ business conditions of the gins, and the rumors of adversity spread. 
t/i*» country have continued to hold Then comes tlie fright that brings about the 
""' first place as a topic of public dis- " run " that the soundest of banks must al- 
cussion. Panics are usually short-lived; and ways dread and that few can withstand, 
the panic of November, 1907, was at an end Thus speculation, which means excessive con- 
by about the middle of January, 1908. Nat- fidcnce and activity, runs its course and brings 
uraily, however, the panic produced a paraly- about panic, which means excessive fear and 
sis of industry; and paralysis is a disease from Inaction. The effect of panic, in the first in- 
which recovery is only gradual and seldom stance, is to create antagonism between banks 
rapid. A panic is due to psychological causes, and their customers. The normal course of 
The state of mind that produces it is one of business requires confidence and co-operation 
c-xtrcmc and all-prevailing fea^. Speculative between the whole business community and 
activities are also due to psychological causes, the banks. At the outset of a panic, how- 
and the state of mind that attends buoyant ever, the banks seek to hoard currency to 
speculation is one of great hope and con- protect themselves against a run, and indi- 
fidence. Speculative conditions bring about a viduals and business houses seek to recover 
great number of unwarranted activities. They and keep currency to guard themselves against 
produce credulity. Almost every one is some- the insecurity of the banks. This situation 
what infected by the notion of large and quick brought about the so-called money famine 
gains, and the promoters of all kinds of ven- that swept across the United States in the 
tures flourbh mightily. Speculative condi- last months of 1907. All sorts of expedients 
tions also cause men to apply themselves with were resorted to; and at last the money 
great energy to legitimate enterprises, and the 
development of the country goes forward at 
a splendid rate. Thus the resources of pro- 
ductive capital are overtaxed and exhausted, 
the fabric of credit is unduly extended, and a 
vast number of people suddenly discover, sim- 
ultaneously, that they cannot continue to 
borrow in unlimited sums. And then some 
of the enterprises which have depended solely 
for their success upon the continuance of 
speculative conditions are exposed as in a pre- 
carious plight, whereupon prudent men be- 
come a little anxious and begin to throw out 
hints of warning. 

How Panic* "^^ reaction finds a bant ox trust 
ConiB company, here and there, that 
""" "^ has been too freely financing the 
wrong sort of undertakings. Some of the — — — 

insiders learn the truth and whisper to their vn. csbukihb is vert optimistic. 

friends. The withdrawal of deposits be- Vram the /Bflwinr ii*i>lliiiieipliia). 

CopirijW. I^IW. bj' Thk Rnviaw or Rgvibws CoHrAHV. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEiVS. 



famine is at an end. Currency is circulating 
freely again, and the New York banks, after 
January 15, reported that instead of a short- 
age of cash they were receiving more than 
they could make use of. The trouble was 
not due to the lack of a sufficient quantity of 
the paper and metallic means of exchange, but 
simply to the fact that there was a tempo- 
rary checking of the usual freedom of cir- 
culation. The consequence was that about 
100 cities in the United States found them- 
selves using clearing-house certificates issued 
' by their associated local banks; and through- 
out the country a great variety of temporary 
expedients and devices were employed as a 
substitute for legal money. The banks of 
New York imported a great deal of gold 
from abroad, while the Government at Wash- 
ington did everything in its power to increase 
the supply of money and to help to restore 
confidence. One step taken by the Govern- 
ment was to deposit its treasury surplus in 
the banks in so far as possible. Another was 
to sell a new issue of Panama Canal bonds 
with a view to using the proceeds to help the 
money market Still another, and a more 
decisive and unusual expedient, was to an- 



nounce the issue of a short-time loan under 
powers conferred upon the Executive at the 
outbreak of the Spanish War. The maxi- 
mum amount of this loan was not issued, 
and subsequent events indicated that the step 
need not have been taken. But the effect of 
the announcement was very valuable at the 
moment, because it gave the country the feel- 
ing that in one way or another the Govern- 
ment was strong enough to support success- 
fully the effort of the banks and the business 
community to tide over the emergency and 
get money into circulation again. 

^, Now that the crisis is passed, and 

Queition 0/ that the banks are paying deposi- 
tors freely and are loaning their 
assets in a normal way to their commercial 
patrons, the question of remedies has no fur- 
ther application to the immediate exigency, 
but has reference rather to the prevention of 
future trouble. Several kinds of remedies 
are proposed, and these differ a. good deal in 
principle. For many years past the bankers 
of the country have demanded a law which 
would give an automatic elasticity to the 
vohime of currency. Many practical men 
are of opinion that a measure of this, kind is 
all that we can secure in the near future. 
Their ideas do not contemplate any funda- 
mental change in our present banking sys- 
tem. The present arrangement for issuing 
banknotes on the basis of Government bonds 
deposited as security would remain unchanged 
unless in some matters of detail. In addition 
to this they ask for a plan under which the 



From tbc Worli (New York). 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



banks could quickly issue temporary notes 
in times of emergency, under a heavy enough 
tax to compel their retirement as soon as 
the emergencj' should be at an end. There 
are others who believe that the great trouble 
lies in the independence and virtual isolation 
of thousands of banks, and that we need in 
this country a central bank of issue. There 
are still others who believe that the greatest 
need lies in the direction of measures that 
will protect the solvency of banks by increas- 
ing the security of depositors. They hold 
that if there were a Government guaranty 
of deposits the chief cause of currency panics 
would be forthwith removed. In times of 
panic, the}' remind us, depositors do not 
withdraw their money because they need it, 
but because they desire protection against 
ultimate loss. If deposits were guaranteed 
by the Government there would be no dan- 
ger of ultimate loss, and the motive which 
gives severity to most bank runs would cease 



^j^, ' Of these three different lines of 
Ai^i-id, . remedial action, the only one that 
has been thoroughly discussed in 
this country is that of a provision for elastic 
currency. A measure of this kind is likely 
to be enacted at Washington by the present 
Congress either this year or next year. A 
bill introduced by Senator Aldrich has been 
undergoing modification in the Finance Com- 
mittee of the Senate. Chairman Fowler and 
his associates of the Banking Committee of 
the other house are also at work upon a cur- 
rency measure. The Fowler proposals are 
more comprehensive and scientific. The 
Aldrich proposals, on the other hand, are 
along the line of analogies more familiar to 
the people of this country and therefore are 
more likely to be adopted. The Aldrich bill 
permits the isstie of currency by the banks 
upon the deposit of State, county, munici- 
pal, and railroad bonds. The bi!l provides, 
of course, for the selection of safe bond is- 
sues as distinguished from the less desirable 
securities. A tax at the rate of 6 per cent. 
per annum would operate to retire the emer- 
gency notes when the business of the country 
no longer needed them. The principle of the 
bill is criticised, on the ground that it pro- 
vides an artificial market for bonds. Banks 
throughout the country are not accustomed 
rr carry considerable investments of this sort. 
Many leading bankers of the country do not 
like the plan of banknotes based upon a de- 
posit of 



t champion In Contir 



rw "^^^ Fowler bill is a sweeping 
fiwier and comprehensive measure for 
the creation of a banknote cur- 
rency secured by the guaranty of the Gov- 
ernment. Under this plan the Government 
itself is secured by a fund to be contributed 
by the banks, equal to 5 per cent, of the 
volume of circulation. Mr. Fowler's meas- 
ure would do away with the present bank- 
note currency based upon tJie deposit of 
Government bonds, and would also retire 
the outstanding greenbacks. There is»much 
else in this Fowler bill, which undertakes 
to provide a complete reform of the cur- 
rency system of the country. The" trouble 
is that the couritry does not seem willing 
to have its currency system reformed in a 
scientific way. 

,■,,, Senator Hansbrough, of North 
Central Bank Dakota, was prepared, when 
"^ Congress assembled in Decem- 
ber, with a bill providing for a great central 
bank of issue. He, too, had a system for a 
thoroughgoing reform of the national cur- 
rency. But Mr. Hansbrough no\v admits 
that there is no possible chance at present to 
make headway with his project. He is will- 
ing to accept the Aldrich bill with certain 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



the State in case of their compliance witb the 
provisions of the law. Governor Haskell 
signed the bill on December 17, and the new 
law becomes operative on February 15. A 
depositors' guaranty fund is to be created by 
a levy against each bank of I per cent, of 
its- average deposits. The operation of the 
law is placed in the hands of a State banking 
board. A State bank commissioner and his 
assistants are to make an examination twice 
a year of the condition of each bank. It Is 
worth while to note the fact that a section 
of this new law forbids any active managing 
officer of any State bank to borrow money, 
either directly or indirectly, from the insti- 
tution with which he is connected. The law 
seems to have been carefully and ably 
drawn, and its working will be observed 
with much interest throughout the country. 

Kanaia io *-^"^ °^ ^^^ effects of this action 
wiw ffef in Oklahoma was to produce an 
'' '' msistent demand for similar legis- 
lation in the adjoining State of Kansas. 
Governor Hoch and other State officials 
warmly favored the innovation, and the Leg- 
islature was called in special session, meeting 
on January 16. The general opinion pre- 
vailed that Kansas would not only undertake 
to guarantee bank deposits, hut would legis- 



N. HASKELL. 



(Gove 



modifications. If the Fowler bill had been 
much more simple and had merely proposed 
to supply an emergency _ currency resting 
upon the general business and assets of the 
banks and protected by a Government guar- 
anty and the deposit of an insurance fund at 
Wasljington, it would have stood a better 
chance of consideration at the present ses- 
siMi. It is announced that President Roose- 
velt and the finance officers of the Adminis- 
tration will favor the Aidrich bill in a gen- 
eral way and that Speaker Cannon regards 
it as the only practical measure for the pres- 



avaraftriing '^''' Aryan's support of the sug- 
Oipeiiu In gestion to guarantee the deposits 
*" "'in national banks has been wide- 
ly advertised, but the plan is not meeting 
with much favor at Washington. It has, 
however, been adopted by the new State of 
Oklahoma, as respects the deposits in banks 
organized under the State laws. Depositors 



CMV. EDWARD W. HOCH, OF KANSAS. 

(Who bas callnl tlie T.«slBlatiire In ippclal scssioD 
cu»i*nt»e hank d«poalti, paaa d two-CTnt i 



in national banks are also to be protected by bin, and proTld« tor pTtmarr electtonaj 



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 



late so promptly that it could also give effect 
to its law in February, with Oklahoma. 
Conservative bankers are naturally afraid 
that the guarantee of deposits by the State 
will lead the more reckless or inexperienced 
managers of banks to exceed the bounds of 
prudence in their efforts to get deposits. It 
is quite possible that Texas and some other 
of the Southwestern States may follow the 
example of Oklahoma and Kansas in the near 
future. Abstractly, strong arguments can be 
presented on both sides of the question. 
Practical experience will show which side of 
the case is the better and stronger. Besides 
the bank-deposit question Governor Hoch 
has asked the Legislature to pass a 2 -cent 
fare bill and to do several other things. Kan- 
sas evidently is not willing to be outdone in 
: radical measures of any kind by neighboring 
States. 



j.^ The restoration of confidence in 
Buainm the banks, and the free circula- 
"" ■ tion once more of the country's 
currency, have given a wholly different as- 
pect to the economic conditions from that 
which was prevalent in November and De- 
cember. The money stringency stopped the 
movement of wheat and corn and cotton from 
the farmers to the marketS( It stopped the 
wheels of factories everywhere. It closed 
many mines, brought building operations to 
a standstill, and threw hundreds of thousands 
of men out of work. It crowded the steer- 
ages of east-bound steamers with scores of 
thousands of workmen who chose to return 
with their savings to their native lands until 
the demand for labor should call them back 
here again. But the country is fundamentally 
prosperous, and in most sections there is evi- 
dent a gradual resumption of activity and a 
great deal of confidence as respects the future. 
Quite apart from the transient currency panic, 
there has set in a widespread process of what 
is called liquidation. Loans have been called 
in and credits are undergoing readjustment 
upon a hard-times basis. There will be a 
good many business failures yet to come ; and 
for a year, perhaps two years, there will in 
many lines of business be a comparatively dull 
showing. It will be a period for the prac- 
tice of thrift and the homely economic vir- 
tues, in order that resources, both private 
and public, may be used for the best possible 
results. There will be a very sharp reduction 
in luxurious expenditure and a corresponding 
increase in the amount of new capital that 
can be devoted to business undertakings. 



■' Rjai 



'gunlzation ol tbe Seatmard Air 
'Suited In a recelrerahip for another BO- 
corporation.) 



n^ii^ The most serious difficulty that 
foBB looms up in the near future con- 
cerns the railroads. It is impos- 
sible to see where they are going to obtain 
monej' enough to go on with their necessary 
improvements. The era of combination- 
forming in railroads has been accompanied by 
reckless financiering and over-capitalization. 
Where the traffic demands of the country 
have increased loO per cent, the railroad 
facilities have not increased more than 25 
per cent. In some mysterious way the pri- 
vate fortunes of the men who have managed 
to get themselves at the head of great rail- 
road enterprises have become enormous, while 
the railroad companies are not in a fortunate 
plight. When the investing public would 
no longer buy fresh bond issues, the railroads 
sold short-time notes at high rates of inter- 
est in order to provide themselves with equip- 
ment or to make necessary improvements. As 
those obligations begin to mature, the roads 
are in much perplexity as to the way to tide 
along. A difficulty of this kind has thrown 



186 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OP REyiEWS. 

the Chicago Great Wettem system into a act, common earners; after May i, mutt not 
temporary receivership, and the Seaboard Air transport from one State to another any corn- 
Line sj'stem has also gone into the hands of modities in which they have a commercial 
the courts. There were rumors last month interest. The anthracite roads are engaged 
that the Southern Railroad system might have in the business of mining, transporting, and 
to seek a receivership and undergo reorgan- selling coal, and their associated monopoly 
ization, although this was denied in well- of the anthracite business is the chief factor 
informed quarters. Several other roads are 
undoubtedly shaky in their financial posi- 
tion, and if the present shrinkage in earn- 
ings should be long protracted' they would 
not be able to meet their maturing obliga- 
tions. It is not at all creditable to American 
railroad management that after a long period 
of unexampled prosperity the companies 
should disclose themselves as so near the 
bankruptcy line at the first approach of a 
business recession. 

XMtf/oF ^^ capitalization had been kept 

Pattte smalt from the beginning, and 
■ earnings had been properly ap- 
plied to the maintenance and development of 
the lines, we should have seen no such piling 
up of obligations as now hampers almost every 
mile of railway in the United States. The 
situation calls imperatively for governmental 
regulation of issues of stocks and bonds. The 
new legislation that the President called for 
in his message is greatly to be desired from 
all standpoints. Railroads now especially 
need supervision for the protection of the 
holders of their stocks and bonds. The In- 
terstate Commerce Commission makes a very 
favorable report upon the working of the hon, william p. hepburn, of iowa. 

amended rate law for the period of fifteen {Chalrmnn ot the InterstatP Cnmmprce Commlltep 
months during which it has been in opera- of the House, wfaoae name in cannei'ted with thp law 
tion. The point of view of the Administra- that baffles the ooal roads of rtniiB.vlTania.) 
tion and of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
missioners is by no means hostile to railroad in their prosperity. No one as yet has ex- 
prosperity. Amendments to existing laws as plained how the Hepburn act is to be obeyed 
asked for by the Administration would en- or enforced. It is hoped on behalf of the 
hance the value of railroad investments. The railroads that the act may be found uncon- 
railroads should be allowed, for example, to stitutional. If the roads had not gone into 
make reasonable agreements, particularly as the coal business, but had acted strictly as 
regards the fixing and maintaining of rates, common carriers, the consumers of coal would 
On the other hand, they should be prevented have received their supplies at much less than 
from speculative investment in the stocks of the present prices. By close combination the 
other companies, and should be held strictly roads fix the total amount to be mined, ap- 
to their duties as common carriers. portion the quantities among themselves, and 
absolutely control wholesale and retail prices. 
j^ The report of the Interstate Com- The market values of the stocks and bonds 
Antuniiiif merce Commission deals at length of these roads rest upon the basis of artificial 
' »""''■ ^j(|j j|,g subject of the relation profits in the coal business, due to monopoly. 
of railroads to the traffic in coal and other So strongly intrenched, however, are the an- 
commodities. The group of allied anthracite thracitc roads in this position that it would 
coal roads of Pennsylvania is facing a per- probably take something more than the new 
plcxing problem. Under the recent Hepburn Hepbuni act to dislodge them. Too sudden 



THEPROCRBSiOFTHElVORLD, 187 

a restoration of normal conditions, indeed, 
would deal a heavy blow at many innocent 
investors in the inflated issues of stocks and 
bonds of railroads and coal companies. It is 
a question of these innocent investors as 
against the people who use coal in Philadel- 
phia, New York, and the region of anthracite 
consumption. 

A Prepo*«i '^^ *^'''*^ question has come be- 
TaHff fore Congress in a new form. 

"""""'"■ Senator Beveridge has introduced 
a bill for the establishment of a tariff com- 
mission as a bureau in the Department of 
Commerce and Labor. Mr. Beveridge rec- 
ognizes the fact that Congress will revise the 
tarifl in its own way when it takes the matter 
up, and that it will not relegate the subject 
to the kind of commission that has usually 
been proposed. Ilie commission suggested in 
this bill is of an entirely different sort. The 
Government already has in its employ a great 
many highly trained men capable of thorough 
statistical inquiry. The tarifE revision that 

the countiy is beginning clearly to demand <^"wri,ut. im b, w.jd»B f.w««. w«i,.n«„,^ 
must be ba^d upon economic and commercial ,„. admiral brownsom 

, , "^ , , , , IWbo recently resljrieii from ttie Bureau of 

facts. It must not be worked out by party NntiBHiinn.) 

politicians in conformity with traditional 

theories about free trade or protection. A tended, moreover, by a great deal of discus- 
commission of experts can supply Congress sion at home of naval questions and prob- 
with statistical and informational data that lems. The chief question has to do with the 
ought now to be in process of collection as further policy of naval enlargement, and, as 
preliminary to the revision work that must be our readers well know, we are of opinion 
taken up within two years. that the President's view on this issue can be 

safely adopted. All elements of American 
Metal "^^ movement of the fleet along public opinion are of peaceful inclination, 
Om*- the coast of Latin-America has and there is no country against which we 
*■ been followed with friendly in- have any grudge or grievance. At the pres- 
terest by the entire world. It has been at- ent stage in the world's history a strong and 
efficient American navy will be an instru- 
ment for the maintenance of world peace. 
There are technical details concerning the 
navy that the ordinary cLtiz*B does not ex- 
pect to understand all about. For example, 
there has of late been drastic criticism of the 
architecture of our battleships. All that the 
average man knows is that our ships have 
sailed well and fought well when subjected 
to tests. If there have been mistakes they 
must of course be rectified. There has also 
been much criticism concerning the technical 
organization of the naval bureaus at Wash- 
ington. If a better organization can be 
brought about the attempt will doubtless be 
made. A great controversy within naval 
circles has turned upon the question whether 
so TAB 80 oooD ^ hospItal ship should be commanded by a 

man the Inquirtr (Pbllai3elphl>>. medical officer or by a naval officer of the 



THE AMERICAN REytEW OF REP^IEWS. 



upon Admiral Brownson's resignation. 
l"here is some feeling at Washington and 
throughout the country that the bureaus 
manned by naval officers at Washington have 
been unduly powerful and arbitrary, and that 
a different organization more directly under 
the control of the Secretary of the Navy 
would have better results. 

The Seeking '^^^ question of Presidential can- 
for didates has not declined in inter- 
etBn'ea. ^^^^ q^ ^^^ Contrary, it has be- 
come very concrete throughout the country, 
because in almost every State preliminary 
work has been going on for the holding of 
conventions and the choosing of delegates. 
The Taft movement, after the Secretary's 
return from his trip to the Philippines, began 
to show fresh and decided evidences of 
strength. The Secretary made several im- 
portant speeches, one of them in Boston and 
another in New York, which defined frankly, 
seriously, and with marked ability his views 
upon many public questions. The most in- 
teresting centers of political activity have 
been in Ohio and New YorL In Ohio the 
State Republican Committee decided to 
choose delegates by primary elections. The 
method decided upon was opposed by the 
friends of Mr. Foraker, with the conse- 
quence of bringing about a very complicated 
situation. The friends of Mr. Taft were 
confident that they would sweep the State. 



line. The President became convinced that 
for many reasons, — among them being the 
international rules of war regulating hospital 
ships,— it was best to have such a vessel con- 
sidered as a hospital and put in command of 
its chief surgeon, .navigation being in charge 
of the sailing master. Admiral Brownson, 
who was acting as chief of the Bureau of 
Navigation, took the other view and resigned 
from his post rather than execute the Presi- 
dent's orders. The press of the country al- 
most unanimously supported the President in 
his contention. There was, on the other 
hand, a good deal of fault foUnd with the 
President for the severity of his strictures 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



(Mr CtiarlH Bpracue Smith, 



SPEECH ON THK RELATIONS OP LABOR AND CAPITAL 1 
IN, NEW YORK, JANUARY 10. 
'bo presided, la standing at tbf left of 8«crttarf Tnfl.) 



In New York the Hughes movement has 
been steadily growing, but it was not able 
last month to secure the adoption of Hughes 
resolutions in the county committees at the 
metropolitan end of the State. The mem- 
bers of the old Odell machine and the anti- 
Roosevelt eleihcnts in general were working 
for Hughes, not so much for any enthusiasm 
they fed toward the Governor as for their 
own reinstatement. The real Hughes senti- 
ment in the State of New York, however, is 
a worthy and creditable one and does not owe 
much to the work of politicians. Mr. 
Hughes is making an extremely good Gov- 
ernor, and is a man who would rise to the 
hei^t of any responsibilities that might be 
placed upon him. He has done nothing as 
yet to project himself into the limelight as a 
Presidential candidate, and whether or not the 
New York delegation carries his banner to 
Chicago he will have done nothing to regret. 
Meanwhile a definite clearing up of the Ohio 
situation will mean a great deal to Mr. 
Taft's candidacy. Mr. Arthur I. Vorys, of 
that State, is devoting all his attention to the 
Ohio ritoatipn, and it is understood that Mr. 



" 'Twlxt optimist and pessimist 
The dlfTprence is droll ; 

The optimist sees the doughnnt. 
The pessimist the hale." 
Fiom tbe Lfdgrr (Taeuma,) 



THE AMERICAN REy'fEU^ OF REyiEWS. 

candidate in his own State; a brilliant and 
powerful Governor in the State of New 
Yort ; a much- respected Pennsylvania candi- 
date in the person of Senator Knox ; a revived 
movement for Vice-President Fairbanks ; 
vitality in the candidacy of Speaker Cannon, 
and serious intentions behind the efforts of 
Senator La Follette's supporters. In the 
Democratic field, however, there is no one 
really in sight except Mr. Bryan. 

Mtrnfetii't "^^^ y*^'' '9°^ ""'" ^^ notahle 
Eitetrie among other things for the com- 
^•"^"- pletion of the first tunnel connect- 
ing New York City and Brooklyn, and even 
more notable for the opening of the first tun- 
nel connecting New York City with New 
Jersey, The first tunnel to Brooklyn goes by 
way of the Battery, which' is the extreme 
southern tip of Manhattan Island. Two 
other. tunnels to Brooklyn will be opened in 
the ne*r future, and a third Brooklyn bridge 
is progressing rapidly. Meanwhile, great im- 
provements are at the point of completion for 
vastly increasing the number of surface cars 
and elevated trains that can cross the bridges. 
Improved transit facilities will relieve the 
congestion of Manhattan Island, and add 
(Who is In charge ol Hr. Tatt'a political intereats in many hundreds of thousands to the already 
bli own State.) populous borough of Brooklyn. The comple- 

tion of the McAdoo tunnels under the Hud- 
Frank H. Hitchcock, now First Assistant son River is to be signalized by opening them 
Postmaster-General, will retire from his pres- to the public this month. The terminal on the 
ent office in order to take charge of the Taft New York side is surmounted by an enormous 
canvass in the- East and South. President office building belonging to the company. A 
Roosevelt is reported to have said that Mr. subway under Sixth Avenue is also in process 
Taft would be nominated on the first ballot, of construction as a part of the same system. 
By the first of April it will be possible to At present the only means of coming to New 
form a pretty accurate opinion as to the rela- York from the M^est and South is by ferry- 
tive strength of candidates. On the Demo- boats from Jersey City and Hoboken, 
cratic side there continue to be sporadic • 

efforts to find a way to break the Ri^'an ^^^ The preliminary report of the 

ranks. The friends of Judge Gray, of Dela- Yark-* Charter Revision Commission for 
ware, are steadily at work, and a boom has *"*"' New York City has attracted less 
been started for Mr. Harmon, of Ohio, for- attention, either within or without the me- 
merly a member of President Cleveland's tropolis, than was to have been expected, con- 
cabinet Governor Johnson, of Minnesota, sidering the magnitude of the interests in- 
has his hopeful friends, and Gov. Hoke volved and the importance of the conirnis- 
Smith, of Georgia, has been of late quite sion's recommendations. The report is first 
frequently mentioned. But up to the present of all a plea for a greater measure of munici- 
time there are no indications that Mr. Bryan pal home rule. The State I-egislaturc, meet- 
will not have the unanimous support of the tng every winter at Albany, has always made 
Denver convention. Certain conservative a practice of saddling on the city j^vernment 
Democrats in New York have been trying huge expenditures, concerning which the tax- 
to organize an anti-Bryan movement, but the payers, who foot the hills, have not one word 
weakness of all such efforts lies in their fail- to say. The commission holds that the city's 
ure to present a' strong candidate of their financial affairs should he intrusted exclusive- 
own. Mr, Taft finds against him another ly to local officials, elected at regular inter- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



vals. If the voters do not select trustworthy which Mr, Ahearn had been elected and that 

racn for these offices they will have only he^could not be reinstated during that term, 

themselves to blame. It is further recom- the New York Board of Aldermen proceeded 

mended that the Board of Estimate and to eject Mr. Ahearn himself to the office 

Apportionment, composed of the Mayor, made vacant by the Governor's action. The 

Comptroller, president of the Board of Al- efifrontery of this transaction, — which would 

dermen, and four members elected for the be 'startling anywhere but in Tammany-rid- 

purpose, should be assisted by salaried ex- den New York, — may at least serve to reveal 

perts. A new central department of street the need of charter provisions to safeguard 

control is proposed, and there are other rec- the city against its own elected officials 

ommendations regarding the distribution of who prove unworthy of the trust reposed in 

powers between city and borough officials. them 

j)j^ The separate borough govern- onomciai ■^^'^'' ^^ ^^^ "'o*' encouraging 
^/woni ments of the greater city have cfu/o thing in the New York municipal 
more practical importance than '"' ' situation at present is the health- 
has commcHily been supposed. The removal ful activity of unofficial civic organizations 
by Governor Hughes of Borough President and individuals. The Ahearn charges were 
John F. Ahearn of Manhattan Borough presented before the (jovernor by the City 
brought to public notice some of the powers Club, the material on which they were based 
intrusted to that officialj whose area of ad- having been laboriously gathered by the 
ministration has a population about equal to Bureau of Municipal Research, an organiza- 
that of the whole city of Chicago. Formal tion which co-operated helpfully with the 
charges of incompetence and inefficiency in Commissioners of Accoimts in their investi- 
the care of the streets had been preferred gations of borough finances. This same 
against President Ahearn in July last. Gov- bureau has made for the use of the Charter 
ernor Hughes had conducted a full and care- Revision Commission a complete analysis of 
ful investigatioa and had given Mr. Ahearn New York's municipal government. Charts 
a hearing. On December 9 he ordered his were prepared showing the organization of 
removal. Despite the protest of Mayor Mc- each department as it actually exists, — not on 
CIdlan, who toot the ground that the re- paper merely, but in practice. The valuable 
moral was for the remainder of the term for aid rendered by the bureau to various city 



142 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

departments in suggesting more efiectJve sta- velt's message for the creation oi' a national 
tistical methods cannot fail to bear fruit in bureau of mines and to the preliminary re- 
greater administrative efficiency and economy, port of the United States Geological Survey 
Best of ail, the very fact that such an organ- on the causes and prevention of such acci- 
ization is known to be actually at work will dents. The greatest of these disasters, that 
act as a powerful moral deterrent with Tam- at Monongah, W. Va., has been graphically 
many place-holders oi the Ahearn type. In described by Mr. Paul Kellogg in a magazine 
this number of the Review of Reviews article which is reviewed in our department 
(page 195) we present an article by Secretary of " Leading Articles of the Month," on page 
Allen defining the scope of the New York 225 of this number. These explosions, 
bureau and outlining by suggestion and illus- whether of fire-damp or coal-dust, or both, 
tration the possibilities of similar organiza- 
tions in other cities. The bureau's work is 
along similar lines to those so successfully fol- 
lowed by the Keep Commission in the im- 
provement of the federal service, which is de- 
scribed by Mr. Forbes- Lindsay in the article 
Immediately preceding Mr. Allen's. 

-^ While Governor Hughes, of New 

HaaiiM and f»»York, is being talked about all 

an mc i. ^^^^ ^^^ country as a possible 
Presidential candidate, there is nothing in the 
conduct of his office to suggest any thought 
on his part of aspiring to any office beyond 
the Governorship of the Empire State. His 
annual message to the Legislature declared 
anew for the enactment of certain measutes, 
notably ballot and primary reform, which had 
failed last year to win the favor of the poli- 
ticians, and urged reforms in State policy 
which are likely to encounter the opposition 
of many powerful interests. The reform uovehnpe hi.o __ 

upon which Governor Hughes lays greatest rrom tb,. Ermtng Telegram (New York), 

stress is the abolition of race-track gambling, 

which has heretofore been tolerated in the were formerly of frequent occurrence in 
State, notwithstanding the prohibition of bet- European coal mines, but protective legisla- 
ting in poolrooms. 'ITie county fairs have tion in Belgium, Great Britain, Prussia, and 
participated in the profits from this exemption France has resulted in a marked decrease in 
and they have common Interests with the out- the number of deaths per 1000 miners, while 
and-out gamblers in securing its continuance, m the United States the number of killed for 
Nevertheless, the Governor's argument for a each rooo employed has Increased from 2.67 
consistent and indiscrlminatlng enforcement in 1895 to 3.40 In 1906. In the report of the 
of the State's constitutional provision against Geological Survey it is stated that In no coun- 
gambling is based on the highest ethical con- try are the natural conditions so favorable for 
siderations, and this fact must be recognized the safe extraction of coal as in the United 
at Albany. The business community is inter- States. It Is also shown that in those coun- 
ested in the Governor's recommendations that tries where the dangers of mining have been 
the trust companies be brought under the re- greatly minimized during the past few years 
strictions applied to other banking institu- the governments have been active in maln- 
tions and that the powers of the State Super- talning testing bureaus for the study of ex- 
intendent of Banks be increased. plosives, as well as in securing the strict en- 
forcement of restrictive measures. There is 
Nearly 800 deaths from coal-mine encouragement for Atnericans in the fact that 
Mine explosions in this country during no European country has the services of abler 
Diiattirt. jf^g single month of December experts on the subject of explosives than those 
last gave a startling and unexpected empha- who are now conducting investigations for 
sis to the recommendation In President Roose- our own Government, with a view to lessen- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 



ing the perils to which our miners are ex- 
posed. 7Tie work of Dr. Charles E. Mun- 
roe and Mr. Clarence Hall points to the 
establishment of a government bureau on the 
lines su^csted by President Roosevelt. 
Meanwhile, the intelligent co-operation of 
mine owners like President Jones, of the 
Pittsbui^'Bufialo Coal Company, who is do- 
ing much to arouse both operators and min- 
ers to the dangers of disastrous explosions, 
will surely bring about improved conditions. 
The possibilities of organized " first-aid-to- 
the-injured " work among miners are illus- 
trated in an article by Mr. Arthur Reeve on 
page 201 of this Review. 

pnvnu CoL Geor^ W. Goethals, chief 
«t engineer and chairman of the 
Panama Canal Commission, 
stated last month to the Senate Committee 
on Interoceanic Canals that there were no 
insurmountable obstacles in the way of con- 
structing the canal from the engineering view- 



CcmWft ml; IV WiUm Fmm. H. Y. 



point, and that it would certainly be com- 
pleted by July I, 1914. Colonel Goethals 
further stated that the cost would not ex- 
ceed $250,000,000. It will be remembere;i 
that the consulting board made an estimate 
far below this figure, but as Colonel Goethals 
pointed out to the Senate committee, that es- 
timate did not allow for the cost of sanita- 
tion or for the government of the Canal 
Zbne, Sanitation alone is costing our Gov- 
ernment $2,000,000 a year, — a charge that 
will continue until the work is completed. It 
has been found that the consulting board 
made too low an estimate on the cost of the 
locks and on the amount of excavation re- 
quired. The Canal Commission made a rec- 
ommendation, which was indorsed by Sec- 
retary Taft and finally approved by President 
Roosevelt, that the width of the canal locks 
be increased from 100 to no feet in order to 
meet requirements of the navy. Excavation 
in the Culebra Cut is now going forward at 
the rate of i ,000,000 cubic yards a month. In 
the last two months of 1907 all records were 
broken for excavation. Secretary Taft has 
expressed the opinion that the canal laborer 
is about 80 per cent, better paid than the la- 
borer in like occupation in the United States. 



THE AMERICAN REyiE]^ OF REyiEWS. 



ItcRornipb. Qosr^hiri. vnb. bf Umltrwooil * UDdtrwoml. N. Y. 

HON. CHARLES E. MAGOON, AMERICAN ntOVISlONAL GOVERNOR OF CUBA. 

(Who baa Just aubmltted a report lodlcatln; solid ptoktch made in polltloaL aod poonomlc afCstra tn the 
laland during the fear 190T.) 

Caiafo fl» w.f^'*'^'" a few months an entire tropical island to our own country and people. 

Om KUtrtii decade will have passed since the During that time we have twice withdrawn 

«ut Atnmi-ii. jjj^gj forces of the United States our influence and control. For virtually all 

first landed in Cuba to express the will of the the ten years' period, however, it has heen the 

American Government and the American peo- American people, seeking through their Gov- 

ple with regard to the future-relations of thb ernment at Washington, to whom the rest of 



TH£ PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD. 146 

the world, as well as the Cubans themselves, of the Cuban people will be a matter of con- 
have looked as responsible for the actual se- stant care on the part of the central govern- 
curity of life and property and the future ment of the island, 
prosperity, political and economic, of the is- 
land. President Roosevelt has just an- Revising the ^ ^^^^ important result of our 
nounced, in a letter replying to Secretary of Electoral stay in Cuba has been the revision 
War Taft's communication transmitting the *""' of the electoral law. In Cuba the 
report of Provisional Governor Magoon for electoral problem is a very grave one. II- 
1907, that, " by or before February i, 1909, literacy and ignorance are very high, and the 
wc shall have turned over the island to the danger of a corrupt or vicious electorate cot- 
President and Congress to be elected next De- respond ingly great. The educated Cuban is 
cember by the people of Cuba." After that the equal of any enlightened individual on 
date the fate of Cuba will be in her own earth, but, unfortunately, he is in the small 
hands. Governor Magoon's report sets forth majority. Furthermore, of the educated 
the generally prosperous condition of the is- classes of the island many persons are for- 
land, and recounts the history of " interven- eigners, either Spaniards who have not yet 
tion " with particular reference to the devel- renounced their allegiance to Spain, or for- 
opments of the past year. During this dec- eigners interested in the conduct of large busi- 
ade that has passed since 1898 what have been ness enterprises owned and controlled by for- 
the real fruits of American influence and di- eign capital. It is a great problem to deter- 
rection in Cuba? A rapid summary of some mine what function these people shall exercise 
of the more important of these will demon- in the government of Cuba. It is even a more 
strate the sincerity, disinterestedness, and effi- serious one just how to limit the franchise to 
ciency.of American " intervention." those really capable of understanding the re- 
sponsibility of an elector. The poorer classes 
StmHattontMd^^^ '^ moving forward politi- are just emerging from the conditions of the 
Good Road* cally, economically, and indus- Middle Ages. Without books or newspapers 
* trially. There is no doubt of in their homes, many of them unable to read 
that. Under American direction and the at all, it is not difficult to see how large a 
stimulus of American assistance the work of proportion of this class is incapable of ful- 
improvement has progressed solidly. The filling or even understanding the duties and 
idea of a $5,000,000 wagon road, conceived responsibilities that go with the ballot. These 
by General Wood, has been already applied, same people, however, fought for their free- 
and the great road is steadily progressing dom, enduring untold hardships, in years of 
toward completion. This thoroughfare will struggle with Spain, and they must be reck- 
opcn up a great artery of wagon communica- oned with in any electoral law that may be 
tion by macadamized road, good in any adopted. A mixed commission, made up of 
weather, from one end of the island to the Cubans and Americans, has been studying this 
other. While from a military point of view problem for some time and has at last pro- 
this is a most higjily important work, assur- duced what is believed to be an acceptable 
ing the Havana government a military base solution of it. Some future changes may be 
of operations within forty miles of any point necessary, but this plan will no doubt offer 
of the islaiid and always accessible by wagon the best system that can at present be devised, 
train, Its chief value will be to open up access and one which is a vast improvement on the 
to market for many thousands of square miles former system, 
of fertile land at present of no agricultural 

value, because their products cannot be profit- safeguarding I^^r*"K her entire history Cuba 

ably carried to market. Of prime importance Personal has suffered from the cruel exac- 

has been the nationalization of sanitation in ^ ''* tions of an unjust criminal code, 

Cuba. This has already resulted in actually in most respects a survival of the most des- 

stamping out the yellow-fever pest and in potic of monarchical systems and utterly un- 

gready reducing all the other " mosquito dis- suited to republican forms of government, 

eases," a condition once before achieved dur- To counterfeit the great seal of Spain is still 

ing American intervention, but allowed to treason in Cuba, and the old laws restricting 

lapse. Making sanitation a national matter the rights of person are still so illiberal that 

has also provided the machinery, funds, and a man may be adjudged guilty of a grave 

supervision necessary to render this improved crime if he kills another in the defense of his 

condition permanent. Hereafter the health house, family, or person. The present Cuban 



146 



THB ^\4MkI(*A'M it£f^iiiv dp REt^lBWi 



law, — or the present-day Cuban interpreta- 
tion of it, — was probably necessary in Span- 
ish times to protect the " peninsular " against 
the " insular," The common-law idea of self- 
defense, of personal rights, however, is more 
in keeping with our own ideals and with our 
own system, to which Cuba must necessarily 
approximate more and more as time goes on. 
Under American influence the Cuban crim- 
inal code is in process of revision, and it also, 
as well as the electoral system, will soon be 
brought into harmony with American demo- 
cratic ideas. This code revision, both in its 
immediate effects and in its educational value, 
may be classed as one of the greatest works 
being effected by the present provisional gov- 
ernment in Cuba. 

Draieaas Governor Magoon and his Amer- 
ao"* ican and Cuban advisers have be- 
SniamatiBn. ^^^ ^j^^ study of a highly impor- 
tant work of drainage and reclamation, com- 
parable with the reclamation of the arid lands 
in our own West, or with the drainage of the 
Pontine marshes in Italy. This enterprise is 
still in the stage of engineering study. The 
engineer who is studying it, however, is Gen- 
eral Mario Menocal, an able engineer, and 
one of the most eminent and trusted of Cuba's 
public men. The administration moreover 
has allotted ample funds for the purpose. The 
direct object is to prevent the periodical in- 
undation of a large area of potentially fer- 
tile land lying partly in Matanzas and partly 




in Santa Clara province. Many thousands fif 
acres of good land can be thus reclaimed and 
made highly productive, and the health of two 
entire provinces very greatly improved as a 
result of this work. Other reclamation work 
is being done at different points on the island, 
and a good deal of money spent in relieving 
flood-sufferers of the inundated section in 
Matanzas province. 

*o(«™rt»j, Considerable notewonhy work of 
Maincipa' municipal health improvement has 

nprnBtmi . ^^^ accomplished as a result of 
the appropriation of a fund of $80,000 made 
some years ago by the Palma gc.vernment, and 
originally intended to relieve these Matanzas 
flood -sufferers. When the American provi- 
sional government came into control Gover- 
nor Lecuona, who had charge of the money, 
asked that a United States army officer be de- 
tailed to inspect the accounts, make recom- 
mendations for further allotments of this 
money, and supervise the execution of such 
works as might be authorized. As a direct 
result of this there has been inaugurated, in 
various cities of Matanzas province, many 
highly important municipal improvements. 
Streets have been macadamized, drainage pro- 
vided, water sj^tems installed, whole cities 
cleaned, and the health conditions of some ten 
or twelve towns very greatly improved. From 
time to time, as the reports indicated further 
allotments of money, it was given, and neces- 
sary improvements authorized. Recently the 
results of this work have been inspected, and 
an allotment of $3,000,000 set aside for simi- 
lar works in all die larger towns in the island. 
The small work of the past year in one prov- 
ince has not only served to improve the con- 
ditions of life in the towns of that province, 
but the attention of the general government 
has been so drawn to the problems involved 
that work is now to be undertaken on a large 
scale, which will speedily result in extension 
of these benefits all over Cuba. 



Thi Aqrei 



PbeSibent Rooskvblt: "Ye 
1e streDStli." 



nnloD there 



, The recently concluded agree- 
ment between the Central Ameri- 
''""™'*""""can states upon the treaties of 
friendship and intercourse, which, it is gen- 
erally believed, will prevent future revolu- 
tions and dictatorships in those countries, has 
been commented upon very favorably by the 
press of the civilized world, — not, however, 
without some side remarks in the continental 
European press upon the alleged interested 
motives of our own Government and people 
in assisting at the conference. The German 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. . , 147 

" tain American products, in accordance with 
the Brazilian tarifF law passed in June, 1906. 
Soon after this issue of The Review of 
Reviews reaches its readers our fleet will be 
sailing northward on the west coast of South 
America, receiving and transmitting expres- 
sions of good will at the ports of Chile, Peru, 
Equador, and Colombia. It has been par- 
ticularly gratifying to Americans to receive 
the evidence of friendly feeling on the part of 
the great sister Republic of Brazil, a friendly 
feeling which is heartily reciprocated. The 
warships of America on this cruise, to quote 
the words of President Roosevelt in his re- 
ply to the Brazilian President's friendly greet- 
ing, " exist for no other purpose than to pro- 
tect peace against possible aggression, justice 
against possible oppression. As between the 
United States and Brazil these ships are not 
men-of-war, but messengers of friendship and 
good will," 

Faoihh '^^ Americans who are unused to 
War Talk the delicate play of rumor, sus- 
picion, and suggestion that char- 
acterize the diplomacy of the Old World, it 
[NA, PREsiBENT OF BRAZIL. has bccn Surprising to read the reports in 
(Wbo In tbe name of hu goveramoDt bns oiiendi'd a European journals of Standing and influence 
warm welcome to the Amcricaa fleet.) concerning the possibility of war between 

these United States and Japan. Even the 
cartoon reproduced here illustrates this feel- most sensational articles in our own yellow 
ing in Europe. Noteworthy items of news press have not begun to compare with the 
in the dispatches from Central America and startling announcements appearing in the 
the Caribbean countries during the past few journals of the Continent, — of France, of 
weeks have been the floating of the new Germany, and of Russia particularly, — not 
$5,otx>,ooo loan in England by the Salva- merely speculating upon the possibility, or 
dorean Government, the virtual settlement even probability, of a war, but assuming its 
of the serious cigarmakers' strike in Cuba, certainty and arguing as to its outcome. The 
and the reported revolutionary outbreak gratifying change in the tenor of these ar- 
agatnst the Haitian Government by a force tides, particularly in the French press dur- 
under Gen. Jean Juneau. ing early January, while Rear-Admiral 

Evans' fleet was receiving the friendly greet- 
ntntrttii "^^ American naval force, un- ings of the Brazilian capital, was largely due 
atat* Amtri- der command of Rear-Admital to the personal influence of the French Am- 
en aitfi. gygjjg^ which sailed from Hamp- bassador, M. Jusscrand, M'ho vigorously and 
ton Roads on December 16, completed the emphatically informed the Paris Foreign 
first stage of its long journey on schedule Oflice that such comments were creating false 
time, with safety and credit to our Govern- impressions in the United States. A milder 
ment and our sailor-men. ■ After halting at tone has been noticeable in the J^anese press 
Trinidad on December 24, the fleet proceeded also, and our own daily newspapers have ap- 
to Rio de Janiero, arriving at the Brazilian parently come to a realizing sense of the fool- 
capital on January 12. Unusual honors were ishness and danger of publishing such articles 
paid to our ships and their officers by the as constantly appeared in their columns he- 
Brazilian Government and the Brazilian peo- fore the sailing of our fleet. The possibility 
pie, and. die day of their arrival was made that the ships may even visit Japanese ports 
an OCca»on of national festivity. President and return hy way of Suez is a perfectly 
Penna took the occasion to gracefully an- natural one and should not be indicative of 
nounce a reduction of import duties on cer- anything but friendliness to all the world. 



THE AMERICAN REf^!E]V OF REt^/EfVS. 

be met by an increase in taxation, provision 
for which was to be submitted in a supple- 
mentary budget. The estimated cost of the 
war with Russia, — $940,ocx),cxx), — about 
half of which is held abroad, makes up a 
large proportion of the entire national debt 
at present. In addition, there is the eco- 
nomic and commercial ambition of the 
Japanese people in developing Korea and 
Manchuria and administering Formosa, 

^^ The reception accorded to these 
untatitfactorn budget proposals forced the resig- 
"'^'^- nation of Yoshiro Sakatani, Min- 
ister of Finance, and Isaburo Yamagata, 
Minister of Communications. Marquis 
Saionji, the Prime Minister, also tendered 
his resignation to the Emperor, who, how- 
ever, refused to accept it. The portfolios of 
the other ministers were turned over provi- 
sionally to the Ministers of Home Affairs 
and Justice. The audience granted by the 
/n... „» .h„ 1 n..»l,il?'r",.„-.> . , .K» „™^... Emperor to ex-Premier Katsura immediately 

(One of rhp lnlliii>ntml nnanclpra of Ine Ptnplre, "^ , . . , , ,. . .' 

who la lending the opposiiiun 10 lilt! ilDaaciHi policies upon the resignation OT the cabinet minis- 

of ibc Saionji MiniBtrj-.) _ tcrs is indicative of the trend of popular and 

governmental opinion in favor of a more 

Criaitin ^^ problems confronting Japan moderate financial policy. Count Katsura, 

tut-iauiBtn in these first years of her actual who was Premier during the war with Rus- 

" '" entrance into the family of the sla, has never been in favor of the large and 

great powers are as much industrial and ambitious economic projects of the present 

commercial as those of al! the western na- ministry. Many of the most eminent finan- 

tions. With the opening of the Diet (on ciers and leading merchants of the country, 

December 28 last) the Tokio government including Viscount Shibusawa, have pointed 

faced a campaign of difficult and delicate out to the present ministry the dangerous 

character to carry through its general eco- magnitude of some of its financial enterprises, 

nomic and financial policies, and present and it would appear that the solid strength 

some sort of justification to the country for of the Japanese masses is with them in their 

its attitude on the emigration and Man- contention, particularly since these projects 

churian questions. The drain put upon the involve increased taxation and heavy ex- 

litnited resources of the Island Empire by penditures for the army and navy. The per 

the war with Russia, and the subsequent em- capita taxation in Japan ($31.50) is already 

ployment of capital on a vast scale for the very high for the productive capacity of the 

development of Japanese schemes of com- Japanese people. Some of the friends of 

mercial expansion on the Asiatic mainland the government are apparently determined 

and in her Pacific merchant marine, have to force the party in power to appeal to the 

taxed heavily the productive resources of the country. All well-informed students of 

country. It was the presentation of the Japanese politics agree that the present situa- 

budget synopsis (on January 16) for the cur- tion is due entirely to the financial problem. 

rent and the next year that forced the resig- The immigration question Is entirely apart, 

nation of two members of the cabinet and All the political groups in the empire believe 

revealed the intensity of political feeling in that the question as it now exists with the 

the empire on the question of industrial and United States and Canada can and will be 

financial expansion. According to the budget, settled amicably. There can be no doubt of 

all available annual receipts for the next the honest intention of the Tokio govern- 

two years will fall below the imperative ment to limit Japanese emigration to Ameri- 

expenditures by 40,000,000 yen (approxi- can and Canadian ports. The path of ex- 

mately $20,000,000). The deficiency, It was pansion for the empire lies eastward to Asia, 

proposed by the Minister of Finance, should not westward to America. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. ■ 149 

Saiinad Although administrative and po- Chinese debt to the United States growing 
Pmnai litical reform throughout China out of the Boxer uprising. The Chinese 
In CuiRa. proceeds very slowly and with bond, now fixed at $24,000,000, is to be re- 
many interruptions, the consciousness of the duced to $11,000,000. It is also of signifi- 
Chinese commercial classes as to their eco- cance and more than passing interest to note 
nomic rights and privileges is already full that, at a recent government examination at 
grown. This was made evident by the terms Peking to test the ability of forty-two students 
of the railway concession granted last month who had been sent abroad for education, out 
to an English and German company for the of the only seven securing the doctor's degree 
construction of a line, 700 miles long, from five had been educated in America. 
Tien Tsin to Ching Kiang. A line already 

runs from the latter point to Shanghai. By p^^, uni-uiiov ^^' Americans by far the most 
the terms of the agreement the loan advanced a Cannructiw interesting development in the 
by the British and German capitalists is to be attsnmn. jj^ij^jg^ situation during the past 
secured by imperial promise to pay, with a month was the visit to New York and Wash- 
lien on the revenues of the provinces through ington of Prof, Paul Milyukov, who, it will 
which the line passes. The railroad itself is be remembered, was the leader of the Con- 
to be absolutely and forever free from any stitutional Democrats in the first and third 
foreign influence or claim. Chinese admin- Dumas. Professor Milyukov came to this 
istration is to have full control and operation country for the express purpose of addressing 
of the service, examination of the books of the a meeting of the Civic Forum of New York, 
company being the only concession made to He afterward took a short trip to Washing- 
the creditors. There are now nearly 4000 ton, where be was informally received by 
miles of railway in operation in the Chinese prominent men of the Administration. He 
Empire and more than 1600 miles under con- did not meet President Roosevelt, owing to 
struction. It would seem that the deep- the protest of the Russian Ambassador, 
seated Chinese prejudice against the railway Baron Rosen. Professor Milyukov is emi- 
is in fair way to be removed. When this nent as one of the few constructive Russian 
shall have happened and the important cities statesmen of the present period. His achieve- 
of the great Middle Kingdom shall be con- ments as leader of the moderate group in the 
nected by railway lines the already existing first and third Dumas, his broadminded, 
system in Siberia will bring Chinese com- statesmanlike editing (with the famous Dr. 
mercial products direct to Europe in scarcely Hessen) of the Liberal newspaper, the Retck, 
a tenth of the time it formerly took. We as well as the scholarly charm 'of his person- 
recommend to our readers the articles on ality, and his excellent command of the spoken 
Chinese educational and legal reform which word in English, made his address (in New 
appear in this issue of the Review (pages York on January 14) of peculiar interest and 
213-218). instructive value to all Americans who are 

rie ci,int>, "^^ progress of Japan's commer- 
anrf iab mercial absorption of Manchuria 
fvnSamr. ^^y^^^ 33 ^^^^ g^pg i,y, to deepen 
the already deep-seated suspicion and animos- 
ity of the Chinese, who are bitter against the 
Japanese Government for the degree of Jap- 
anese ascendancy they perceive and for the 
further encroachments they suspect upon not 
only their sovereignty in the northern prov- 
inces, but their commercial prosperity in the 
heart of the empire itself. This anti-Japan- 
ese feeling in China is coming to be regarded 
as one of the most serious significant political 
signs of the times. Meanwhile, it is inter- 
esting to note that last month the Senate at 

Washington passed the joint resolution in- pehpetual motco-j. 

troduced by Senator Lodge embodying Tho Amfrlcnns kick the J»p«n,-e out of raltfnmla, 

T> " . I n I > . -I- Old the Japanese retaliate liy klcbinir tbe Cblnna 

President Roosevelts suggestion providing ^^^ ^^ ManeiinriH, 1. ' i^ «- «"™ 

for the remission of more than half of the From SMaftoron (Tokio). 



THE AMBRICAN kti'liii' OP JtEylEU^S. 



interested in the progress of the modern- 
ization of Russia. The professor's address 
was a review of the entire history of the Rus- 
sian revolutionary movement during the past 
twenty-six months, the period following the 
issue of the famous manifesto of October, 
1905. The present situation, not only in the 
Duma, but in the country at large, he de- 



scribed as one of " unstable equilibrium. 
On the whole, he was pessimistic as to the 

immediate future of his fatherland. The 
campaign for constitutional government in 
Russia, he declared, has resolved itself into 
a battle between classes, the end of which is 
not in sight. At present, in his opinion, " the 
court, and the nobility in particular, have 
become the leading forces in an openly avowed 
movement which is setting in for the restora- 
tion of autocracy." 

jh,g„,,i, The radical success, which was 
of the Russian put down with the bloody armed 

R,^uti«n insurrection in Moscow more 
than a year ago, and the agrarian insurrec- 
tion that followed, were the first stages in the 
revolution, Professor Milyukov asserts; the 
triumph of reaction is the third. The atti- 
tudes of the different political parties since 
the establishment of the first Duma he set 
forth in these words: 

The revolutionary movement aimed at a com- 
monwealth, while the reactionaries wanted to re- 
establish auiocracy. The Constitutional Demo- 
cralic party decided to fight for a parliamentary 
rule under n constitutional monarch. The revo- 
lutionists wished to have a charter worked out 
by a constitutional convention and sanctioned 
by a victorious revolution. The reactionaries 
did not want any charter at all, or at the worst 
a consultative representation granted by the 
Czar. Our party proposed a charter worked out 
by the first representative assembly, subject to 
the approval of the Czar. 

The Futuri "^^^ Russian leader declared that 
0/ »"""" his government has failed to keep 
its promises and has inaugurated 
and carried on a merciless warfare of repres- 
sion, " The government did not grant any 
liberties," said he. 

Only those liberties were and are permitted 
which the government was and is powerless to 
forbid ; and such liberties are often used with- 
out any legal restraint, while a regular and law 
abiding practice of civil liberties is nearly always 
refused legal permission. Thu"!, under the new 
reKime of national representation the executive 
power tried to remain what it had always been 
before, and it never thought of changing its for- 
mer methods of administration. And as long as 
the present misrule lasts it is almost impossible 
for the legislative power to do its proper work. 

The entire social condition of the future 
Russia is now at stake, he continued. " What 
are the forces that try to hold it in check ? " 
he asked, and here is his answer: 

The alliance of the two decaying politicil 
powers [the court and the nobility] for their 
own self-ddfence cannot obstruct the royal his- 
torical road the [lation is following. The child- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE U^ORLD. 



161 



ish explanation of the mc 
and fostered by a foreign 
Irigue, cannot do away with its deepi 
And the foolish idea that the peasants of 
communes can be changed at once into 
proprietors can cnly cause new ferment 
" villages, honeycombed with poverty and famine , 
as they are. In short, wherever we turn or look 
we only meet with new trouble to come, no- 
where with any hope for social conciliation or 
peace. 

The party of which Professor Milyulcov 
is the leader stands for ideas more nearly 
those of Americans as to popular govern- 
ment than any other in the Russian Empire. 
Should peaceful means fail, he believes that a 
bloody revolution is probable within two 
years. If full constitutionalism should be 
actually achieved in his time, he will un- 
doubtedly come into his own as one of the 
most trusted leaders of the new era. 

nt nnancts '^^^ German Imperial Chancel- 
»/ lor, Count von Biilow, is also 

'""""'■ Minister-President of the Prus- 
sian Diet, — that is. Prime Minister of the 
kingdom. In this latter capacity he has lately 
been confronted by problems of even greater 
difficulty than those which face him as Chan- 
cellor of the empire. Not only is Prussia in 
need of funds to carry on the administration 
of her government; she has also before her a 
serious political problem growing out of the 
long-delayed, sadly needed reform in her 
franchise laws. In the discussion of the royal 
budget (on January 14) Baron von Rhein- 
baben, the Minister of State and Finance, 
announced that, in view of a deficit in the 
budget of more than $100,000,000 a loan of 
at least $75,000,000 would be necessary. 
Railroad development, large increases in the 
salaries of state officials, and the compulsory 
purchase of lands in Poland for settlement 
by German peasants are the chief needs for 
these new funds, 

TkePraitfan "^^^ question of reform in Prus- 
suff'KQt sia's suffrage system has been agi- 
"'"*'■ tatcd for more than a decade. As 
has been noted more than once in these pages, 
the Prussian voting right is based almost ex- 
clusively upon a property qualification. There 
are three classes of electors, apportioned ac- 
cording to taxation values in such a manner 
that, up to the present time, the laboring 
classes have not been able to elect a single 
representative to the Diet, although they have 
a number in the imperial Parliament. The 
demonstrations in Berlin, early last month, to 
obtain direct manhood suffrage were engi- 



iniiiaicd neered by the Socialists. After the rioters had 
Russian in- j^ppn suppressed by the police. Prime Minister 
von Biilow announced in the Diet that while 
private the government recognizes the need for elec- 
toral reform these popular demonstrations 
would not hasten such reform in the slightest 



(Whose budget l 



degree. He declared- it as the opinion of the 
government that manhood suffrage would not 
be for the good of the Prussian state. Many 
progressive Germans, however, including the 
eminent political and economic writer, Dr. 
Theodor Barth, who has recently returned to 
Germany after studying our own political 
and economic methods, have publicly an- 
nounced that they will push to the end the 
campaign for direct manhood suffrage in 
Prussia, It is interesting to note in passing 
that the final outcome of the Moltke-Harden 
scandal trials, the significance of which was 
pointed out in this magazine last month, has 
been the conviction of Harden to four 
months' imprisonment for having criminally 
libeled von Moltke. The latter, however, 
and the rest of the so<alled "camarilla" 
appear to have been completely and perma- 
nently discredited. 



160 



THE AmmCAN JiBnEU^ OP kEi^tEiyS. 



CoTflV^ 1MB. h, V 



interested in the progress of the modern- 
ization of Russia. TTie professor's address 
was a review of the entire history of the Rus- 
sian revolutionary movement during the past 
twenty-six months, the period following the 
issue of the famous manifesto of October, 
1905. The present situation, not only in the 
Duma, but in the country at lai^e, he de- 



scribed as one of " unstable equilibrium." 
On the whole, he was pessimistic as to the 

immediate future of his fatherland. The 
campaign for constitutional government in 
Russia, he declared, has resolved itself into 
a battle between classes, the end of which is 
not in sight. At present, in his opinion, " the 
court, and the nobility in particular, have 
become the leading forces in an openly avowed 
movement which is setting in for the restora- 
tion of autocracy," 

The Btneait "^^^ radical success, which was 
oftheRuMian put down with the bloody armed 
insurrection m Moscow more 
than a year ago, and the agrarian insurrec- 
tion that followed, were the first stages in the 
revolution, Professor Milyukov asserts; the 
triumph of reaction is the third. The atti- 
tudes of the different political parties since 
the establishment of the first Duma he set 
forth in these words: 

The revolutionary movement aimed at a com- 
monwealth, while the reactionaries wanted to re- 
establish autocracy. The Conslilutional Demo- 
cratic party decided lo fight for a parliamentary 
rule under a constitutional monarch. The revo- 
hitionists wished to have a charter worked out 
by a constitutional convention and sanctioned 
by a victorious revolution. The reactionaries 
did not want any charter at all, or at ihe worst 
a consultative representation granted by the 
Czar. Our parly proposed a charter worked out 
the first representative 

e approval of the Czar. 

T*e Future '^^ Russian leader declared that 
0/ Raatia his government has failed to keep 
' ' its promises and has inaugurated 

and carried on a merciless warfare of repres- 
sion. " The government did not grant any 
liberties," said he. 

Only those liberties were and are permitted 
which the government was and is powerless to 
forbid ; and such liberties are often used with- 
out any legal restraint, while a regular and law 
abiding practice of civil liberties is nearly always 
refused legal permission. Thus, under the new 
regime of national representation the executive 
power tried to remain what it had always been 
before, and it never thought of changing its for- 
mer methods of administration. And as lon^ as 
the present misrule lasts it is almost impossible 
for the legislative power to do its proper work. 

The entire social condition of the future 
Russia is now at stake, he continued, " What 
are the forces that try to hold ft in check? " 
he asked, and here is his answer: 

The alliance of tiie two decaying political 
powers Ithe court and the nobility] for their 
own self-defence cannot obstruct the royal his- 
torical road the nation is following. The child- 



THE PROGRESS OF THE H^ORLD. 



151 



Ish explanation of the movement, as initiated neered by the Socialists. After the rioters had 

and fostered by a foreign or anti-Russian in- ^^.^^ suppressed by the police, Prime Minister 

Z'ri,lToM£',!St\Al%,tZ'. ITZ '«" Bulow announced ;„ ,he Die. that whik 

1 be changed at once into private the government recognLzes the need tor eJec- 



proprietors can cnly cause new ferment i 
■ villages, honeycombed with poverty and famine , 
as they are. In short, wherever we turn or look 
we only meet with new trouble to come, no- 
where with any hope for social conciliation or 

The party of which Professor Milyukov 
is the leader stands for ideas more nearly 
those of Americans as to popular govern- 
ment than any other in the Russian Empire. 



reform thes 
luld not hasten » 



popular demonstra 

h reform In the slightest 



Should peaceful r 
bloody revolution 
years. If full coi 
actually achieved 
doubtedly come . 



fail, he believes that 
is probable within two 
istitutronalism should be 
n his time, he will un- 
of the 



most trusted leaders of the r 

TUt Finmcei '^'"^ German Imperial Chancel- 
«/ lor. Count von Biilow, is also 

/•tuaaia. Minister-President of the Prus- 
sian Diet, — that is. Prime Minister of the 
kingdom. In this latter capacity he has lately 
been confronted by problems of even greater 
difficulty than those which face him as Chan- 
cellor of the empire. Not only is Prussia in 
need of funds to carry on the administration 
of her government ; she has also before her a 
serious political problem growing out of the 
long-delayed, sadly needed reform in her 
franchise laws. In the discussion of the royal 
budget (on January 14) Baron von Rhein- 
baben, die Minister of State and Finance, 
announced that, in view of a deficit in the 
budget of more than $100,000,000 a loan of 
at least $75,000,000 would be necessary. 
Railroad development, large increases in the 
salaries of state officials, and the compulsory 
purchase of lands in Poland for settlement 
by German peasants are the chief needs for 
these new funds. 

ThtPrvMlan "^^^ question of reform in Pnis- 
Saitmgt sia's suffrage system has been agi- 
"'"'^ tated for more than a decade. As 
has been noted more than once in these pages, 
the Prussian voting right is based almost ex- 
clusively upon a property qualification. There 
are three classes of electors, apportioned ac- 
cording to taxation values in such a manner 
that, up to the present time, the laboring 
classes have not been able to elect a single 
representative to the Diet, although they have 
a number in the imperial Parliament. The 
demonstrations in Berlin, early last month, to 
obtain direct manhood suffrage were engi- 



3 caused much heated 



degree. He declared it as the opinion of the 
government that manhood suffrage would not 
be for the good of the Prussian state. Many 
progressive Germans, however, including the 
eminent political and economic writer. Dr. 
Theodor Barth, who has recently returned to 
Germany after studying our own political 
and economic methods, have publicly an- 
nounced that they will push to the end the 
campaign for direct manhood suffrage in 
Prussia. It is interesting to note in passing 
that the final outcome of the Moltke-Harden 
scandal trials, the significance of which was 
pointed out in this magazine last month, has 
been the conviction of Harden to four 
months' imprisonment for having criminally 
libeled von Moltke. The latter, however, 
and the rest of the so-called "camarilla" 
appear to have been completely and perma- 
nently discredited. 



162 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REyiEWS. 

HowFranci ^^'I'tary glory is no longer the Frenchman's growing dislike for war. — 
'•"o'^xf ambition and life object of the perhaps the result of Socialistic propa- 
French people, as it was for nearly ganda,- — and his increasing wealth. That it 
two centuries. It is becoming increasingly is not a loss of actual position is believed- not 
evident that the progressive decrease in the only by French economists, but by those of . 
army and navy establishments of the repub- other European nations, who point in support 
lie, both in money spent and term of serv- of their view to the increasing wealth and 
ice for soldier and sailor, as well as the many economic prosperity of the French people and 
evidences of administrative corruption and their gradual assumption of the banking su- 
apparent inefficiency in both branches of the premacy of the world. The French arc in- 
service, are not indications of biological de- dividually the richest of peoples. Statistics 
cay in the French people. The French sol- recently compiled by the ministry of finance 
dier and sailor are to-day capabde of render- of the republic show that more than one-half 
ing splendid accounts of themselves in war- the Frenchmen who die leave property be- 
fare. This is the deliberate judgment of keen hind, and at least a quarter of all the popu- 
German and British critics who have seen lation of France over seventy years of age 
the French forces fighting in Morocco. A have enough to live upon without appeal to 
rather sensational editorial appeared some charity. Cases of family poverty arc ex- 
wccks ago in that usually sedate Parisian trcmely rare in France and instances of ahso- 
joumal, the Temps, entitled "The World lute want almost unknown. The famous sta- 
Arms, France Disarms," in which was tistician, Bertillon, recently demonstrated by 
pointed out that for the year 1908 the re- figures that of every four Frenchmen of fifty 
public devotes a smaller per cent, of her years of age three own something of a char- 
budget by half to maintaining and develop- acter and sufficient value to be taxable by the 
ing her fighting equipment than any other government. If the tri-color no longer sym- 
naval and military nation of the world. bolizes a conquering military people, the 

franc has indeed become the symbol of the 
FnuHH-M ^' '* evident that in the interna- Frenchman's industry and the world-wide 
Fimiahi tional competition as a fighting influence of his thrift, 
"""' nation France is losing her rank. 
This is in all probability due to the ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Quite in line with the strengthen- 
(0 Cmimtnt ing of the industrial and financial 
In ranct. p^jj^j^j, ^f ^^^^ French Republic 
by the evolution of economic forces is the de- 
termination of the Paris government, at the 
suggestion of M. Pichon, Minister of For- 
eign Affairs, to reorganize in the direction 
of greater practical efficiency the political and 
commercial machinery of the republic's for- 
eign relations. According to a change an- 
nounced to go into effect the first of the pres- 
ent month (a special decree authorizing this 
was issued by the Parliament April 29 last), 
all the diplomatic and commercial affairs of 
the Foreign Office will be concentrated in 
one department. A Bureau of Communica- 
tions will be established to act as the distrib- 
uting office for information and news, with 
particular reference to the home and foreign 
press. This department, it is announced, will 
be under the management of M. Herbette, 
son of a former French Ambassador at Ber- 
lin, a man well fitted by native gifts and ex- 
perience to conduct a dignified, vigorous, and 
effective journalistic campaign of world scope. 

THE BIBD OP SCANCiL IN THB MOLTKE-HiBDltS CASB. -T-L C _ L J._1 ■ i , 

^ „ ,.T^ .. ^ , J-fie Trench diplomatic and consular serv- 

ZBiLOira Pbisce Bflow ; Don t you worry about -^^ 1 . u 1- l 1 ■ 1 1 

It. my dear ; we'll booh clpsn It up apilp." 1".^ ^^^ ^'^ "> "^ slightly reorganized, and 

Prom Mebeiipaiter (Zurich). it IS hoped that the new director, M. Georges 



Louis, will infuse new life and vi^ 
already well organized but somewhat per- 
functory commercial service of France resi- 
dent abroad. 

Tht British Liberals are realiz- 
4SSi •"£ tlie distance between promise 

and fulfilment. The difGcuIty of 
carrying out to a successful issue the impor- 
tant projects discussed in the campaign be- 
fore the last general election, and in the face 
of the opposition of the House of Lords and 
the general convervatism of the British peo- 
ple, has made the progress of the present ad- 
ministration much slower than its friends had 
hoped, or even its enemies expected. Eacli 
successive "by" election goes against them, 
and it seems doubtful whether an appeal to 
the country would sustain the party. In do- 
mestic politics the questions of the tariff, labor 
legislati<Hi, and the ever-present Irish Home 
Rule, have been engrossing the attention of 
Sir Henry Campbell- Bannerman and his cab- 
inet. 7lie serious illness of the Premier, 
at his advanced age (he will be seventy-two 
this year) has drawn sharp the issue of the 
future leadership of the Liberals. Specula- 
tion as to who is to succeed Sir Henry cen- 
ters around John Morley, author and Sec- 
retary of the Indian Office, who himself has 
lived the three score and ten years; Mr. Her- 
bert Asquith, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and Mr. Lloyd-George, president of the 
Board of Trade. Mr, George is one of the 
youngest men in the cabinet, and his chances 
for future leadership have been greatly in- 
creased by his consummate diplomatic skill 
in bringing to a successful issue the negotia- 
tions with the labor leaders during the recent 
threatened railroad strike. Mr. Winston 
Churchill, Under-Secretary for the Colonies, 
is also openly ambitious for the premiership. 

Tif Canttioa British business and finance, in 
5* common with the commercial in- 

'"'"'' terests and operations of the rest 
of the civilized world, have been affected to 
an unusual degree by the period of financial 
depression which has been experienced 
throu^out the entire world. Some months 
ago the Bank of England raised its rate 
of discount to 7 per cent., the highest rate 
in many yeai> Even this attempt to check 
the outward flow of gold, however, was ap- 
parently unsuccessful. As financial condi; 
tions have gradually bettered during the 
past few weeks the bank has gradually re- 
duced its discount rate, until on January 



THE PROGRESS OP THE WORLO. 
the 



153 



i6 it was oniy 5 per cent,, the discount in 
the open market falling to 4!-j per cent. The 
year just passed did not show an encourag- 
ing commercial record to Englishmen, al- 
though the foreign trade of the empire ac- 
tually exceeded record figures. American 
and German business conditions affect the 
British steel and textile trades, and the dos- 
ing of a number of factories has thrown out 
of employment many thousands of workmen. 






Questions of domestic economic 
interest that are of particular 

"■ "■ concern to Englishmen are the 

old-age pension proposals of the Liberal gov- 
ernment and the liquor legislation which the 
administration has promised to bring about. 
The provisions of the licensing bill, under 
consideration by the Liberal government, 
have not been made public, but are said to 
mark an advance in legislation of this kind. 
It is worth while noting the progress made 
during the year just passed throughout the 
entire world in the matter of legal restric- 
tions upon the traffic in intoxicants. First, 
there was the Imperial Chinese edict against 
opium: then the French Parliament made 
some thorough investigations into the effect 
of alcoholism upon the citizens of the re- 
public, and is now considering radical legis- 



154 



THE Ahi£R.ICA>}. REi^lEW OF REyiEWS. 



lation (HI this subject. The Government of 
Roumania has just passed a stringent regula- 
tion law, and severe legislation on the same 
subject has prnnressed through the Spanish 
Cortes. The advance made in prohibition 
legislation in the United States during the 
past two years has already been treated in 
2 Special article in these pages. 

^g^gg^ From the four corners of the 
^^M/B/o, ontf compass on the continent of 
tCaaso. j^fjjj-g i-omes the news of racial 
antagonism that Is fast making the dark con- 
tinent, the probable seat of the world strug- 
gle of the future. In Morocco the tribesmen 
have resumed their attacks on Europeans, and 
France finds her task in quieting the coun- 
try made very much more difficult by what 
now seems the certainty of a " Holy War " 
and the proclamation by the religious lead- 
ers of the deposition of the Sultan Abd-el- 
Aziz and the accession of his rival, Mulai 
Hafid, who announces that he will appeal to 
Turkey for aid against further European ag- 
gression. General Drude, who has been com- 
manding the French forces, has been replaced 
\iy a younger and more aggressive man. Gen- 
et^ d'Amade, and it is reported that France 
and Spain have agreed perfectly upon a for- 
ward movement, with no dissent by Ger- 
many. The republic has now 7000 or 8000 
European troops in Morocco. The Italians 
have had another disastrous encounter with 
the Abyssinians. Late in December, it is re- 
ported, a raid by a large force of Abyssinians 
upon Italian military posts in Somaliland re- 
sulted in the capture of the town of Lugh 
and some Italian ofScers. King Meneiik, 
however, has disavowed the attack and apolo- 
gized for it. The center of the continent is 
still the point of interest for the thousands of 
Americans and Europeans who believe that 
the Belgian King has abused his trust in the 
Congo. A formal statement issued by the 
Brussels government on January 10, upon the 
accession of the new Premier, M. Schollaert, 
denies that King Leopold has made any per- 
sonal profit from the exploitation of the 
Congo, and replies to other charges made 
against the Belgian monarch. 

Btrmaii Br/ffs*''" German B^t Africa, Herr 
oHtfAH^uvMuDernburg, the Colonial Minis- 
Africa. ^^^^ reports much progress has 
been made in the way of economic develop- 
ment. A good many optimistic and cheerful 
observations have also been made by British 
Colonial Under-Secretary Mr. Churchill 



MADAM LUISA TETRAZZtNJ, 

iTbe Italian soprano opera tAatet with the pbeDom- 
enal voice.) 

upon his return from his tour through the 
British colonies in South Africa. Britain, 
however, still has her troubles in the south of 
the continent. A revolt in Natal, under the* 
leadership of the Zulu chief Dinizulu, has 
been brought to an end by the capture and 
trial of that chieftain, while an unsettled con- 
dition amounting to open revolt still exists in 
Swaziland. The Transvaal government, in 
the face of much excitement and opposition, 
is enforcing the provisions of the immigration 
restriction act requiring all Asiatics in that 
colony to register or be deported. This hears 
hard on the Hindus, who are themselves 
British subjects, as well as on the Chinese 
in the Transvaal. Between the German and 
the British possessions, in the Portuguese do- 
main of Angola on the west coast of the con- 
tinent also, there is a ferment over alleged 
atrocities against the natives by rapacious 
colonial officials. It should be noted also 
that a formal agreement between France and 
Liberia fixes the eastern boundary of the 
African republic, which had been in dispute 
for more than a quarter of a century. 



THE PROGRESS OP THE WORLD. 156 

H^^ Not since the days of Ni'lsson, which has been receiving the homage of con- 
Tttraiiiar* Gcrster, and Patti has there been, tinental and English audiences for nearly a 
in- the operatic annals of New decade, quite a host of self-deprecating Amer- 
York, such a reception accorded to a dra- ican critics have been repeating, in our daily 
matic singer as that given Madame Luisa and weekly press, the old, reiterated charge 
Tctrazzini, the Italian soprano, upon her ap- that Americans are not a m u sic- understand - 
pcarance at the Manhattan Opera House on ing or a music-loving people. One of the 
January 15 as Violetta in the opera " Tra- most successful opera singers of the present 
viata." It was not the first time that Madame season, Miss Mary Garden, herself an Amer- 
Tctrazzini had appeared on an American ican girl, who received her education and 
musical stage. She has sung in San Fran- achieved her first triumphs abroad, and b 
CISCO and has been a favorite in Mexico and now charming New York audiences, con- 
South America for a decade. The question tributes to a recent number of Everybody's 
was, would an audience in the American Magazine a passionate wail on the " debasc- 
metropolis receive her as enthusiastically as ment " of music in America. She says; " Of 
she had been received by continental and Eng- the great modern school of music the Ameri- 
lish houses? There is no doubt of the great- can public knows as yet scarcely anything, and 
ness of Madame Tetrazzini's voice and the it is to-day quite content and happy with the 
perfection of her acting. Indeed, the critics operas of its grandmothers." Replying to 
declare that it is in the combination of beau- this charge, Mr. W. J, Henderson, the emi- 
tiful singing and the depth of dramatic feel- nent critic and author of books on music, de- 
ing that the Italian singer's genius lies. Her clares that while we have as yet produced but 
voice is not the most perfect that has been little, we have the fresh and omnivorous appe- 
heard in New York, but the color of her tite of youth and " a catholicity of judgment 
high notes and the intimate blending and unparalleled in the world. . . . We 
mutual support of her musical and dramatic have no national prejudices, no racial aflfec- 
gifts have seldom if ever been equaled on any tions." We have, however, " that openness 
musical stage. of mind which is one of the most striking and 
invaluable characteristics of any attitude 
Do AmtHeiaa Ap^^P*^ ^^ ^^^ New York debut toward musical art." American music lovers 
BeaiiuLtHt of this Italian singer and the first who have heard what European vocal art has 
*^*"*"" production in New York of Char- to offer will agree with Mr. Henderson's 
pentier's " Louise," a musical masterpiece analysis. 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 

(From December St, 1907, to January 20, 1908.) 

PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS. mands the order for federal troops to leave 

January 6.— Both branches reassemble after Goldfield on condition that Governor Sparks 

the holiday recess, but immediately adjourn on withm five days issues a call for an extra ses- 

account of the death of Senator Mallory, of f.»on of the Nevada Legislature. ...The Repub- 

Florida. lican State Central Committee of Kansas in- 

To««o\.„ *, T« fi,^ Q««of^ Ayr^ Ai^^.vu r-o^r^ dorses Secretary Taft for President, and calls 

January r.-In the Senate, Mr. Aldrich (Rep, g convention for March 4 at Topeka. 

R. 1.) introduces an emergency currency bill _, , _ _ ^ , -r* 

In the House Mr Bennet (Rep NY) iJecember 30. — Secretary Taft speaks at Bos- 
introduces a bill appropriating $550,000 for im- ton, upholding the position of the national Ad- 
provements at the Ellis Island immigrant re- ministration in relation to the recent financial 
ceiving station; Mr. Gill (Dem., Md.) intro- stringency.... Governor Sparks, of Nevada, 
duces a resolution asking for all official papers calls a special session of the State Legislature 
bearing on the recent naval controversy. *^ "^^* ^" January 14. 

January 8.— The House considers a bill for ^ January i.— Judge Pritchard of the United 

revision and codification of the laws. g^^^^ Court issues an injunction restraining the 

T T-1. o . t-Mi X bouth Carolina Dispensary Board from dis- 

January 9r-The Senate passes a bill to pro- j ^^ funds.... The New York Legislature 

tect harbor defenses and fortifications from ma- ^^ets and organizes. 

licious injury; Mr. Hale (Rep., Maine) intro- ^ t» -j .. t» 1 

duces a naval personnel bill, the chief provision ^J*""^7 2.— President Roosevelt appoints 

of which is that naval vessels shall be com- £?Pt; Jo^" E. Pi "sbury chief of the Bureau of 

manded only by officers of the line.... The Navigation to fill the vacanQr caused by the 

House devotes the session to the drawing of resignation of Rear-Admiral Brownson. .. .The 

rooms for members in the new House office ?upgorters of Secretary Taft ^rry their pomt 

building ^^ *"^. "meeting of the Ohio Republican State 

T rri- TT 'J Committee, which votes to call primaries on 

*• ^^"^^7 Imw^^^ 9^"'t '■^'Tr r"''^ " February 11 and the State convention on 

tion of the bill for codification of the laws. March 3. 

Januaor 11. -The House passes the resolution j^^^^; 3.-Senator Foraker, of Ohio, refuses 

oflFered by Mr. Gill (Dem,, Md.) calhng for ^^ ^e bound by the terms of the call issued by 

correspondence in connection with the naval ^^ Republican State Committee, 

controversv; Mr. Bennet (Rep., N. Y.) mtro- _ rxi_xT -nr . te 

duces a bill making ex-Presidents members at . January 4.— Secretary of the Navy Metcalf 

large of the House. I5^"^f ^^^^ , formally assigning Surgeon 

J* 0-, o ^ .1. • • i. Charles F. Stokes to command of the hospital 

January 15. — The Senate passes the joint reso- gj^jp j^clief. 

lution remitting to China about $13,000,000 of ^ ' c • .. j ^ r o t. 1 /-t. 

the Boxer indemnity; the resolution of Mr. Cul- i!,^""^7i'~;?."?^.""*T^^'?* of Schools Chan- 

berson TDem., Tex.) calling on Secretary Cor- ^^^^f' 9^ ^^^ District of Columbia, is dismissed 

telyou for information as to Panama bond ^ }^^ ^^ard of Education for making alleged 

awards is adopted. .. .The House continues con- statements derogatory to officials, 

sideration of the bill for revision and codifica- January 6.— United States Supreme Court de- 

tion of the criminal laws, clares the Employers' Liability law unconstitu- 

January i6.~The Senate passes a bill ap- tjonal. .. .Admiral Brownson's letter of resigna- 

propriating $3,500,000 for a New York post- ^lon as chief of the Bureau of Navigation is 

office building, and confirm^ the nomination of "^^^^ P"^^*^ ^y President Roosevelt. 

Regis L. Post as Governor of Porto Rico January 7.— James H. Higgins (Dem.) is in- 

The House votes down alFDemocratic amend- augurated Governor of Rhode Island for the 

ments to the Civil Code bill. second time. 

January 20. — ^The House passes the bill pro- January 8. — The Republican State Committee 

viding for a new immigrant station at Phila- of Oklahoma indorses Secretary Taft for Pres- 

delphia. ident Attorney-General Bonaparte orders 

.».^« .^,*^ ^^,r.,»,.«.«o«.T'.« Am«t:.r»Tr«AiLT ^uits to be brought against a number of rail- 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-AMERICAN. ^^^^^ ^j^^^^^j ^j^j^ violating the Safety Ap- 

December 24. — Rear-Admiral Brownson, U. pliance law. 
S. N., resigns as chief of the Bureau of Navi- January 9.— A decision of the District Court 
gation. of Appeals at San Francisco wipes out the con- 
December 25. — (Jovemor Broward, of Flori- victions of Schmitz and Rucf A letter is 

da, appoints William James Bryan (Dem.) made public from Secretary Taft to the secre- 
United States Senator to succeed S. R. Mallory, tary of the Ohio Federation of Labor, giving 
deceased. ...The Commissioners of Accounts of Mr. Taft's views on the use and abuse of in- 
New York City charge the members of the junctions The progressive faction of the Re- 
Board of Water Supply with misconduct and publican party in Iowa gains control of the 
incompetency. State Central Committee. 
December 28. — President Roosevelt counter- January 10. — Secretary Taft addresses the 



RECORD OF CURRENT BySNTS. 



16» 



HOM. WILUAU JAMES I 



People's Institute of New York City in Cooper 
Union on the relations of Ubor and capital. 

January IS. — The Maryland Legislature elects 
John Walter Smith (Dem.) United States Sen- 
ator for the full term of six years, beginning 
March 4, igog, and Senator William Pinkney 
Wliyte (Don.) to fill the unexpired term of 
the late Senator Gorman. 

January 16.— President Roosevelt approves 
the recommendation of the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission tha£ the width of the Panama Canal 
locks be increased to no feet. .. .Senator For 
aker, of Ohio, issues a reply to the same set 
questions relating to the use and abuse of 
junctions that was recently answered by Secre- 
tary Taft 

January 2a — The Pennsylvania Supreme 
Court declare* the a~<xat railroad fare law un- 
constitutional. . . .Corporation Counsel Pendle- 
ton, of New York City, advises Mayor McClel- 
lan that the Ashokan Dam charges should be 
dropped. 

VOLITICI AND OOVERNMENT-POREION. 

December si^The French Chamber of Dep- 
uties, by a vote of 354 to 177, passes the bill 
providing for the devolution of church property 
to the statCL 

December aj^-The Shah of Persia accepis all 
the Btipnlitioni nbmitted fay his cabinet and 
Partiaoiait 

T a4i— An edict is issued in Peking, 



China, warning the people to make no further 
demands, and authorizing the framing of a law 
for the regulation of political societies. 

December 25.— A decree is issued by the Por- 
tuguese Government fixing the elections for the 

Chamber of Deputies for April 5, 1908 The 

Dutch cabinet resigns, owing lo its defeat on the 

army estimates in the second chamber The 

trial begins in St. Petersburg of the 169 signa- 
tories of the Viborg manifesto, members of the 
Liberal and Labor parties in the first Russian 

December 26. — The Indian National Congress 
opens at Surat, but owing to the action of ex- 
tremists is suspended. 

December 28, — It is announced that 1-ord Cur- 
^on is a candidate for the vacancy created 
among the Irish representative peers by the 
death of Lord Kilmaine The Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment proclaims Panitza and Sandansky and 

their confederates lo be brigands The Shah 

of Persia takes oath before Parliament to sup- 
port the Persian constitution. .. .The Emperor 
of Japan opens the Parliament. .. .The Russian 
Duma passes an appropriation of $7,500,000 for 
the relief of twelve provinces suffering from 
famine. ., .Bureaus of information regarding 
constitutional government in China are closed 
in Peking. 

December 30. — Signor Sevcrino Casana is ap- 
pointed' Italian Minister of War in place of Gen- 
eral Vigano, resigned. 

December 31. — One hundred and sixty-seven 
members of the first Russian Duma who signed 
the Viborg manifesto are sentenced to three 
' months' imprisonment; two of the accused per- 
sons are acquitted. 

January i. — The government of Manitoba 
purchases'lhe Bell telephone system in the prov- 
ince for $3,300,000, payment to be made in 

forty-year 4 per cent, bonds An uprising of 

the Mosquito Indians against President Zdaya 
is reported from Nicaragua. 




Hon. Thomas F. Oore Hon. Rotiert L. Owen. 
UNfTED STATES SEITATORS FROM OKLAHOMA. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REf'lElVS. 



(PodtQiaBtPr-Gr'iiorBl In the McKlDle; Cabinet.) 

January 2. — Nineteen Russians are arrested on 
a charge of conspiring Jo murder ihe Dowager 
Empress. .. .AH the members of the Executive 
Committee of the Popular Socialist party in 
Russia are indicted on the charge of conspiracy 
to overthrow the government. 

January 3. — It is announced that M. Briand 
will take the post of Minister of Justice in the 
French cabinet, retaining the portfolio of Public 
Worship. 

January 4. — M, Dourncrgiie, Minister of Com- 
merce in the French cabinet, is transferred to 
the ministry of public instruction, and M. 

Cruppi becomes Minister of Commerce The 

Prussian Minister of Finance announces that 

bids will be asked for a loan of $75,000.000 

King Gustav of Sweden orders the abolishment 
of the pompous ceremonies with which the Par- 
liament has been opened. 

January 9. — M. Schollaert. recently appointed 
Minister of the Interior of Belgium, accepts in 
addition the post of Premier, 

January 11. — Mulai Hafid is proclaimed Sul- 
tan of Morocco, and a holy war is declared. 

January i4.~Marquis Saionji, the Japanese 
Premier, fenders his resignation, which the Em- 
peror refuses: the cabinet division over finances 
IS settled by the elimination of the Minister of 
Finance and the Minister of Communication. 
their post"! being taken by the ministers of Jus- 
tice and of the Interior, respectively The Ger- 
man Minister of the Interior says that 3 bill 
will be introduced increasing the coinage of 

January 16. — The formal opening of the first 
Swedish Parliament under the reign of King 



Gustav takes place at Stockholm... .A revolu- 
tionary movement against the Haitian Govern- 
ment is begun under the leadership of Jean 
Juneau, a former insurgent. 

January 17.— William O'Brien and Timothy 
Healy decide to rejoin the Irish Nationalist 
party under the leadership of John Redmond. 

January 18. — The British Liberals lose a seat 
in Parliament by the election of Capt, Morri- 
son-Bell, Unionist, for the Asburton division of 
Devon President Castro of Venezuela an- 
nuls the contract between the government and 
the Venezuelan salt monopoly, an English cor- 
poration. 

January 19,— The Progressive party of Japan 
adopts a platform attacking the cabinet for bad 
finance and weak diplomacy, 

January zo.^The Haitian Government forces 
attack and recapture the (own of St. Marc, the 

insurgents offering slight resistance Lord 

Curzon is elected a representative peer for 
Ireland. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 

December 26.— The Governor of Trinidad en- 
tertains the officers of the American fleet of bat- 
tleships at Port of Spain. 

December 28.— The Emperor of Japan, in a 
speech opening Parliament, lays stress on the 
increasingly cordial relations with foreign pow- 
ers Natives of India refusing to register 

themselves are ordered to leave the Transvaal 
within forty-eight hours; 5000 leave. 

December 31. — The Japanese Government re- 
plies to the suggestions offered by the United 
States relative to the future restriction of emi- 
gration. 

January 6. — The French Government author- 
izes the statement that it expects a peaceful set- 
tlement of the questions at issue between Japan 
and America and is the sincere friend of both 



January 8. — It is announced that Japan has 
made proposals to China for the settlement of 
the dispute over telegraph lines. 

January 10. — The Belgian Government issues 
its reply to the Congo State commission. 

January M..^Baron Takahira is informed by 
the Japanese Government of his appointment as 
Ambassador to the United States Represen- 
tatives of nationalities suffering from oppression 
by the Sultan decide at a secret congress in 
Paris to unite to establish a constitutional re- 
gime in Turkey. 

January iz.— The American battleship fleet is 
warmly welcomed at Rio de J.^nciro by the 
Bra;!ilian Government and the municipal au- 
thorities. 

January 13,— President Penna of Uracil re- 
duces the tariff duties on a number of produc- 
tions of the United Slates in view of the favor 
extended to Brazilian coffee by this Government 
and to mark the visit of the .American fleet. 

January 14,— The United States receives from 
Spain $570,000 in full payment of the principal 
of indemnity claims resulting from depredations 
of Spanish privateers upon, American commerce 

between the years 1819 and 1834 The officers 

of the American fleet at Rio de Janeiro pay a 



RECORD OF CURRENT EVENTS. 159 

visit to President Penna A mission from conditions in the United States and Germany 

Malai Hafid arrives at Paris to inform the the Bank of England lowers its rate of discount 

French Government that the so-called holy war from 7 to 6 per cent Judge Pritchard, of the 

in Morocco is not directed against foreigners United States Circuit Court, appoints S. D. 

and that the treaties made with Abd-el-Aziz will Warfield and R. L. Williams receivers for the 

be respected. Seaboard Air Line Railway. 

January 16.— The French troops under Gen. January 3.— Night riders make raids in the 

d'Amade defeat a large force of Moors near tobacco districts of Kentucky (see page 168) 

Settal, Morocco. ....The cotton-mill owners of Manchester, 

January 17. — ^The diplomatic corps at Port au Hpgland, threaten a lockout of 200,000 em- 
Prince, Haiti, protest against the expressed in- ployees unless the strikers yield by January 

tention of the Haitian Government to shell the 18 Maximilien Harden is convicted in Ger- 

towns of Gonaives and St. Marc Japan's oc- many of libeling Count Kuno von Moltke, and 

cupation and annexation to Corea of the Chen- is sentenced to four months' imprisonment and 

Tao district cause alarm in St. Petersburg. to pay the costs of the present and former trials. 

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. January 4— George A Pcttibone is acquitted 

at iJoise, Idaho, of complicity in the murder of 

December 21.— -Emperor Francis Joseph of ex-Gov. Stcunenburg The jury in the fourth 

Austria receives a popular welcome in Vienna trial of Caleb Powers, accused of murdering 

on his first public appearance since his severe Governor Goebel of Kentucky, disagrees, ten 

illness. voting for acquittal. 

December 23.— The funeral of Lord Kelvin January 8.— Prominent coal operators meet in 
takes place in Westminster Abbey (see page Washington to devise means for preventing dis- 
171) Seven hundred survivors of the Indian asters in mines (see page 225) A. B. Stick- 
mutiny are reviewed by Lord Roberts .in Lon- ney and Charles H. F. Smith are appointed 
don, .. .Thousands of strikers in the Chilean receivers for the Chicago Great Western Rail- 
nitrate fields return to work The United road by Federal Judge Sanborn of St. Paul. 

States Supreme Court denies a petition of January Q.— The East River tunnel, extend- 

Messrs. Greene and Gaynor for a review of j^g the New York subway from Manhattan to 

their conviction and sentence ....The Executive Brooklyn borough, is opened for traffic. 

Committee of the Carnegie Hero Fund Com- t ,« tu xt *t. r^ t 1 j j 

mission votes $35,000 for the sufferers from the J^^""^^! ^^T^^^. ^""'J^ ^^'v!^^" ^^""^^^ ^".^ 

Monongah, W. Va., mine disaster. t^e Hamburg American Steamship companies, it 

T^ , t/ • /sr • 11 J • *s announced at Bremen, have entered into a 

December 24.-7lt is officially announced m four-year agreement which will result in a unity 

England that action against the Zulu chief Sil- of action against the British lines in the ocean 

wane is abandoned... .Business again ceases in j-^^^ ^^j.^ 

Teheran and armed bands assemble in the pub- j * c ^ ^i. j 

lie squares January 12. — Seventy thousand persons at- 

_. ^ , * g.^ , , J • 1^ tempting demonstrations for general suffrage in 

December 25,— Christmas was observed in the Berlin are dispersed by large forces of police; 

American battleship fleet at Port of Spain many are sabered. 

The New England cotton spinners decide to j ^ xt 1 1 n j • 

reduce their production by 25 per cent. ; they January i3.~Nearly 200 persons are killed m 

control 80 per cent, of the spindles in New ^ theater fire at Boyertown Pa. ., .Henry Far- 

Eneland "^^" makes a successful flight in an airship 

-f * >■ T^ ,. , . • , TT heavier than air at Paris, and wins the Deutsch- 

December 26.— Kurdish raiders surround Ur- Archdeacon prize of $10,000. .. .Coal-carrying 

umiah m Persian Armenia and complete anar- railroads petition Attorney-General Bonaparte to 

chy prevails there; .. .The Bureau of Insular postpone beyond May i the operation of the new 

Affau-s at Washmgton buys for $3000 one- j^^ compelling them to dispose of their coal 

thousandth of a dram of radium to be used for properties. .. .The New York Clearing-House 

experiments m the Philippines. ...Admiral Association decides to admit to membership 

Dewey celebrates his seventieth birthday. ^j-ust companies on condition that they keep a 

December 27. — Dr. Sven Hedin announces 25 per cent, cash reserve, 

that he has discovered in Tibet the true sources January 14.— Prof. Paul Milyukov discusses 

of the rivers Brahma Putra and Indus. constitutional government for Russia at Carnegie 

December 30. — ^The coffin of T. C. Druce is Hall, New York City, 

opened in Highgate Cemetery, London, and is January m.— An earthquake, followed by a 

found to contam the remams of an elderly man ^5^^, ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ damage at Gonaives, 

A new pass into Alexandria harbor, thirty- j^aiti 

five feet deep and 600 feet wide, is opened by _ ' ^ rr^* . e j- . r .l » 1 

Prince Aziz Hassan... .The Canadian Pacific January T6.-The rate of discount of the Bank 

Railroad directors decide to issue $23,336,000 ^f England is reduced from 6 to 5 per cent, 

of new stock, to be offered to stockholders on a January 17.- -The American torpedo-boat 

basis of 20 per cent, of their holdings School squadron arrives at Rio de Janeiro from Per- 

boards of the cities of Porto Rico adopt resolu- nambuco The Sovereign Bank of Canada de- 

tions looking to a large extension of the system cides to go into liquidation. 

of instruction. January 18.— Jrhn R. Walsh is found guilty 

January i. — ^Thc new law prohibiting the sale on nearly fifty counts of misapplying the funds 

of alcoholic beverages goes into effect in of the Chicago National Bank. 

Georgia. . January 19. — An anarchist plot to destroy a 

January 2. — Because of improved financial part of the American battleship fleet is discov- 



m 



The AMERICAN REVIEW- OF REf^t£U^^ 



end at Rio <le Janeiro The Guatemalan 

Northern Railway, extending from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, is formally opened at Guatemala 
City. 

OBITUARY 

December 21.— Musurus Pasha, Turkish am- 
bassador in London, 66. 

December Z2.— Dr. Henry Patterson Loomis, 
professor of therapeutics and clinical medicine 
at Cornell University, 49. 

December 21. — United Stales Senator Stephen 

R. Mallory. of Florida, 59 Pierre Jules Cesar 

Janssen, the French astronomer and physicist, 
84 Prof. Oskar Lassar, the well-known Ger- 
man dermatologist, 59 Pfof- Adalherl von 

Tobold, known as the father of German laryn- 
gology, 80 Herman N. HjTieman, a portrait 

painter of New York City, 49- 

December 26.— Rear- Admiral Charles W. Ab- 
bot, U. S. N., retired, 78 Joseph Szmyt, edi- 
tor of the IVielkopolanin of Poscn. Prussian 

Poland, 72 Jean Joneph Comely, the French 

journalist and author, 162. 

December 27.— John Chandler Bancroft Davis, 
formerly Minister to Germany and for many 
years official reporter of (he United States Su- 
preme Court, 85 Ex-Gov. Elihu Emory Jack- 
son, of Maryland, 71 Carl Meisel, a distin- 
guished Boston violinist, 79, 



December 28, — Dr. Coleman Sellers, engineei* 

and scientist, 81 William Marcus Thompson, 

editor of Reynolds' Newspaper, London, 51 

Mrs. Letitia Tyler Semple, a former mistress of 
the White House, 86. 

December 29. — Dr. Julian Dunajewski. one of 
the most eminent of Polish statesmen, 85. 

December 30. — Chief Justice John D. Casso- 
day, of the Wisconsin Supreme Court, 77.... 
Enos Houghton Tucker, one of the pioneer rail- 
road men of New England, 93. 

December 31. — Bishop Edward G. Andrews, of 

the Methodist Episcopal Church, 82 Jean 

Francois Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne, French 

Minister of Justice, 75 M. de Troos, Premier 

of Belgium Charles Hermann-Leon, ani- 
mal and genre painter, of Paris. 70 Prof. 

Thomas Day Seymour, of Yale University, 

60 Judge John Watson Barr, a distinguished 

Kentucky juri.st, 82 Brig. -Gen. Alfred Lind- 

ley Lee, a veteran of the Civil War, 74. 

January 2.— Dr. Nicholas Senn, one of the 
most widely known surgeons in the United 
States, 63. 

January 3. — Rev. Dr. Denis J. Stafford, rec- 
tor of St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, of 
Washington, D. C, 47- 

January 4. — Prof. Charles Augustus Youi^, 
one of the leading astronomers of the Unitra 
SUtes, 73. 

January 6. — Ex-Congressman A. S. Berry, of 
Kentucky, 73. 

January 7. — Bishop George Worthington, of 
the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Nebraska, 

67 Prince Stanislaus Poniatowski, head of 

(he historic Polish house of that name 

George L. Chase, president of the Hartford Fire 
Insurance Company, 80 Former State Sena- 
tor Sanuiel Fcssenden, of Connecticut, 60. 

January q. — Wilhclm Busch. the German cari- 
caturist, 76. .. .Abraham Goldfaden, the Yiddish 
poet and dramatist, 68. 

January 10. — George F. Evans, vice-president 
and general manager of the Maine Central Rail- 
January ri. — Dr. Frank Herbert Eaton, a 
well-known Canadian educationist, 57. 

January 12. — Rabbi Bernhard Fclsenphal, a 
distinguished Hebrew scholar and leader of 
" reformed Judaism," 86. 

January 13. — Holger H. H. Drachmann, the 
Danish poet and author, 61. 

January 14.— James Ryder Randall, writer of 
" Maryland, My Maryland," 6<) William Liv- 
ingston Alden. an Ami'rican journali.st, 70.... 
Julius T. Melchcrs, the sculptor. 78. 

January 15. — Dr. William Rollins Shipman, 
dean of Tufts College. 72. . - . F.dward Henry 
Strobel, adviser to the King of Siam, $2. 

January 16.— Mrs. l.ydia K- Bradley of 
Peoria, III., well known for her philanthropj. 92. 

January 18,— Edmund Clarence Stcdman, the 

banker-poet, 74 Ex-Gov. Charles H. Sa»-yer, 

of New Hampshire, 6H, 

January 19. — Charles Emory Smith, editor of 
the Philadelphia Press, formerly Postmaster- 
General and former Minister to Russia, 66. 



CARTOONS OF THE MONTH, CHIEFLY 
POLITICAL. 



SECnETAnr Taft Ho tlie PresWent) : " Whnfs that blamed racket ahpafl. Theodore?-' 

ecretarj Taft doea not Ond tile trip to the While House devoid oC adventiire and opposition. 

From tbe Saluraav Olobe (Utlca). 



lere are times wben tbese ildine testa . 
positive cruelty! 
From the IFoiM (New York). From (he Prtftt {New York). 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REt^/El^S. 



a the 8pote*mart-ReiHeio (Spak 



e aiobt {New Xork). 



They thought he b 



ae, bat he seems ti 



nol (MlDnrapDllHl. 



From the Commtrclat Tribune (Cincinnati). 



Prom the iVoria iNew York). 



CARTOOm OF THE MONTH. CHIEFLY POUVCAL. 



Ifrom the Inquirer (Pblladelpnia). 




" WELI4 SAKia U.1TB, LESLIE, WHEEIR tllD 

From the Bcgi»t«f ax^ Leader (Dei 1 



lU tH£ At^^RiCAN REyiEu^ OF neymu's. 



Pram the I>ail (Denver). 



1 of my heart 
ProiD tl« World (N«ir Xorti). From the PuUie Ledy-r 



CARTOONS OP THE MONTH. CHIEFLY POLITICAL i65 




rrom tlie lleraU (Now York; 



From the Bpotfinum-Rfvitui (Spokene). From the Worlft Jmertoiii (Ptaiaaelpbia). 



THE AMERICAN RSl^ieit' OF kEfieWS. 



A year ago ibf fi gaye 

Pnwppritj a blach ry: Now he la palntlos It whltp. nEimorA'n si 

From tbe Simteiman-llerUic (Spokane). irroni the Caiutifadon (AIlutB). 



CARTOONS OF THE MOt^TH. CHIEFLY POLmCAL. 




a the Hrrali (N'ew York). 



THE TOBACCO WAR INf KENTUCKY. 

BY MARTHA McCULLOCH- WILLIAMS. 

Zk N ordinary screen-door, set in the wall tionary Virginia and Carolina stock. The 
of a white frame Kentucky farm-house, first settlers brought in three things that re- 
is the last thing from which one would ex- main to this day, — namely, tobacco seed, to- 
pect a curdly thrill in this year of peace. Save bacco knowledge, and a stiflE-necked love of 
in one particular this door was nowise unlike liberty so far-reaching that it includes liberty 
a million others, in other homesteads, — it to make other folk see things its own way^ 
swung true on its hinges and had wire of a Among such a people Moseley's case could 
fine mesh. But amid the meshes, and on the not happen without a cause and an occasion, 
frame, there were the marks of forty-seven The cause was the tobacco fight, the occasion 
bullets. The bullets had been fired upon an a suspicion of disloyalty on his part toward 
August night of 1907, when only the screen the Planters* Protective Association, the or- 
door protected the family sleeping inside, ganization of tobacco growers that is waging 
Xhe bullets came quartering, — five hundred the fight. That is to say, upon the surface; 
of them it may be, maybe even a thousand, personal grudges may have lain deeper down. 
Some bored round holes through window- Moseley had been laggard in joining the em- 
panes, others penetrated weatherboarding, battled farmers. The association was formed 
laths, and plaster, and sped on to bury them- in 1904, yet he did not go into it until 1907. 
selves in the opposite wall. Still others zipped The association was born of imperious ne- 
along the roof, chipping shingles in their cessity. Tobacco prices had fallen, fallen 
flight. They were revolver bullets, or those until they were much below the cost of pro- 
from Winchester rifles. So many were there, duction. The growers cried '^ut " Monop- 
and fired at such close range, it is almost a*t)ly," alleging collusion betwixt the Tobacco 
miracle that any soul within reach of them Trust and the Regie, their main customers, 
escaped alive. The Regie, — pronounced ree-jee, — is the ma- 
Five people were within reach of them, — chinery through which tobacco is supplied to 
Stephen Moseley, a farmer of Trigg County, the several foreign governments which make 
Ky., his wife, and his three sons. Mr. Mose- of its importation and sale highly profitable 
ley was wounded in three places; his wife monopolies. Collusion was unnecessary, — 
came near losing an eye through having frag- the trust and the Regie had simply to agree 
ments of screen-wire driven into it. The lads on rates and territory, to fix beyond peradven- 
saved themselves by dropping from their beds ture the price of the Patch's main money crop, 
to the floor, at their mother's order, and roll- Tobacco requires throughout hard hand 
ing as far out of range as was possible. The labor, and plenty of it. It is ready for mar- 
telephone wire had been cut before the at- ket the fall and winter after growth. Cur- 
tack. There were possibly 100 men in the rent rates for tobacco in January, 1904, 
attacking party. After the shooting they meant, according to Kentucky calculations, >.^ 
called Moseley out, whipped him hard, less than 30 cents a day for an able-bodied 
warned him not to seek legal redress, then man's work in raising it. Out of the 30 cents 
rode away, whooping and yelling. he must feed, clothe, and lodge himself and 
Moseley 's case is set forth thus particularly his family. Not an alluring prospect, — for- 
because it is a typical one, and because I saw bidding, indeed, rather, in view of the fact 
it. There are possibly a dozen parallels to it that tobacco is essentially a poor man's crop, 
in the length and breadth of the Black Patch, Seed may be had for the asking; there is no 
the export tobacco district of western Ken- need of costly machinery; moreover, a fair 
tucky and northwestern Tennessee. Nature crop requires no great breadth of land. Half 
and civilization have alike been kind to the the growers live on the crop while raising it, 
Patch. The soil is, for the most part, a rich — that is to say, they get advances of food, 
reddish clay-loam, with limestone underlay, clothing, and a very little money, commonly 
level in some parts, in other parts rolling, in from the land-owner, whose sole security is 
still other parts approaching to hilly. Fair the crop, and who is financed by a warehouse- 
water is plenty, the climate equable, and the man or factor, who in turn borrows from the 
inhabitants mainly Americans of old Revolu- banks. 



\ 



THE TOBACCO IVAR IN KENTUCKY. 169 

There is thus the pressure of debt to sell individuals. The night-riding mass, when 
the crop. With half of it thus forced to mar- fairly and fully in stride, goes out to shoot 
ket it seemed hopeless to undertake pooling up and burn out a town, 
and holding any considerable part of it. But Nearly all towns in the Patch are reck- 
some way the thing was done, — mainly oned trust strongholds, by reason of holding 
through the efforts of a rich yet public-spirited warehouses and handling houses, operated by 
planter, F. G. Ewing, of Glen Raven, Rob- the trust and the Regie. Therefore the iowns 
ertson County, Tenn. He managed to get have slept under guard, now for three years 
through village banks enough money to tide past. Notwithstanding, in five of them the 
the association over its experimental first sea- night riders have done their will. The be- 
son. But he could not get the mass, hardly ginning was at Trenton, a village of Todd 
even the majority, of tobacco growers in line. County, Ky. In December, 1905, a big 
That remained for the night rider. tobacco factory was burned there by masked 

Beyond question the night rider has been and mounted men heavily armed. Less than 

the most efficient association missionary, — a month after a tobacco house was dynamited 

a virulent one, it is true, yet he has brought at Elkton, the capital of Todd County, 

the people in. To make him real and cred- Those who did the blowing up held up a 

ible there must be something more of detail, train and searched it for tobacco buyers, but 

While the tobacco planters were getting to- found none. Rewards were offered, and 

gether, their adversaries were not supipe ; on there was perfunctory looking into things, but 

the contrary, very wide awake, affecting to to this day nobody has been punished or even 

laugh the association to scorn, yet all the openly accused. 

while watching it narrowly, and countering More burnings, scattered, sporadic, of 

its moves, — often indeed with a checkmate, barns and isolated tobacco-houses came to pass 

Tobacco prices went up, — 'way up for the within that season. It was not, however, un- 

hill billys. Hill billy is the cant name for til Thanksgiving night, 1906, that the night 

those who stay out of the association, selling riders did anything really spectacular, 

their crops as they please. The more hill Around midnight, 300 strong, they swooped 

billys there were, the less the association could upon Princeton, the capital of Caldwell 

bother those it was fighting. The association County, Ky., set guards over the police, fire 

is in essence a selling trust, opposed to the department, telegraph, and telephone offices, 

buying monopolies. It takes in hand the stationed men at street-crossings to turn back 

tobacco pledged to it, fixes the price, and holds inquisitive citizens, then set fire to two fac- 

until something gives way, somewhere. Its tories, watched them burn to coals, and only 

trump card is the fact that the trust and the then rode away, yelling and shooting at the 

Regie must have tobacco, — tobacco suiting stars as they went. One of the burned estab- 

foreign requirements, which they cannot get lishments, belonging to the Imperial Tobacco 

outside the Patch. Company, the British arm of the trust, had 

Absolute control of this tobacco supply six acres of floor space, thick walls of brick, a 

spells victory for the organization. The hill full complement of steam machinery for " or- 

billy is what stands in the way of this abso- dering " tobacco, and was accounted the big- 

4|ite control. Both combatants understand gest and best equipped stemmery in the world, 

'that. The trust and the Regie encourage The loss from this night's work was in the 

him to stand fast with high and higher prices neighborhood of $100,000. Those inflicting 

for crops in hand and to come. The night it had, however, in their own phrase, .and to 

rider discourages him in ways better befit- their own minds, " toted fair." They had 

ting Russia than free ^America. Scraping warned the insurance companies three months 

plant-beds, thus destroying all chance of a back to cancel policies, hoping, it must be said 

crop, is one of them, almost the mildest ; bum- for them, thus to frighten the men in charge 

ing sacked wheat, newly threshed, or hay- into joining the association. Men of parts, 

stacks, or barns, another. Blowing up thresh- family, and standing, persons of weight and 

mg machines whose owners dare thresh for substance in the community, within sight of 

hill billys is still another. Add whippings, the gaping ruins, justified the lawless action 

threats, scrawled coffins and cross-bones, the upon plea of necessity. 

pulling up of young tobacco, the killing of The same force of night riders aimed to 
pasturing stock, yet still the tale of outrages burn Hopkinsville, the county seat of Chris- 
is incomplete. These things, no less than the tian County, a very little later, but were 
shooting up of farmsteads, are directed at foiled by a vigilant mayor, who fears not 



\ 



170 THE AMERICAN kEyiElV OF kEylElVS. 

. man nor night rider, and were forced to wait the whole people. It is a most piteous effect. 

. a full year. In between, the night riders The bitterness of Civil War times, when the 
amused themselves with such things as were Patch was debatable land, and sharply divided 
done to Moseley, also many others in that in sentiment, is as nothing to the present 
line. But on Friday, December 7, 1907, strife. Witness the case of churches rent 
they burned out and shot up Hopkinsville, in twain, — ^association members refusing to 
firing* three factories, shooting oiit windows commune with those outside the pale. There 
by streetfuls, wounded one man, whipped is discord even in the schools, — children of 
another dangerously, and got out of town each sort reviling the faith of the other, 
scot-free, though in the hastily organized pur- There is also a practical business boycott, 
suit two of them were so badly wounded it Stockmen, especially cattle dealers, must join 
is said they have since died. The night was the association if they hope to do business, 
absolutely still; otherwise the town would Merchants are warned to be friendly to the 
have gone up in fire and smoke. The fire- cause, — so are doctors, lawyers, even minis- 
house was heavily guarded, and no effort to ters. There has been wild talk of requiring 
save property permitted. The actual loss all these to refuse their ministrations to hill 
was over $100,000, — ^potentially, it is beyond billys. It has come to no more than talk, — 
estimate. Yet even after the State troops a fact creditable to human nature, 
came, with the Governor offering huge re- Against all this let it be clearly set forth 
wards, nobody felt safe. The citizens en- that the association has accomplished certain 
rolled to protect the town, and watched side results. By raising the price of tobacco 
by side with the soldiers. Both the town from less than $4 per 100 pounds to a frac- 
papers, as well as the press at large, spoke up tion more than $9 it has brought the plain 
manfully for law and order ; the civil machin- people up out of the miry pit, the slough of 
ery was set actively in motion ; but still peo- debt and despond, and set their feet in the 
pie speak with bated breath of the outrage, way of prosperity. The towns show it faint- 
Russellville, in Logan County, was burned ly,^n the country he who runs may read, 
out three weeks later. There the fire spread New-painted houses, fields in good heart and 
from tobacco-houses to several of the busi- tilth, miles on miles of new wire fences, rub- 
ness blocks. The resulting loss was heavy, ber-tired traps drawn by spanking teams, most 
Altogether the damage from night riding of all the good roads pushing out fan wise 
must run well above $1,000,000. This with- to reach the remotest regions, and the netted 
out counting in the White Burley regions, telephone wires, over which if they choose 
which have an organization and troubles of the back-country folk can hear the big world 
their owm. breathe, all tell the same story. Bank de- 
Pad ucah, on the edge of the Patch, lives posits have quadrupled, the money circulation 
in fear of attack. So does Clarksville, Tenn., well-nigh doubled. Mortgages have shrunk 
upon the Cumberland River, the oldest and beyond the convenience of investors, and land- 
best known among tobacco-market towns west values so increased that the countryside is in 
of the All^ghanies. Tennessee's tobacco coun- danger of growing purse-proud, 
ties, which adjoin Kentucky, have indeed had Tliese things the association pleads in ex- 
their full share of night riding. Governor cuse of the black deeds alleged against it. 
Patterson has standing rewards out, aggregat- Whether or no they are worth their cost is 
ing $4000, for the arrest and conviction of easily debatable. But there can be no ques- 
night-rider criminals, but it is unlikely they tion that the night rider does not hold himself 
will be claimed. Men arrested for the crimes either a ruffian or a felon, however much he 
which caused the issuance of his proclama- may act their parts, — the rather a crusader, 
tion, — the burning of a cross-roads store and fighting against long odds a battle in which 
the pulling up of young tobacco, — ^have been victory spells the common good. Unpleasant 
triumphantly acquitted. In various courts as a fact, it is as a symptom that he is dan- 
there are a few other indictments, most of gerous. He could not endure for a week if 
them hanging fire. So.f^r, the net result of he had not so great a moiety of his people 
prosecutions is two men, one white, one black, behind him. He lacks wholly official coun- 
scrving sentences of a year for scraping plant- tenance, — again and again the association has 
beds. Both, it is said, have confessed that disclaimed him. He is not in himself the 
they were set on by agents of the trust. root of trouble, — only the sign-radical of 
Things here set forth cannot have come to something much deeper, whose ultimate re- 
pass without affecting profoundly the life of suit is alike beyond foresight or prophecy. 



AMERICA'S Interest in the work of 

LORD KELVIN. 

BY J. F. SPRINGER. 

OF all periods of the worid's history the generous open-mindedness and sympathy, from 

nineteenth century stands out as mark- which the great things of science come. . 

^, ^ J -^ J . . I wish 1 could speak to you of the veteran 

ing the most stupendous advance m science, ^enry, generous rival of Faraday in electromag- 

It is probable, indeed, that the sum total of netic discovery; of Peirce, the founder of high 

this progress for the single century is greater mathematics in America ; of Bache, and the 

than that for all preceding time. During fP^e"^^^,]^^."^^^^ ^^ ^^'J^Il I'' America and to 

, . i_ / ^ J '^'11 ^' 'J^ the world in the United States Coast Survey; 

this epoch of tremendous scientihc activity ^f ^^e great school of astronomers which fol- 

many remarkable figures have arisen. But lowed,— Gould, Newton, Newcomb, Watson, 

of these none has been more notable than Young, Alvan Clark, Rutherford, Draper, 

that of the Scotch-Irishman known first as (^^ther and son). . . . 

Professor Thomson, then as Sir William These are warm and enthusiastic words, 

Thomson, and lastly as Lord Kelvin. Pos- and deserve on the part of Americans a 

sessed of a mental mechanism of the first hearty appreciation of the spirit which gave 

order, which was run at high speed for over them utterance. 
a half-century, itJs not to be wondered at 

. , , , I- 1 J u- --uU r HIS PART IN LAYING THE ATLANTIC CABLE. 

that he has linked his name with some or 

the most important scientific advances of all Of especial American interest is the inti- 

history. mate connection sustained by Lord Kelvin to 

Science has recorded the establishment of one of the greatest efforts of the national 

no greater principles than those relative to spirit of enterprise. The energy and uncon- 

the correlation of energy and the conserva- querable perseverance of Cyrus W. Field 

tion of energy. These fundamental proposi- were of course indispensable factors in the 

tions are not to be regarded as inferior to success of the Atlantic telegraph cable. But 

the law of universal gravitation and the these would probably have been of no avail 

principle of the indestructibility of matter, if it had not been for the genius of the young 

Intimately associated with these two primary professor from Glasgow. As Lord Kelvin 

principles is the conception of heat as a form was associated with the practical side of this 

of energy. To these may be added a law project from the beginning to^the completion, 

which may be regarded as somewhat of a a brief resume will perhaps be of interest, 

corollary of these, — ^the law of the dissipa- The cable was to connect Ireland and 

tion of energy. All these reach into the very Newfoundland. Assistance was asked and 

fiber of science. Nor is it yet evident what received both from the British Government 

will be the ultimate extent of their influence, and from that of the United States. The 

And with every one of them is closely bound fact, however, that the cable was to termi- 

up the name of Lord Kelvin. nate on this side of the Atlantic in British 

All of this IS of course a matter of inter- territory increased the difficulty in securing 

est to serious Americans. At the same time assistance from Congress. However, both 

their interest should find accentuation in the governments participated in the undertaking, 

genial and generous personality which was and on August 5, 1857, ^H financial and 

not slow to recognize and commend the other preliminaries had been settled, and the 

struggles and efforts of American genius, actual operation of laying the cable begun. 

Thus, upon his return home after visiting Each government assigned a warship to the 

the United States, in 1876, Lord Kelvin duty, — the British ship being the Agameni' 

voiced in a presidential address to the Math- non, and the American the Niagara. Pro- 

ematical and Physical Section of the British fessor Thomson was on board the Agamem- 

Association the following sentiments: non as electric expert. What was known at 

I came home, indeed, vividly impressed with that time of the behavior and management 

much that I had seen both in the great exhibi- of electric currents was small indeed. In 

tion of Philadelphia and out of it, showing the f^^^ scientific advance in electricity had not 

truest scientific spirit and devotion, the original- ,; j j / 1, ^ • ^/-r.. «..-.« 

ity. the inventiveness, the patient, pefsevering really proceeded far enough to justify an cn- 

thoro^hness of work, the appreciativeness, the gineenng project of this magnitude. How- 



t72 THE AMERICA]^ RE^IEU^ OF REyiEU^S. 

ever, the difficulties were unrealized as well copper wire. A beam of light thrown upon 
as the solutions of the problems they would this mirror will upon its reflection upon a 
create iirmediately upon their emergence screen exhibit the slightest oscillations of the 
from the unknown. With the blissfulness magnet. By means of a code arrangement, 
of ignorance, then, everybody went ahead, messages could be signaled by the movement 
And we justify them because they succeeded, of the spot of light on the screen. But even 
But this 1857 effort did not succeed. In tbe this excessively sensitive means of communi- 
following year two other attempts were made, cation now failed, and the 1 858 cable be- 
The latter was successful. The cable was came a piece of junk at the bottom of the 
actually laid and a few messages exchanged. Atlantic. 

Everybody went wild with enthusiasm, which For just what reason failure came is un- 
was destined, however, to be short-lived. known. A tremendous revulsion in popular 

All the messages had been transmitted by feeling resulted. It was suggested that the 
means of Professor Thomson's new mirror whole proceeding was a " fake," and that no 
galvanometer, an instrument of the most re- messages had really been transmitted. But 
fined delicacy. This invention, however, real messages had indeed been sent,- — as, for 
was not the first step taken, by Professor instance, an order from London that a cer- 
Thomson in endeavoring to solve the prob- tain regiment in Canada should not depart 
1cm of transmission. The difficulty lay in for India, the mutiny being ended. Cyrus 
the fact that the current received enormous Field and William Thomson had faith, — as 
resistance, — due, in part, to an induced coun- well as others. So, in 1865, another, but 
ter-current, — increasing, as Thomson showed, fruitless, attempt was made, followed, how- 
with the square of the length. This could ever, by a complete success in 1866. In 
not be met by simply increasing the power of recognition of his splendid services Professor 
the current, as that would result in the ruin Thomson was knighted in 1866 upon his 
of the insulation. At first Thomson sought return to the other side of the Atlantic. In 
to improve the quality of the copper. The succeeding years Sir William Thomson was 
delicate mirror galvanometer was, however, connected with other cable enterprises as 
found to be the way out. It consists essen- electrical engineer. In 1867 the obviou»dc- 
tially of a very small magnet attached to a feet of the mirror galvanometer, in that it 
very small mirror and suspended by means preserved no record of the messages, was 
of a silk thread or fiber within a coil of fine overcome by him in his celebrated siphon 
recorder. The essential features of this are 
a light coil of wire which is suspended be- 
tween the poles of a strong magnet, and a 
fine glass siphon connected with the magnet 
and discharging a thread of ink on a moving 
strip of paper. This is an exceedingly deli- 
cate instrument, pretty much all friction 
being eliminated. 

INVENTIONS OF SOUNDING APPARATUS. 

It can be readily seen from his work in 
connection with submarine cables that Lord 
Kelvin was not merely a scientist dealing 
with the abstract, but a man of great prac- 
ticality. If further proof of this were 
needed, it could be furnished by his inven- 
tion of an improved mariner's compass, 
which was so practical as to supersede the 
others in the market, and by his devices 
for deep-sea sounding. In making deep- 
water soimdings it was a great nuisance to be 
under the necessity of bringing the ship to a 
full stop in order to ascertain the depth. By 
Ills method soundings may be taken of very 
considerable depths without causing the ves- 
LORD Kelvin's hocse, in clasgow. scl to come to a stop. He used piano-wire 



AMERICA'S INTEREST IN THE WORK OF LORD KELyiN. 17S 



K LATE PHOTOGRAPH. 



instead of the ordinary sounding-line. This with the ship under way, whereas with the 

weighed less and presented very little re- piano-wire arrangement a cabin-boy could 

sistance to the water. By the ordinary bring up a thirty-four pound sinker from a 

method it was the work of six men to bring depth of 150 fathoms. This wire weighed 

the lead from merely fifty or sixty fathoms in water about twelve pounds per 1000 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^lEiVS. 



fathoms. By using a brake with the paying- 
out mechanism and compensating at regular 
intervals for the increased weight of wire in 
the sea, the whole could be so managed that 
the brake exerted constantly about ten 
.pounds more friction than the pull due to 
the wire in tbe water, but exclusive of the 
thirty-four pound sinker. This ten pounds 
would therefore be exerted against the 
thirty-four. At the instant that the sinker 
touched bottom this thirty- four-pound pull 
would suddenly be discontinued. The ef- 
fect of the sudden manifestation of the ten- 
pound unbalanced friction of the brake 
would give instant notice that the bottom 
was reached, Thomson also invented an 
automatic depth recorder. In this device 
advantage was taken of the fact that the 
pressure exerted by water varies with the 
depth, so that a means of recording the pres- 
sure at the bottom is in effect a means of 
recording the depth. 

LORD KELVIN AND NIAGARA. 

Lord Kelvin's connection with the project 
for the utilization of Niagara Falls under- 
taken by the Cataract Construction Com- 
pany, about 1890, may he mentioned at this 
point as an instance of his relation to the 
practical side of American life. This com- 
pany, finding that the books were not keep- 
ing pace with the rajyid advances in knowl- 



edge concerning the development and trans- 
mission of power, deemed it expedient to 
establish in London an International Niaga- 
ra Commission, with Lord Kelvin at its 
head, to pass upon, and award prizes for, 
power-utilization plans submitted in compe- 
tition. 

With regard to the general proposition 
which contemplates the utilization of the 
Falls, Lord Kelvin took up a very advanced 
position. He was willing to exchange the 
magnificent spectacle of an immense body of 
water making a tremendous drop to the 
gorge below for the picture of the rocks cov- 
ered wirfi verdure and the 4,000,000 horse- 
power utilized in promoting the material 
welfare of mankind. The present power 
plants use but a small fraction of the entire 
power, and affect the Falls to an almost, if 
not quite, inappreciable extent from an 
esthetic point of view. But Lord Kelvin 
did not hesitate to look on to the time when 
the whole should be swallowed up in the 
utilitarian purpose. He saw in this some- 
thing greater and grander than the si^t of 
a beautiful and mighty sheet of water mak- 
ing its wonderful plunge. And in this the 
future may justify him as one standing on 



AMERICA'S INTEREST IN THE IVORK OF LORD KEiytN. t75 



rrof. W. C. Unwln. Dr. Colemaa Sellers. 

Prof. E. Mascart. Lord Kelvin. Col, Th. t^rrottlol. 

THE INTERNATIONAL NIAGARA FALLS COMMISSION (iSgS)- 

a higher point and enjoying a wider hori- and Dublin Mathematical Journal. In 1846 

zon. he toolc the chair of natural philosophy at 

his alma mater in Glasgow. In this posi- 

AN ACTIVE ACADEMIC CAREER. »■ I, ,- i c cc. .u 

tion he continued for hfty-three years, never 
The life of Lord Kelvin was full of having occupied any other professorial chair. 
activity from beginning to end. Born in In the case of a man of his attainments and 
1824 and dying in 1907, he spent practically celehrity this may be regarded as indicative 
the whole of this long life from his youth of his devotion to his own university. The 
onward in serious scientific pursuits. Ire- professor of natural philosophy in those days 
land was the land of his birth, but Scotland did not have available the splendid equip- 
early became his home, when his father, in ments that are so common to-day. In fact, 
1832, removed to Glasgow to become pro- there existed, apparently, nowhere in the 
fessor of mathematics at the university. In rforld a physical laboratory for students. 
1834 young William was a regular matricu- But Thomson established one in an old wine- 
lated student. During the four years, 1841- cellar. Enthusiasm, intelligence, industry, 
1845, he studied at St. Peter's College, Cam- — all were his in marked degrees. 
bridge, becoming second wrangler and Smith He was twice married, — first to Miss 
prizeman upon graduation. It is not quite Crum, in 1852, who died eighteen years 
clear why he did not obtain the first wrang- later. In 1874 he married Miss Blandv, 
lership, as one of the examiners is under- who survives him. 

stood to have thought that no comparison In 1866, as already noted, he was 
existed between the two successful contest- knighted. In 1892 he was made the first 
ants, and this judgment would seem to have Baron Kelvin of Netherhall, Largs. His 
been justified by time. While at Cambridge coat-of-arms indicates descent from a Scot- 
he became the first editor of the Cambridge tish family. He was elected president of the 



m TH£ AMBklCAhJ REt^lElV OF REVIEWS. 

Royal Society of London in 1891, and con- reform their conceptions of the length of 
tinued in this office until 1896. In this time the earth has been adapted to support 
latter year occurred the jubilee of his pro- life. This demand affected the biologists as 
fessorship. Honors were showered upon well, — especially those who held the Dar- 
him from every direction. That he was not winian- hypothesis of the origin of species by 
exalted in his own self-esteem may be gath- natural selection. Professor Huxley at- 
ered from the following words uttered by tempted a reply, but the arguments of Thom- 
him upon this occasion: " One word, one son that, within a not unlimited time, the 
word characterizes the most strenuous of the earth has been too hot to support life, and the 
efforts for the advancement of science that sun has not afforded it illumination, were 
I have made perseveringly during fifty-five apparently unanswerable, 
years, — that word is failure! I know no The organization of the Johns Hopkins 
more of electric and magnetic force, or of University in the '70's attracted much atten- 
the relation between ether, electricity, and tion in Europe among men of educational 
ponderable matter, or of chemical affinity, prominence. This was no doubt due to the 
than I knew and tried to teach my students fact that it was the first great effort in this 
of natural philosophy fifty years ago, in my country to make adequate provision for post- 
first session as professor. Something of sad- graduated instruction. In fact. Professor 
ness must come of failure ; but in the pursuit Sylvester, one of the greatest of the mathe- 
of science, inborn necessity to make the ef- maticians of the last century, came over to 
fort brings with it much of the certaminis Baltimore to accept the chair of mathematics. 
gaudia, and saves the naturalist from being Professor Cayley, another of the world's 
wholly miserable, perhaps even allows him great mathematicians, came over to lecture, 
to be fairly happy in his daily work." So also did Lord Kelvin. This was in 1884, 

His name is associated with Professor Tait when he was still Sir William Thomson, 

in dynamics ; with Mayer and Helmholtz in These lectures, twenty in number, constitute 

the dynamical theory of gases; with Joule, an application of molecular d3mamics to 

Clausius, and Rankine in the development of the wave theory of light. They were de- 

the theory of heat ; and with Faraday, Max- livered, not to an ordinary post-graduate 

well, and Hertz in the theory of electricity, class, but to a body of physicists, many being 

It is perhaps not wise to attempt to state his themselves teachers. 

rank with the last degree of precision. It Lord Kelvin affirmed in most unequivo- 

seems pretty clear, however, that no name in cal terms at University College in 1903, not 

the science of the nineteenth century will merely a personal religious belief in creative 

stand higher in point of high achievement. intelligence, but his conviction that science 

His writings include books, papers and itself compels the admission of a creative and 

addresses before learned societies, and con- directive power in addition to physical, dy- 

tributions to scientific periodicals. Thus, he namical, and electrical forces. 

was joint author with Professor Tait in Lord Kelvin's life affords an almost un- 

two volumes of mathematical physics, — a paralleled example of the possibility of the 

" Treatise on Natural Philosophy." There combination of abstract ability of the highest 

are three volumes of his " Popular Lectures order with severe practicality. This should 

and Addresses." A number of articles found commend itself to the American spirit which 

republication in collected form (1872) un- certainly has but little patience with the 

der the title " Papers on Electrostatics an^ theorizing attitude that is unable or unwill- 

Magnetism." ing to put itself to the test of the concrete. 

He was scarcely a controversialist. Yet Americans will do well, then, to take to heart 

in the '6o's he became engaged in a great the American practicalness of one who could 

controversy over certain doctrines held by be at once a theoretical mathematical physicist 

many geologists and biologists. He de- and a field engineer. 

manded of the uniformitafian school of Lord Kelvin died on December 17 last, 

geologists in an address before the Geologi- and was buried on December 23 in West- 

cal Society of Glasgow (1868) that they minster Abbey. 



THE AWAKENING OF THE ALASKAN. 

BY WILLIAM ATHERTON DU PUY. 

"TpHREE thousand native children of maintainetl for white children, these latter 

Alaska, shut in by eternal snows, sad- being in direct charge of the local authorities, 

dened by the darkness of nights months long, while the burden of the former is borne 

narrowed by the isolation of centuries, but exclusively by the national Government and 

withal abounding in sturdy, tenacious re- controlled from the capital. The educatioir 

sourcefulness developed by the hardships the of the native began twenty years ago, but 

race has faced, are this winter being given the segregation of the schools and their plac- 

the benefit of modern public schools such as ing on a basis by themselves took place but 

arc maintained in other portions of* the two years ago. 

United States. Since that segregation the tendency of 

Seventy American teachers are scattered Congress has been to show the greatest lib- 

here and there through Alaska's vast ex- erality toward the native Alaskans, The 

panses, dotting the sweep of the Arctic be- appropriation last year was $200,000, or 

yond Bering Straits, weeks' journeys up double that of the previous year. This ad- 

the Yukon and its tributaries even in the ditional money has placed the service on an 

brief open season, or looo miles from the operating basis that has made it possible to 

mainland where the Aleutian Islands lead establish schools in all the principal villages 

Out toward Asia. Each of these teachers is and carry civilization to the mass of the 

the center of a new civilization; for the people, 

Eskimo or his kindred native seizes hungrily The position occupied by this handful of 

upon the germ of learning and receives its white teachers in this great waste country 

dispenser with open arms. and the influence upon the simple people is 

These schools are maintained under the one without a parallel in the history of the 

Alaskan division of the United States Bureau world. At the same time, the sacrifices that 

of Education, with headquarters in Wash- they voluntarily make and the dangers they 

ington, D. C, They are distinctly separate go through are such as can only be explained 

from the public schools in Alaska that are hy attributing them to missionary zeal or pos- 



178 THE AMERICAN RE^/ElV OP REf^lEU^S. 

seventy-eight degrees below. To thes« tem- 
peratures is added the darkness of the Arctic 
winter and the endless expanse of ice and 

snow. The isolation is absolute. Each sum- 
mer the Government revenue cutter Thetis 
makes its Arctic cruise as far as Point Bar- 
row, carries the Government mail, and ex- 
tends courtesies to the school service when- 
ever occasion allows. The trip is in no re- 
spect certain, as may be shown by the ex- 
perience of last summer when the Theils 
broke her rudder in the ice loO miles short 
of her destination, and was forced to tura 
back. 

A teacher for the Point Barrow school 
was on board bound for his post. He had 
been but recently married, and his bride ac- 
companied him on this unusual honeymoon. 
With her broken ruBder the revenue cutter 
prepared to put into a remote landing at Icy 
Point and there disembark the teacher and 
THE " THETIS " OFTEN vuNs HER NOSE INTO AN his cffects, leaving him the chance of getting 
ICE FLOE IN THE ARCTIC. (q jijj pQgj (jj. ^^^ team. By a mere chance, 

however, a supply schooner was encountered 
sibly to the first love of the Anglo-Saxon going north and the teacher and his bride 
which is here realized in the battle against were transferred to this craft for the re- 
the elements. mainder of the trip. When the mails come 

The maintenance of the native schools out next spring it will be known whether 
that lie along the North Pacific Ocean can or not they reached their destination in 
hardly be styled a part of the real battle that safctj-. 

is being waged to uplift the Alaskan, for here In addition to the uncertain annual visit 
there are Americans in practically all the of the Thetis, two mails annually are 
settlements, and the climate offers few of the started to the settlements along the Arctic 
monstrous discouragements it does in the Coast north of Kotzebue Sound. These 
interior or on the Arctic. The schools on carry only letters, and the time of reaching 
the Aleutian Islands, which separate the their destination is uncertain. To the in- 
Bering Sea from the North Pacific,are far out tenor points there is the dog-team communi- 
in the frozen waters, upon bare rocks removed cation and the boat up the river in the sum- 
from the line of communication with the out- mcr. The Island schools are entirely iso- 
side world, inhabited only hy the Aleuts, a latsd except during the summer season. 
hybrid Mongolian race. The most fertile Yet the teachers of many of these Alaskan 
field is that which extends north and south schools are young women who have been 
from Cape Prince of Wales, which point carefully reared among refining influences. 
approaches most nearly to Asia. These peo- An additional goodly number are graduates 
pie are Eskimos and are settled in villages of the best colleges in the country and men 
of considerable size to the south as far as who could demonstrate their ability in any 
Bristol Bay and to the north 500 miles to surroundings^ All are carefully selected 
Point Barrow, the northernmost tip of land from 'hundreds of applicants, and none are 
owned by the United States. Leaving the chosen, except In cases of unusual emer- 
coast, the great interior is populated, and gencies, who have not had previous experi- 
can be reached in midsummer by following ence In teaching. There are always large 
the rivers, and at other times only by toil- numbers of applications on file at the Bureau 
some trips with dog-sleds. of Education for these difficult posts, and 

In the region bordering the Bering Sea the highest grade of material is selected. 
and the Arctic Ocean the temperature aver- The result is a body of teachers of most 
ages some forty degrees below zero in the unusual abilities and character; for the work 
winter time, while in the valley of the Yu- would not appeal to a person of common- 
kon and its tributaries it falls as low as place temperament and ambition 



THE AWAKENING OF THE ALASKAN. 



It is upon these seventy individuals that When the first school was opened at Cape 

the mental, moral, and social future of a Prince of Wales the seating room was lim- 

race of people inhabiting a whole corner of ited. The Eskimos crowded in until the 

the world is to be patterned. The reward of building was packed to suffocation. The 

the teachers for all the sacrifices made and teacher was enthusiastic over making the 

dangers encountered, particularly in the re- most of his' opportunity, and so arranged to 

mote districts, rests in the fact that the in- work extra time and to have a morning and 

fluence over the given following is absolute afternoon session for different pupils. Both 

and unlimited. In them is vested an un- sessions were so enthusiastically attended 

disputed power for good. that careful watch had to be maintained 

When a public school is founded in a while the lines filed in through the snow 

native village it immediately becomes the trenches to prevent the pupils who had at- 

center of the life of that village. Not only tended in the morning from getting in for 

are the children taught the rudiments of an the afternoon period. It was thought that 

education, but their elders are taught the this enthusiasm would die out when the nov- 

principles of civilized living. The whole elty wore off, but such has not been found 

population is given examples as to its rela- to be the case, and the attendance is con- 

tions to society through the daily life of the tinuously good throughout the schools, 
teacher and through entertainments and so- In the native villages it is but natural that 

cial gatherings especially arranged to carry the teacher of the school should organize 

home the desired "lesson. In no civilization Sunday-schools, to which the whole commun- 

and under no condition of life were there ity comes. In this way he reaches the older 

ever more favorable conditions for the dis- people and readily becomes the wise man of 

semination of learning than among these the community, replacing the medicine man 

northern natives; for they are forced into as the general counselor. There is nothing 

inaction for the greater part of the year by of antagonism shown toward the introduc- 

the long, dark winter, have abundant time tion of the new education, and strong affec- 

upon their hands, and any breaking of the tions are quickly developed for the teachers 

monotony is welcomed as a godsend. by the natives. 



THE AMERICAN REt^/ElV OF REl^IEfVS. 

seventy-eight degrees below, 
peratures is added the darki 
winter and the endless r- 
snow-. I'he isolation is ni 
mer the Government r 
makes its Arctic cruis 
row, carries the Go» 
tends courtesies' to ■ 
ever occasion alli')\- 
spcct certain, as 



sibly to 
whicli i 
the elen 

The 
that lie 
han ' 
isb. 
thei 
sett: 
mor 
inte 
the 
Her 
intl 
fror 
aide 
hyb 
fiel< 
froi 
app 
pie 
of < 
Brii 
Puii 
owt 



the first love of the Anglo-SaM- 
here realized in the battle apaiii ■ 



maintenance of the native S' h'l 
along the North Pacific Occiiii 



iflf tragedy 

,- ,rr of the 

■:. it resuit- 

.aih of H. 

-. teacher 

;V:nce of 

. >-i.i. An 

i.iiing Es- 

:-iii expelled 

-..vKiiil. and, 

•'ii-nd in his 

: :n<-,l to the 

-, ■■:• ■:■ ■■;' thi- teacher 

,:r.iiJn;^hr.oillc.lhim 

r^ -he iloor. and diot 

■ ~ through with a 

. haling gun, the 

.leapon used in the 

whaling boats for 

•hooting the harpoon 

,1 into the monster fish. 

Immediately upon 

learning of the tragedy 

. iil^t nimed out, ran the mur- 

Mk 4*1 publicly executed them, 

M* ^ raicher's widow to witness 

^ jr tbc Bureau of Education at 



I 
an<1 

win 
kon 



THE AiVAKENlNG OF THE ALASKAN. 



of the Eskimo as the sole representative of These arc fewer in number than are any of 

the peninsula. The Eskimos are, however, the other tribes. The Tlingets, in south- 

the strongest in number and give indications eastern Alaska, have been, longer in contact 

of superior traits to any of the others. They with the whites, dress as they do, and are 

are self-reliant and hardy because of their packers, miners, and rough workmen. In all 

long battle for existence in an unfavorable there are about 35,000 natives, children and 

land. They are sharp and intelligent trad- adults, most of whom have felt to a greater 

ers, as is shown by the bargains that they or less extent the influence of the United 

push in trading with the whalers who fre- States public schools. 

quent the villages. They are showing With the additional funds in the hands of 

themselves capable of readily taking an edu- the Commissioner of Education during the 

cation, and their artistic natures are evi- past year the work of establishing schools 

denced by the native carving of ivories. haS gone forward with greater strides than 

The Aleuts, living on the Aleutian Islands ever before. Of the sum appropriated, $100,- 

ovcr toward Asia, are of an entirely different 000 was to be used in the establishment of 

class, and are the most unpromising of the new schools. Ten new school buildings are 

Alaskan natives. At the time that the Col- being completed this winter, and the field is 

onies were fighting for independence from being more thoroughly investigated to find 

England the Russians were seizing these where others are most needed, 

islands. For two centuries they kept con- The building of these schools is often 

trol, and the history of this period is that of fraught with much difficulty, as may be 

one repetition after another of horrible shown by the example of Diamedes Island, 

atrocities upon the natives. The result is a upon which a lone teacher is this winter iso- 

cringing, broken race that will need time to lated in his attempt to put up a building. 

revive. The Athabascans are the residents These islands are in the middle of Bering 

of the valleys of the Yukon and its tribu- Straits, the larger on the Russian side of the 

taries. They are more nearly related to the boundary line and the smaller on the Ameri- 

North American Indian than are any of the can side. This smaller island is a barren 

others, but have a touch of the Mongolian, and precipitous rock, rising like a fortress 



X82 THE AMERICAN REI/IEi^ OF REVIEWS. 

plies for the winter. Upon Arrival a por- 
tion of the ' supplies and cargo was un- 
loaded and a small amount of lumber, when 
heavy gales forced the boat to put ttf sea. 
At last report she had not yet succeeded in 
returning to unload the balance of her cargo, 
but the ambitious teacher succeeded in get- 
ting out a letter saying that he had built a 
shack of the lumber in hand, was at home 
for the winter, and intended starting his 
school in the face of the adverse circum- 
stances. This case is typical of many such 
attempts, it being the rule rather than the 
exception for the teacher to be placed alone 
ill some village to work out his own problems, 
Franklin Moses, representing the Bureau 
of Education, in the summer of 1906 pene- 
trated 1000 miles inland, where he super- 
vised the erection of school buildings at 
Stevens Camp, Rampart, and Kokrimes on 
the Yukon, and at Ncnana on the Tanana 
River. These schools and many more in 
various sections are being pushed to com- 
pletion as rapidly as the climate and difficulty 
DK SHELDON JACKSON **' Bating thc material to the points of build- 

(unit-d st«t™ G^erni Agent oiEduotion In jng will allow. AH materials Were Selected 
.Alaska.) in Seattle and shipped 3000 or 4000 miles 

to the points of use. Here are erected com- 
from the icy waters and accessible at but fortable buildings such as form the centers of 
one point of its shoreline. In the fall of communities in " God's country," and here 
1907 a schooner was dispatched to this point is planted the strong seed of civilization in 
with R. W, Thompson, who was to be the the virgin soil with the intention and hope of 
teacher, with lumber from Seattle from a fruition as broad as the snow-stretches of 
which to build a schoolhouse, and with sup- the land's wildernesses. 



S CO DY DOU TKAIN, A 



GEORGE MEREDITH- AT EIGHTY. 

BY G. W. HARRIS. 

** ' I ^HE master of us* all, George Mere^ the American public is reading him in ever- 

dith," said Mrs. Humphry Ward increasing numbers is attested by the librar- 

a year or two ago in a public address. Yet ians of the big public libraries, who tell one 

this was only one more tribute of the kind of having to replenish their stock of Mr. 

his fellow-writers have long delighted to be- Meredith's books, or to add more copies, 

stow upon the man who to-day more than every five or six years, 

any other living author dominates the world j 
of English letters. For more than forty years 

they have vied with one another, and against George Meredith has published about 
obstreperous decrying criticism, in singing his twenty-five books, prose and verse, ai^d has 
praises ; Robert Browning, A. C. Swinburne, taken such a grip on the life of his time as 
John Morley, Justin McCarthy, Robert few authors of any age have been able to do. 
Louis Stevenson, William Ernest Henley, Not to know this man's work isr to confess 
J. M. Barrie, Henry James, Richard Le one's self deaf to one of the»most eloquent 
Gallienne, — a page of this magazine might voices of modern literature, — and more, to 
be filled with the names of the poets, novel- deprive one's self oi a great store of mental 
ists, essayists of the latter half of the nine- pleasure of a rare kind, 
teenth century who have recognized and Available facts for a biography of the man 
heralded Mr. George Meredith as a master are meager. He has never sought, or been 
craftsman in literature. So universal among willing to permit, personal publicity. " The 
his contemporaries was the high regard in best of me is in my books," he said to one 
which he was held that when Lord Tennyson inquirer. Though of Welsh and Irish blood, 
died in 1892 Mr. Meredith was chosen with- he was born in Hampshire, England, on Feb- 
out a dissenting voice to succeed him as presi- ruary 12, 1828. Both his parents died when 
dent of the Society of English Authors. he was a small child, leaving him to be edu- 
Popular appreciation of this writer has been cated as a ward in chancery. Little has been 
a thing of much slower growth. Although told about those parents. Mrs. M. R. F. 
his first novel, "The Ordeal of Richard Gilman, who in 1888 prepared a volume of 
Feveral," published in 1859, evoked enthu- selections from Mr. Meredith called "The 
siasm in some quarters,— the London Times Pilgrim's Scrip," and who therein collected 
praising it at once,— and French and Italian more data about his life than any other, says 
translationst of it were soon published, nearly that " the blood of working ancestors flows 
twenty years passed before it reached its sec- in Meredith's veins, and perhaps this accounts 
ond English edition. And for many years for the sympathetic insight with which many 
his other books fared no better. Justin of his homely characters are drawn." He re- 
McCarthy, in his " History of Our Own ceived his early education in Germany, where 
Times," said: " Distinguished, peculiar, and he remained until he was fifteen years old. 
lonely is the place in fiction held by Mr. Then his guardian recalled him to England 
George Meredith." In America his earlier and set him to studying the law. This never 
writings were hardly known at all ; not until appealed to his tastes, however, and as soon 
his tenth novel, " Diana of the Crossways," as he became his own master he abandoned it 
in 1885 had opened the door to a larger audi- for journalism and literature. He soon 
ence, were they much read. But since that found that he had chosen a difficult course, 
time, in this country as well as in England, His life in London for many years, says Mrs. 
Mr. Meredith's. work has been steadily gain- Gilman, was a hand-to-hand struggle with 
ing in popular favor. Two years ago his poverty in its harshest forms. He was ham- 
American publishers found it profitable to pered with a load of debts of others' making, 
put out a " pocket edition " of his complete For a whole year he lived on a diet of oat- 
writings, — the third American issue of his meal. In 1866 he went to the Austro-Italian 
works. Several pirated editions of some of war as a correspondent for the London Morn- 
his novels, notably " Diana of the Cross- ing Post. That experience gave him mate- 
ways," have sold thousands of copies. That rial for his novel " Vittoria." Most of his 



THE AMEkiCAN REyiEiV OF ^Et^lElVS. 



life since then has been passed in his cottage was a daughter of Thomas Love Peacock 

home at Bo\-Hill in Surrey, where he has author of " Headlong Hall," " Melincrmrt " 

lived and worked in "contented poverty." "Maid Marian," and other novels. Thev 

He has been twice married. His first wife had one son, Mr. Meredith's second wife 



GEORGE MEREDITH AT EIGHTY. - 185 

died in 1886, leaving a son and a daughter. 1883; the novel " Diana of the Crossways " 

Mr. Meredith's first book was a volume in 1885; "Ballads and Poems of Tragic 

of poems, published in 1851 and dedicated to Life " in 1887 ; *' A Reading of Earth/' more 

Thomas Love Peacock. It did not cause any poems, in 1888 ; " One of Our Conquerors " 

great stir in the literary world, and he seems in 1890; *' Lord Ormont and His Aminta " 

to have abandoned verse for a time thereafter, in 1894, and " The Amazing Marriage," last 

for it was eleven years before his second of the novels, in 1895. 

poetical offering to the world appeared. But In 1895 also were gathered into one vol- 
he had been busy indeed in the field of fie- ume three novelettes: ** The Tale of Chloe," 
tiori. In 1856 he published " The Shaving " The House on the Beach," and '' The Case 
of Shagpat: An Arabian Entertainment," a of General Ople and Lady Camper," which 
strange Oriental extravaganza filled with an originally had appeared in the New Quar- 
exuberant fancy, and the most successful of terly Magazine in 1877 and 1879, and had 
modern attempts at simulating the Eastern been published serially by the New York Sun 
imagination. In 1857 appeared "Farina," a in 1890. In 1897 was published in a thin 
graceful little love tale of mediaeval Cologne, little duodecimo " An Essay on Comedy and 
The real beginning of Mr. Meredith's ca- the Uses of the Comic Spirit," a lecture de- 
reer as a novelist, however, was the publi- livered at the London Institution twenty 
cation of " The Ordeal of Richard Feveral : years before and first printed in the New 
A History of a Father and Son," in 1859. Quarterly Magazine ior A^rW, 1877. "Odes 
Here was a book which showed that a new in Contribution to the Sowg of French 
master had entered the field of English fie- History" appeared in 1898, and "A 
tion. It disclosed a mature mind and a Reading of Life, with Other Poems," in 
practiced hand. Its author had arrived. It 1901. 
was the most powerful and at th<i same time jj^ 
the most artistic English novel of its gener- 
ation,^ — ^and there were some great novels In all this mass of work, prose and verse, 
written in that generation. To-day it is as George Meredith has always subordinated 
fresh and as fascinating as when it first ap- mere story-telling, for the story's or the tell- 
peared. The reader who comes upon it for ing's sake, to the study and depiction of the 
the first time now can hardly believe that development of character. The soul-life is 
" Richard Feveral " was published in the for him the only life. The task he set him- 
same year that brought from the presses self, and which he has wonderfully accom- 
Thackeray's " Virginians," and Dickens' plished, was " to write with a sense of re- 
" Tale of Two Cities," and George Eliot's sponsibility, to aim at presentation of char- 
" Adam Bede." ^ acter rather than at story-telling, to regard 
In 1 86 1 Mr. Meredith published " Evan an accurate psychology as morally obligatory, 
Harrington," his second novel, which is in to satirize folly, and to present exemplars of 
every phase of it a remarkable contrast to intelligent culture to appeal for approval to 
" The Ordeal of Richard Feveral." The the intellect." Intellect he has regarded as 
printing of " Modern Love and Other the chief endowment of man ; and he has 
Poems " in 1862 signaled an author as orig- worked and wrought steadily toward the de- 
inal and remarkable as a poet as he had al- velopment of man's understanding. 
ready shown himself to be as a novelist, and Yet he has had good stories and strong 
called forth encomiums from Browning and stories to tell. His novels, with few excep- 
Swinbume, though the critics of that day tions, are not only interesting, but fascinat- 
abused him unconscionably. His third novel, ing. They compel the reader's attention and 
" Emilia in England," appeared in 1864. He they hold it as in a giant's grasp. He can 
afterward changed its title to " Sandra Bel- pen you the most delightfully, deliciously 
loni " (from the name of its heroine: Emilia charming idyl of first love, and follow it with 
Alessandra Belloni). This was followed by a tragedy as poignant as any, of Shakespeare's 
** Rhoda Fleming " in 1865 ; " Vittoria " (a own. He will take you on the wildest flight 
sequel to " Sandra Belloni ") in 1867 ; " The of fancy into undiscovered regions made alive 
Adventures of Harry Richmond" in 1871 ; by his teeming imagination and filled with 
" Beauchamp's Careef " in 1876 ; " The tropically luxuriant growths of men and man- 
Egoist "in 1879; "The Tragic Comedians " ners, of things animate and inanimate. He 
in 1880. A third volume of verse, " Poems will paint you the life of his England in a 
and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth," came in bygone age or in the present year of grace. 



186 THB AMEmCAN RBf^/EU^ OF RBI^lElf^S. 

He will spin you the most amazing and amus- live and move and have a being as real for 

ing yam of adventure by land and sea, and the reader as any personages in history. " In 

through it all make you acquainted with the world of man's creation," said the late 

characters that are true and real and con- William Ernest Henley, " his people are citi- 

vincing. His versatility is that of a master zens to match the noblest; they are of the 

of life as well as of art. aristocracy of the imagination, the peers in 

• ^^ T, . r . -r , ■ J their own right of the society of romance." 

mine. '"^ "' And because these characters are so real, be- 

cause they are living, breathing, thinking 

he sings. He has the great gift of tragedy; human beings like ourselves, their conduct 

and as a creator of comedy he is worthy to becomes of absorbing interest. The Mere- 

■ rank with his own belauded masters of the dith novels are pre-eminent for their dra- 

Comic Spirit: Aristophanes, Shakespeare, matic qualities. One marvels that none of 

Cervantes, Moliere. One novel, " The Ad- them has ever been adapted for the stage. 

ventures of Harry Richmond," alone is suffi- What a delicious comedy " Evan Harring- 

cienl to prove him dowefed above his con- ton" would make on the boards! What a 

temporaries with the art of narrative. fine moving play could be fashioned from 

He has given to the world of readers more " Diana of the Crossways ! " There is not 

charaaers than any other novelist of his gen- one in the long list of the novels that has not 

eratipn, — characters grave and gay, witty an abundance of stirring scenes and effective 

and stupid, learned and unlettered, wise and situations and scores of brilliant dialogues 

foolish, high and low, rich and poor, aris- and witty conversations ready made to the 

tocratic and democratic, good and evil, beau- adapter's hand. In this day of the drama- 

tiful and ugly, charming and disgusting, tized novel it is curious indeed that such 

heroic and cowardly, noble and ignoble, a mine of golden riches has remained so long 

Whether his story is tragic or comic or mclo- unworked, if not undiscovered, 

dramatic, whether his plot is good, bad or Mr. J. M. Barrie has called Mr. Meredith 

indifiEercnt, his people (that is the best of the greatest wit England has produced. Cer- 

them, for he has had his failures of course) tainly he is the wittiest Englishman since 



GEORGE MEREDITH A T EIGHTY. 187 

Shakespeare. And he is the greatest satirist ** Gur new thoughts have thrilled dead bos- 
of his time. He has humor, and his humor oms," he wrote; by which avowal it may be 

^^•, k-.- ^lo«r^„l r^» «U*^,..J ^^ ,^ii:«u*«« «, sseen that youth had manifestly gone from him, 
can be playful, or shrewd, or rollicking or ^-^^^ ,,^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ j4l»^3 ^^ ^1^^ ^l 

tender, or fantastic, or subtle, at will. But cients. 

wit is the meat of him; satire is his daily * j • v i c- a • 

bread. He is a demolisher of shams, a sworn ^^ ^^ain he makes Sir Austin say : 

foe to false pride, false creeds, false senti- "A maker of Proverbs,— what is he but a 
ment. The egoist, the dogmatist, the dilet- narrow mind with the mouthpiece of a nar- 

tante, he lashes mercilessly, not once, but time If^^n "Zi k * / Consider the sort of minds in- 
, '. . ^^ * fluenced by set sayings. A Proverb is the half- 
ana time again. ^ ^ ^ay house to an Idea, I conceive, and the ma- 
He does this in a style that is a constant jority rest there content : can the keeper of such 
marvel of successful adaptation to the pur- a house be flattered by his company?" 
pose in view. It is a wonderful thing that Some of Mr. Meredith's epigrams are 
prose style of his, and a fearful. It has made merely clever, brilliantly clever always, oth- 
his bitterest enemies and some of his stanch- ers are packed with the wisdom of the ages, 
est friends. It is a pitfall and a despair to As a small sample, however inadequate, of 
his imitators, a source of unbounded glee to his quality, take these few gleaned at random 
his critics, a stumbling block to all lazy, Ian- from a half dozen of the novels : 

guid, or lackwit readers. It has been not in- who rises from prayer a better man, his 

aptly characterized by his own description prayer is answered. 

of Carlyle's style : Which is the coward among us ? He who 

sneers at the failings of humanity. 

A wind in the orchard style, that tumbled A mercurial temperament makes quicksilver 

down here and there an appreciable fruit with of any amount of cashr 

uncouth bluster; sentences without commence- When love is hurt it is self-love that requires 

. ment running to abrupt endings and smoke, like the opiate, 

waves against a sea-wall, learned dictionary It is the soul which does things in life,— the 

words giving a hand to street slang. All the rest is vapor. 

pages in a breeie, the whole book producing a An opinion formed by a woman is inflexible; 

kind of electrical agitation in the mind and the fact is not half so stubborn, 

the joints. Cynicism is intellectual dandyism without the 

coxcomb's feathers. 

It is all that and more. It is an aristo- To have the sense of the eternal in life is a 

cratic style with democratic sympathies. This s^^rt flight for the soul. To have had it is the 

style is above all things picturesque, vivid, '^^rains'^wili beat Grim Death, */ we have 

imaginative. Mr. Meredith tears old phrases enough of them, 

to tatters Mid casts his thought in new molds. Otherwise than merely on his aphorisms 

His hatred of the commonplace is equaled Mr. Meredith has ever been a fastidious 

only by his intolerance of shapis. He thinks worker, filing and revising time and again, 

over his words, and he puts new life into Eng- going over his volumes with cmendatory pen- 

hsh prose. He must have the largest vocabu- cil even after years of publication. His 

lary possessed by any living Englishmen ; yet severest critics admit that, whatever his 

he docs not hesitate to coin new words when faults, he is a great artist, possessed of both 

he needs them for a new use or some subtle power and charm, whose work is always 

shade of meaning. He is an inveterate phrase artistic. 

hunter, but an eminently successful one. He ttt 
is the foremost epigrammatist who ever wrote 

in English, — the only one, really, who has While his novels, partly because of the 
constantly cut and polished his gems with author's peculiarities of style, equally be- 
that lapidarian care emulated of the great cause he demands that the reader shall bring 
literary craft^nen of France. And he has an open and an active mind to his reading 
been singularly happy, for the most part, in (" Ideas," he says, " new-born and naked 
escaping the snare that lurks for the maker original ideas, are acceptable at no time to the 
of maxims, — the uttering of half-truths for humanity they visit to help to uplift it from 
whole ones. It is a true humility that saves the state of the beast ") long remained as 
him. His "knowledge of the world's litera- " caviare to the general," Mr. Meredith's 
ture is ais vast aiid as intimate as his under- poems have been for a still smaller audience, 
standing of human nature. Of Sir Austin This fact is easily explained. In a material- 
Fevcral, the great aphorist of his own crea- istic age the lovers of poetry form an almost 
tion, he said : infinitesimal minority in the great republic 



188 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl/IEU^S. 

of readers. And more than this: while Mr. is not too new to be intelligible to any lover 

Meredith's verse has the rugged strength of of good verse. Simply and delightfully mu- 

his prose, and even oftentimes the wit, one sical are also those three little masterpieces 

is tempted to say that the bulk of it lacks of genre-painting, " Juggling Jerry," ** The 

something of the grace of that wonderful Old Chartist," and " Martin's Puzzle," in 

prose. For the most part he is the seer rather which Mr. Meredith has dealt with the hum- 

than the sensuous poet. He is a dramatic blest rural life as feelingly as any English 

prophet.- He has admitted the charge of a poet. 

" pitch " in his comedies " considerably above This poet's best-loved themes, as he has 
our common human," justifying it by his indicated repeatedly by the titles of his poetry- 
tenet that " all right use of life and the one books, are Tragic Life and the Joy of 
secret of life is to pave the ways for the firmer Earth — ^he delves into the primal emotions 
footing of those who succeed us." This is of the humaa heart; and he knows nature 
exemplified in his poems also. He is a philo- intimately and loves her deeply. " Modem 
sophical poet: philosopher first, poet after- Love," that splendid half-century of sixteen- 
ward. But, having said this, one must has- lined sonnets, is the heart-breaking tragedy of 
ten to add that he is a poet, — he has inspira- a mismated husband and wife, 

tion and his inspiration is genuine. The ,, ^ •. r , 

T-k. . T— • • L- I • ... two rapid falcons in a snare. 

Divine Fire is in his keeping. Condemned to do the flitting of the bat," 

From what has already been said it may 

be gathered that according to Mr. Meredith's for whom, though each is solaced by another, 

idea the chief function of pojetry is to teach, there is no comfort. 

rather than to give pleasure. The poet's The wrong is mixed. In tragic life, God wot, 

business is to see and reveal. Whether the No villain need be. Passions spin the plot: 

revelation is pleasing or displeasing to his ^'^ ^^^ betrayed by what is false within, 
contemporaries need not much concern the Like his own good physician Melampus, 

poet. According as the revelation is true ^j^i, j^^^ exceeding the simple love of the 
(faithful to the vision) and complete, will things 

it be beautiful, — yea, though its fierce new That glide in grasses and rubble of woody 
beauty blind alien eyes. That much of Mr. wreck, 

Meredith's poetry does blind alien eyes there Mr. Meredith, loving them all, walks among 

is no denying. Yet we must take his earnest nature's creatures " as a scholar who* reads 

for it that the revealment of his vision is as a book." He loves the open meadow, the 

nearly complete as his powers could make it. enchanted woods, the glow of dawn, the 

0)ncerning his style in prose he once said: *' dark eye-lashed twilight," the sunlight, the 

" Thought is tough, and dealing with thought moonlight, the winter stars, the ** day of the 

produces toughness. Or when strong emo- cloud in fleets," and the rain, — " the glad 

tion is in tide against the active mind, there refresher of the grain." Nature's every mood 

is perforce confusion." That rei?iarkable is known to him. His " Lark Ascending " 

sonnet, "The Promise in Disturbance," is as living (and as tuneful) a bird as any 

which stands as the proem to the volume of in English lyric, which " all little birds that 

his collected poetry, contains a subtle charac- are " fill " with their sweet jargoning " : 

terization of his work in verse. He bids us, tt • j u • . j 

, .ijj, ,. ,j . f^i He rises and begins to round, 

bewildered by the jangled music of the He drops the silver chain of sound, 

words, Of many links without a break. 

T5 ^ ,. ^ • xi_ ^1- i_i. it- Ir» chirrup, whistle, slur and shake, 

But listen in the thought ; so may there come a„ intervolved and spreading wide, 

Conception of a newly-added chord, L|,,e water-dimples down a tide 

Commanding space beyond where ear has home. ^^ere ripple ripple overcurls, 

In labor of the trouble at its fount, And eddy into eddy whirls. 

Leads Life to an intelligible Lord 

The rebel discords up the sacred mount. The starting point of Mr. Meredith's na- 

Yet he can be as musical as the most melo- ^^^e creed is found in that incisive sonnet of 

dious, and as simple, when so minded. Many independence, " My Theme " : 

of his lyrics are compacted of pure melody, T say but that this love of Earth reveals 

hauntingly sweet; and among longer poems A soul beside our own to quicken, quell. 

" Love in the Valley," " Mclampus," " Seed- Irradiate, and through ruinous floods uplift. 

Time," and the masterly " Hymn to Color," It culminates in the teaching of " Earth's 

to name no more, are filled with a music that Secret " : 



GEORGE MEREDITH AT EIGHTY. 



189 



Not solitarily in fields we find 

£arth*s secret open, though one page is there; 

Her plainest, such as children spell, and share 

With bird and beast ; raised letters for the blind. 

Not where the troubled passions toss the mind, 

In turbid cities, can the key be bare. 

It hangs for those who hither thither fare. 

Close interthreading nature with our kind. 

They, hearing History speak, of what men were. 

And have become, are wise. The gain is great 

In vision and solidity; it lives. 

Yet at a thought of life apart from her, 

Solidity and vision lose their state. 

For Earth, that gives the milk, the spirit gives. 

This is the teaching that recurs again and 
again throughout his later poems, as a fun- 
damental theme returns in a great musical 
composition. Thus, in the " Ode to the 
Spirit of Earth in Autumn " : 

She can lead us, only she. 

Unto God's footstool, whither she reaches. 

Behold in yon stripped Autumn, shivering gray, 

Earth knows no desolation, 

She smells regeneration 

In the moist breath of decay. 

Autumn is the seed-time. " Death is the 
word of a bovine day." In " Outer and 
Inner" he sings: 

I neighbor the invisible 

So close that my consent 
Is only asked for spirits masked 

To leap from trees and flowers. 
And this because with them I dwell 

In thought, while calmly bent 
To read the lines dear Earth designs 

Shall speak her life on ours. 

Accept, she says; it is not hard 

In woods; but she in towns 
Repeats, accept; and have we wept, 

And have we quailed with fears. 
Or shrunk with horrors, sure reward 

We have whom knowledge crowns; 
Who see in mould the rose unfold, 

The soul through blood and tears. 

IV. 

Mr. Meredith's greatest achievement as a 
literary artist is his successful handling of the 
problems of sex, the treatment of love. There 
is the mark of the master. Your ordinary 
novelist when he comes to the presentment of 
his lovers, their actions, bearing, words, 
flounders about inextricably in a. slough of 
despond; he fails at the crucial test. Mr. 
Meredith's marvelous insight enables him to 
meet that test triumphantly. He knows the 
hearts of his women as well as those of his 
men. His love scenes are among the best 
things he has given us; indeed, they are 
among the best diings in all literature. 

To create characters that live, said Al- 



phonse Daudet, that is the business of the 
novelist, rather than to write fine prose. It 
is Mr. Meredith's distinction to have done 
both. The teaching of his novels is the same 
as that of his poems: The life of the spirit 
is the only life. Disregard death. " Train- 
ing ourselves to live in the Universal, we 
rise above the individual." And " the way 
to spiritual life lies in the complete unfold- 
ing of the creature, not in the nipping of his 
passions. An outrage to nature helps to ex- 
tinguish his light." His own life has been 
the proof of the efficacy of his teaching. He 
has been a great lover, not alone of nature 
and of nature's God, but of his fellow men. 
Contemptuous of traditional creeds and their 
belittling tendencies, he has worked out his 
own salvation ; and he has shown that ** it is 
possible to rise above the temporal and per- 
sonal, however dark and painful it may be, 
and to live wholly, and even joyfully, in the 
Universal and Eternal." * 

This philosophical novelist and poet has 
been as great a preacher as Thomas Carlyle 
or Matthew Arnold, but a saner mind than 
either, with a wider sympathy and a greater 
liberality. While the English language lasts 
the best of his work will live. And it will 
continue to be a powerful influence toward 
directing the world's advance, — a force that 
makes for righteousness. His work is not 
without flaws; there are f::'T!ts of construc- 
tion, some mistakes that are apparent to any 
critical tyro. In the bulk of his writing the 
chief fault is excess, — ^an excess of persons, 
things, scenes, emotions, thoughts hardly ger- 
mane to the matter in hand, digressions, 
words; "the superflux that proceeds froni 
intensely passionate feeling in conception/' 
And, to quote Mr. William Winter again, 
" an aflHuence of fancy is more grateful than 
the frigid sense of want." 

Standing to-day with the snows of eighty 
years upon him, yet with " head erect and 
heart still young," and reaffirming his con- 
viction gained from long and deep experi- 
ence that " there is nothing which the body 
sufTers which the soul may not profit by," 
George Meredith, the Nestor of English 
writers, may not unfittingly be characterized 
by these lines from the poet of his intellectual 
kinship : 

He there with the brand flamboyant, broad o'er 

night's forlorn abyss, 
Crowned by prose and verse ; and wielding, with 

Wit's bauble, Learning's rod . . . 
Well? Why, he at least believed in Soul, was 

very sure of God. 



NEW BUSINESS STANDARDS AT WASHINGTON- 
WORK OF THE KEEP COMMISSION. 

BY C. H. FORBES-LINDSAY. . 



\^HAT would be thought of a railroad employed copying letters in longhand into 

company, a bank, or a publishing- huge tomes that were never referred to. In 

house which should permit one of its depart- one^bf the offices where the system of book- 

ments to purchase ink, year after year, at the keeping recommended by the commission has 



rate of $3 per dozen 










becn installed a sin- 


quarts, while an- 










gle ledger is now 


other department 










made to' serve the 


was supplied with 










purpose for which 


predsely the same 










400 were formerly 


brand of writing- 










employed, and the 


fluid at the uniform 










one i" no larger than 


price of $1.70 per 










any of those which 


dozen quarts, or of 










it has replaced. In 


a large corporation 










another bureau, to 


in which the morn- 










which some 70Q 


ing's mail regularly 










offices report, the 


reached the desks of 










monthly record of 


the persons for 










each has been re- 


whom it was des- 










duced from about 


tined not earlier 










50,000 words to 


than noon of the 










eight or ten lines, 


following day? Yet 










and this with im- 


these are but illus- 










provement, rather 


trations of practices 










than impairment, of 


and methods liiat 










the service. In 


until quite recently 










many instances the 


prevailed in gov- 










committees found 


ernment offices at 










two, — and in some 


Washington. 










cases three and 


It was the " Keep 










four, — clerks doing 


Commission," offi- 










precisely the same 


cially known as the 










work. And in not 


Committee on De- 












partmental Meth- 










work tliat it has 


ods, that brought to 










been advisable to 


li^t not only a 


HON. JAMES 


E. GARFIELD. 






dispense with alto- 


number of startling 


(Hecretary of the Interior, and an active member 


gether. 


facts, such as the oi 




from the bednniDg of 




The needless 


above mentioned, »■ 


ork IQ the di'pnrtiuenti i 


It Washington.) 






duplication 


but revealed at the 










of " places " was 


!iame time errors and irregularities in method 


not the only 


evil 


uncovered by the commis- 


which demanded immcdi; 


ate correction in the 


sion. It was 


found that the Government had 



interest of efficient and economical govern- been clinging to absurdly antiquated business 
ment. Many of the indicated reforms have practices out of mere bureaucratic regard for 
already been made, but others must await precedent In offices that have an immense 
the sanction of Congress. quantity of accounts to make out billing ma- 
Abuses that grew out of the spoils sys- chines had never been employed, — merely be- 
tcm were found to be still in existence, — cause such labor-saving devices lacked the 
as in one division where sixty-five men were sanction of precedent. Such anomalous prac- 



NEIV BUSINESS STANDARDS AT WASHINGTON. 



tices as that followed by the Government 
Printing Office in paying the representatives 
of dead employees for vacation leave which 
the deceased did not happen to take rest upon 
defective or ill-judged .tatutes which only 
Congress itself can repair. 

The investigation which has uncovered 
these conditions, thereby effecting a saving of 
millions of dollars annually to the taxpayers, 
has actually cost the Government about 
$2000. All those rmployed in the work ren- 
dered their services without compensation and 
without taking time from their regular duties. 
This fact, in itself, is a striking illustration 
of the new spirit of devotedness that has 
entered our civil service and is fast pervading 
its ranks. 

In constituting the Committee on Depart- 
mental Methods, somewhat more than two 
years ago, President Roosevelt chose five of 
the younger ofScials of the civil service, each 
one of whom already had a reputation for 
administrative ability and breadth of view. 
'Phese men were named: Hon. Charles A. 
Keep, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury; 
Hon. Frank H, Hitchcock, First Assistant 
Postmaster-General ; Hon. Lawrence O. 
Murray, Assistant Secretary of Commerce 
and Labor ; Hon, James R. Garfield, at that 
time chief of the Bureau of Corporations, but 
since appointed Secretary of the Interior, and 
Hon. Giflord Pinchot, Chief of the Forest 
Service. Early last year Mr. Keep, who as 
chairman of the commission had given the 
body its name, resigned his Treasury posi- 
tion to accept a New York Public Service 
Comm issionersh ip. 

The commission was directed by the Presi- 
dent to ascertain where and in what respects 
our present Government methods fall short 
of the best business standards of to-day and 
to recommend measures of reform. 

The commission carefully selected seventy 
employees of the Government, with varied ex- 
perience, and formed them into sub-commit- 
tees, which were used as probes to search the 
innermost recesses of the administrative ma- 
chinery and discover the actual existing con- 
ditions. The committees made close inquiry 
into every condition and every phase of work 
connected with the service, and the resultant 
reports and recommendations exhaustively 
cover the ground, from sanitation of offices 
to making of Government contracts. 

The remedial recommendations of the com- 
mission have almost all met with the approval 
of the President, and, where the authority of 
legislation is not necessary, they have been put 



into effect with as little delay as possible, so 
that this reform movement has been in active 
operation for two years and has advanced a 
long way toward the contemplated consum- 
mation. When the desired action of Congress 
has been secured the executive branches of 
our Government will be by far the most effi- 
cient and economical of any in existence. 

A brief review of a few of the subjects 
treated by the commission will afford an idea 
of the scope and direction of the inquiry and 
of the measure of improvement likely to result 
from it. 

PERSONNEL AND SALARIES OF THE SERVICE. 

The salaries now paid in the departmental 
service in Washington are based upon a classi- 
fication of the clerks made by acts of Con- 
gress of 1853 and 1854. which graded the 
entire clerical force (except the departments 
of State and Justice) into four classes. To- 
day there are individual bureaus that have 
more employees than the entire departmental 
service had In 1853, and the responsibilities 
of their chiefs are incalculably greater than 
were those of the men who held similar posi- 



192 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

tions fifty years ago. Nevertheless, there has 
never been any attempt to reclassify the posi- 
tions, or to adjust the salaries with reference 
to these changed conditions, so that, at the 
present time, the most starthng anomalies and 
inequities exist. Not only is there a great 
diversity of compensation for the same kind 
of work, but persons receiving the higher 
salaries are in many cases rendering the Sim- 
plest routine service, while others in the low- 
est grades are performing duties of the most 
. exacting character. Throughout the entire 
service the relation of the easier position, the 
more difficult position, and the responsible 
supervisory position has not for many years 
been adequately distinguished- by the salary 
grades. 

The lower grades of clerical employees in 
the Government service are better paid than 
the same class in private employment. Never- 
theless, these positions have been the hardest 
of all to (ill with competent persons. In the 

last fiscal year, 1462 eligibles were offered hon. Lawrence o. hurray. 

positions at less than $900 a year in the de- (.Vsalstant Seti'diiry of Commerce BDd Labor.) 

partments at Washington. More than 30 

per cent, declined, with the serious conse- f^^red that the young man of parts, who is 
quence that it was necessary to appoint in confident of his ability to rise in the world, 
their stead individuals of distinctly inferior cannot be tempted by the higher salary at the 
qualifications. _ The effect of this condition is o^,tset of his career, when it is accompanied 
far-reachmg, smce It IS from the lower grades by prospects of promotion decidedly limited 
that the service is built up. It may be in- ^ compared with those offered by commercial 
corporations. 

On the other hand, the difficulty experi- 
enced in securing properly qualified clerks for 
positions paying from $1000 to $1500, and 
the great number of resignations from these 
grades, clearly indicate that the same charac- 
ter of service commands higher compensation 
in the business market. As to the super- 
visory, professional, and technical positions, 
they have long been recognized as very much 
underpaid in our departments. 

These conditions have the effect of attract- 
ing to the Government service two distinct 
classes of men: First, those who have little 
ambition and no stomach for the struggle of 
the strong, and who find in a Washington 
clerkship a peaceful haven and a modest com- 
petence for life. Second, men actuated by 
public spirit, hope of political preferment, or 
desire to do big things, who are willing to 
sink monetary considerations for the sake of 
exceptional opportunities. Illustrations of 
this class are: Assistant Secretan' of State 
Robert Bacon ; Mr. Gifford Pinchot, of the 
Forest Service; Dr. Charles D. Walcott, of 
the Smithsonian Institution; Mr. Frederick 
Newell, of the Reclamation Service. In such 



NEiy BUSINESS STANDARDS AT fVASHlNGTON. 

instances we find men of the highest adminis- 
trative ability directing interests equivalent to 
the management of a great railroad, on sala- 
ries of $4000 or $5000 a year. 

The recorhmendations of the commission, 
which will require Congressional approval, 
contemplate a- complete reclassification of the 
service and a corresponding readjustment of 
salaries. The proposed system aims to at- 
tract a higher grade of recruits, by doing away 
with the $50 and $60 a month clerks anil 
making the salary for the lowest grade $900 
a year. Frequent promotion is provided for, 
favoritism is guarded against, and the ulti- 
mate prospect is improved by a suggested 
long-service pension and life insurance. In 
the upper grades the salaries are placed 
sufficiently high to develop and retain the 
best executive and expert service. 

Tile commission estimates that these in- 
creases in remuneration, will entail no more 
than 10 per cent, addition to the appropria- 
tions for salaries, which would represent an 
amount trivial in comparison with the sum 
that will be saved as a result of the economies 
already effected by the" investigation, and 
would be further justified by the higher class 
of entrants to the Government service and 
the enhanced standard of efficiency that will 
be maintained ill every grade. Government, or sold to foreign governments, 

nr to private concerns. 

Cost-keeping, heretofore practiced in only 
two or three recently -organized government 
bureaus, will in future be employed wherever 
benefit can be derived from it, and the re- 
sultant advantages in mere dollars and cents 
must amount to millions every year. 

In the matter of accounting, the commis- 
sion found even the Treasury deplorably be- 
hind the times. This was one of the first sub- 
jects investigated, and reforms have been in 
force long enough to show the most markedly 
beneficial effects. As examples: The Treas- 
ury, which formerly only balanced its books 
once a year, at the expenditure of a great deal 
of time and trouble, now has a double-entry 
system of bookkeeping in force which enables 
it to strike a true balance at the close of each 
day's work. The account of the disbursing 
officer at New York, which used to take six 
months to make out, is now completed in two 
weeks. In a certain branch of the Govern- 
ment, where large and numerous financial 
transactions are carried on, the officials, who 
were accustomed to take ninety days to ren- 
der an account, are now ready to do so daily. 
If a disbursing officer makes his last payment, 
for instance, at ten o'clock in the morning, he 



One of the most important features of lat- 
ter-day commercial accounting is the analyt- 
ical form of bookkeeping, which is styled 
" cost- keeping," Manufacturing establish- 
ments employ it to ascertain in detail the cost 
of articles produced; railroads use it in the 
analyses of their operating expenses, and in- 
surance companies depend upon it for statis- 
tics of the general costs of management and 
agency operation. States and municipalities 
are adopting the system with marked effect, 
and it has proved to be of no less assistance 
in government work than in commercial busi- 
ness. It will make comparison possible be- 
tween the operations of establishments do- 
ing the same class of manufacturing, such as 
mints, arsenals, and navy yards. It will en- 
able the head of a department or bureau to 
determine where economies may be effected 
by introducing new arrangements in organ- 
ization, or new methods in practice, to esti- 
mate more intelligently on the probable cost 
of future operations, to make contracts with 
closer calculation, to fix selling prices on 
products transferred to other branches of the 



194 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^lEU^S. 



can give a complete account of his affairs at 
noon of the same day. The Auditor of the 
Treasury, who has been in the habit, — and 
necessarily so under the old system, — of set- 
tling disbursing officers' accounts largely on 
faith, now has all the checks and vouchers 
before him with which to verify them.' 

These improvements, be it understood, 
have not been achieved by any increase of the 
machinery. They are simply the results of 
better system, attained with less labor than 
was expended on the antiquated and cumber- 
some methods which have been abolished. 



It would naturally be supposed that in an 
institution purchasing supplies in such enor- 
mous quantities as does our Government the 
patent opportunities for economy and stand- 
ardization \vould be embraced. Such has 
not, however, been the case. Each depart- 
ment, — and, in cases, a separate bureau or di- 
vision,^ — advertises independently for what it 
needs, and contracts at a price without knowl- 
edge or regard for what the same goods arc 
costing other branches of the Government or 
private corporations. A certain mucilage 
costs one department $1.84 per dozen quarts 
and another $3 per dozen quarts. The prices 
of the same make of pencils range from $2.27 
per gross to $3.36 per gross. The cost of ice 
varies from 13 to 30 cents per lOO pounds, 
and no two departments contract for coal at 
the same figures. It should be borne in mind 
that articles of small unit value are consumed 
in quantities that represent hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, and the aggregate bills of 
the Government for such ordinary supplies 
run into the millions yearly. 

No attempt whatever has been made to 
standardize supplies, so that 133 varieties of 
pencils, 28 kinds of ink, 263 different styles 
of pen-points, and all sorts of typewriter 
ribbon, are used in the various government 
'offices. Hardly any check is placed upon 
waste or peculation. It w( 
every employee of the Goverr 
ington, from cabinet minister 
senger, uses twenty-three pencils each month, 
or, say, a total of 7,cxX),000 pencils a year, at 
a cost of $i50,cxx). 

A bill to provide for the betterment of 
. these conditions was introduced at the last 
session of Congress, but it was blocked in the 
Senate. However, in case the opposition to 
the measure continues in the present Con- 
gress, the Keep Commisaion h» devised a 



ISeoretnrj o[ the Keep 

plan which will make for a great improve- 
ment in the purchase of supplies. An inter- 
department committee is suggested which 
shall insure uniformity in prices and, with the 
co-operation of the Bureau of Standards, 
shall establish standards of quality and test 
goods furnished under contract. 

RESULTS IN EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY. 

There are many phases of the commission's 



of this ar- 
suggested 
■quate and 



lid seem thi 
lent in Wash- 
ored mes- 



work, and highly important ( 
is impossible to notice in the Hmi 
tide. The changes effected an 
seem to be in almost every case a 
practicable. They must result 
provement of service and enormous economy 
of administration. These are more than ever 
important considerations in this day, when 
modern civilization demands of Government 
an ever increasing service and the exercise of 
entirely new functions. 

Of course, it is impossible to make a pre- 
cise statement of the amount of saving in 
money, or of the degree of improvement In 
service that may be expected to result from 
the labors of the Keep Commission, but a 
few concrete illustrations will afford the 
basis for a general Idea on both points. Care- 
ful inquiry among chiefs of bureaus and divi- 
sions elicited the assurance that in a great 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 195 

majority oi cases they anticipate at least jest is almost a literal truth. . The reports 

doubled efficiency, and economies averaging have been cumbersome and repellent. They 

30 per cent, of former expenditures. contained repetitions- of the same matter, 

The Interior Department has almost com- scientific treatises, general discussions, philo- 
pleted a thorough reorganization. There sophical reflections, biographies and eulogies, 
were formerly a number of divisions through and, in short, irrelevant and redundant mat- 
which all correspondence and matters for the ter of all kinds, and illustrations that had no 
consideration of the Secretary passed and were excuse for their presence. In compliance 
prepared for his action. The system involved with an executive order, the current reports 
serious delays and a great amount of unnec- have been restricted to pertinent subjects and 
essary labor. There were other divisions, — are free from the objectionable features, 
one to furnish documents, another stationery, They are, in consequence, much more useful, 
a third furniture, and so on, — which have all and have cost $200,000 less than usual. 
been consolidated, with important saving in ^ An enormous quantity of utterly useless 
work and ex-pense. In the Land Office the printed material for which no demand ex- 
increase in efficiency is incalculable, — certain- isted has been issued by the Government 
ly several hundred per cent., — and the sailing yearly. In the past ten years 800,000 dupli- 
in administration will be $500,000 a yebr. cate volumes have been returned to the Super- 
The estimate for the Secretary's office ptbper intendent of Documents, and he has, for lack 
is $40,000 less than last year, despite the fact of storage facilities, declined the return of 
that the business to be done is greater. The ; several hundred thousand more. And these 
work of the department is performed in less figures relate solely to duplication in distri- 
than half the time it used to consume, and bution to libraries and take no account of 
the task of improvement is still in progress. similar waste in the distribution to individ- 

Public printing offers a good illustration uals. How great that has been may be in- 

of decrease in expenditures accompanied by ferred from the experience gained in the issue 

improved service. A member of the cabinet of two recent publications where the. usual 

once said to the writer: " If an official wants method was departed from. By taking care 

to effectually hide something from the pub- to prevent more than one copy going to the 

lie he cannot do better than put it in his an- same individual a saving of 85,000 volumes 

nual report. No one will ever see it.*' This was effected in these cases alone. 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 

BY WILLIAM H. ALLEN. 

(Secretary of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York City.) 

T^HE importance of diagnosing the diseases unpropertied, enfranchisement of women, in- 

with which American municipalities are itiative, referendum, primary-election law, 

sore afflicted is illustrated by the variety of lectures to the foreign-born on American his- 

remedies encountered in one day while visit- tor}% — each in turn is offered as a panacea 

ing Boston. A college professor wanted each for misgovernment in American cities. 

city divided into small districts for compul- The prevailing view among Boston edi- 

sory public discussion of city affairs. A uni- tors, and one that has been reiterated by edi- 

versity president urged government by a com- tors in New York, Philadelphia, Louisville, 

mission of " best, intelligent men," in num- Chicago, Buffalo, San Franciscd, etc., was 

bers small endi^h that the blame for mis- effectively stated by Mayor Hibbard, of Bos- 

govemment coiild'be definitely located. The ton, who took office on January i : 

private secretary of an eminent man wanted ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ conducting a bureau of 

intelligent men to follow tjheetamplc of his municipal research. Previous to the time of 

chief^ who.. had been "talking every two leaving my former position and bedoming 

^eete Oh the need for better men." An ac- mayor, I joined an organization where it was 

1^^ of national repute demanded dassJ- ni!r4'erJe„X'an?*|ra?Z"%rTt^ 

ficd a(x:oUhtS. Restriction of immigration, g^ass. for the one thing I have found out after 

disfranchisement of the ignorant and of the ten days of study is that I know less now about 



THE AMERICAN RE^/EiV OF REl^/ElVS. 

docs. So in government the indispensable 
facts are not the political relation, the erudi- 
tion, or personal characteristics of the official, 
but the specific things that he gets done, the 
specific things that he leaves undone or does 
wrong, the specific defects of government that 
injure the governed, causing unnecessary sick- 
ness, wretchedness, waste, arrested develop- 
ment of child life and of community life. 

THE APPLICATION. 

For business, methods have been devised 
that make it easy to record acts as they occur, 
to classify them where they belong and to re- 
port them regularly to managers and stock- 
holders. The application of business meth- 
ods to government means ( I ) the preparation 
of documents which may be used as evidence 
for locating the responsibility for each trans- 
action, (2). the current filing and recording 
of this evidence in such manner that it may 
not be lost, (3) the calling each act by its 
right' name, (4) the placing facts of a kind 
together in records of account that they may 
be interpreted, and {5) the reporting side 
by side what work is done and the cost of that 
iNRY BRu^RE. work promptly and regularly to responsible 

!au of Municipal Research.) officials, to electors, and to other parties in 



municipal administration in Boston than when It is easier for the same methods to sue- 

mbSaiio^'ltoe'T, !;S"™i™L°in°the «.'t ""^ '" ''""'"'«» ''"" '" eo"™"™'. bmu.e 
ment recently made hy Comptroller Melz of 
New York that appeals to me strongly. It is 
that in which he says : " The problem of this 
office to-day is not one of discovering an irregu- 
larity here and there, but rather of reorganizing 
irom start to finish this city's business methods 
so that irregularities that are invited to-day 
cannot occur next year." Now that is what we 
are trying to do in the city of Boston, and it is 
in that spirit that I welcome the officers of the 
Bureau of Municipal Research of New York. 



By " business methods," Comptroller Metz 
and Mayor Hibbard refer to methods that 
make.it easy to exercise intelligent judg- 
ment. Intelligent judgment about business 
is rarely exercised except where it is easy to 
obtain the facts as to business results. In- 
telligent judgment with regard to municipal 
officials and municipal government will never 
be possible until it is made easy for all who 
may be benefited or injured by government 
to learn the essential facts as to government 
acts and community needs. In business the 
essential thing is not the name, the pedigree, 
the complexion or respectability of the man- 
agCTi but the ^wcific diings that the mintger 



MR. FREDERICK A. CLEVELAND, 

(TMbntcal Dlraetor at the Bonftu of Uonidptl B«> 



BETTER BUSmESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 197 

the parties in interest are relatively few in 
most business enterprises. Where interested 
parties are numerous business enterprise has 
shown the same defects as government enter- 
prise; inside information has brought inside 
influence and inside profits. Witness specific 
insurance and transportation evils familiar to 
the public mind. The protection of inter- 
ested parties at a distance from the acting 
representative has developed in business the 
compulsory outside audit and the supervision 
now more or less efKciently exercised by State 
governments. The protection of the taxpayer, 
at a distance from the acting municipal offi-{ 
cials requires efficient outside supervision and' 
special knowledge such as can be exercised 
by volunteer bodies which, like the Bureau of 
Municipal Research, can co-operate with city 
officials to insure the recording, reporting, 
publishing, and interpreting of official acts 
and community needs so that the average tax- ■ 
payer can easily exercise intelligent judgment 
as to government. 

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN NEW YORK. 

■ Organized in 1906, incorporated in May, mr. william h. allen. 
1907, as an independent scientific body, this (secretary of the Bureau of Municipal Research.) 
organization has published unsensational, un- 
prejudiced statements of fact showing the re- his own prestige, the Borough President of 
suits of the following studies: (i) The city Manhattan removed the Commissioner of 
of New York, the street-railway companies Public Works, Superintendent of Public 
and $1,500,000 of unpaid bills; (2) some Buildings and Offices, and the chief "engineer 
phases ai the work of the department of street of the Bureau of Highways, and appointed 
deanine- diat make inefficiency and dirty efficient men in their stead, and permitted 
streets inevitable; (3) -improved pijoperty them to substitute in many 'departments effi- 
leased by die city of NCTT-York coqtiary to cient for inefficient methods and economy for 
public health and morals; (4) how Manhat- waste. 

■ Ta^ ^^t' l!' "ff^ *■ ?7"'i'!' REOKGANIZINO A CITY's PISCAL SYSTEM, 
budget; (6) a department of muniapal audit 

and' examination; (7) follow-up studies in As results of this citizen co-operation on the 
all Jidda. after first examination and report; basis of facts the government of New York 
(8) for the report of the Charter Revision City is committed by resolution : (i) To uni- 
|. Conumssion to Governor Hughes, the bureau form accounts that will tell for what acts 
'charted the functions of the present govern- money is spent, — installed in five major de- 
ment of New York City, showing what each partments January I, 1908; (2) to service 
department is expected to do and through records that will tell what acts are actually 
w^t machinery and employees it now at- committed by employees and the results of 
tempts to do it, the organization of twenty those acts, the departments of health and 
departments b^cifi^ shown in diagrams; (9) street cleaning furnishing examples; {3) to 
incidentd^ toilfcartudy of Manhattan, [Bor- annual budgets that will tell for what acts 
ou^' and the}j|GQCitni^ionGr]|j|Df!' AcdfUnts' departments request funds, estimates being 
office, the BoBb^g^ Presidenti-qfijiMattnattan based upon actual cost of these same acts the 
|.||VrasreqM](»ld;tjyGovenior ^l^)(ijfl onichanges preceding year,— eight departments having 
|llilfiltf^»l«IKMlBpetence, ancfj™ flf^nioMp^m- adopted the standard for 1908; (4) to a re- 
''*'fflisstmwr''bf Accounts resigned before -^he Organization of its inspection and audit serv- 
hearing of charges that he had employed ice,- so that the veracity of statements from 
men oa Ac city payroll on private work dur- departments about acts, costs, and results can 
ing businesi hours. In an attempt to save be proved, — notable. results having already 



198 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OP REt^/ElVS. 



[MAYpR] 



PARTf^^Nj OF Finance 

Oll«ANIZATlON CHAIVt 



LHlUklMOll 



ifcoipoR/mbi"! 
'l cpuii$EL_j 



cmtrcuiri 



auigAMflnmitctfmiivgnMTlaw Aroapumial 




WKMIPNTMlCOUECnONOr 
CBT KIBHH m or WMKETS 




■iiJlLmX!!] 



GHART NO. I. 



(The Inco-ordlnated collection of functions of which Comptroller Metz has sajd, " There can be no per- 
manent improvement in controlling this city's finances without reorganizing this department.") 



been achieved by the Commissioners of Ac- 
counts* office, now in process of reorganiza- 
tion; (5) to quarterly or annual reports to 
the public that will make intelligence easy 
and ignorance impossible except to those who 
refuse to read, — the best illustration being 
found in the department of health; (6) final- 
ly, which is perhaps most important of all, 
to the reorganization of the department of 
finance, which shall, to quote Comptroller 
Metz, " simplify the present cumbersome 
methods of transacting the business of this 
department; provide a system of revenue ac- 
counting for every branch of the city gov- 
ernment where collections are made, so that 
all revenues accrued may be collected; work 
out a plan whereby this office may exercise 
constant supervision over the accounts of the 
city departments as required by law, and for 
which work it has at present no organization 
whatsoever; insure the city against the un- 
-^ecessary disbursement of funds by installing 
a modern and careful system of audit of all 
claims." 

According to the Comptroller, the aim of 
this program is not to gather statistics, not 
to make up beautiful balance sheets that lay- 



men cannot understand, but " to insure such 
current records that not only the Comptroller 
can secure information without weeks of in- 
vestigation, but that citizens asking intelli- 
gent questions may be readily answered." 

The method by which the Bureau of 
Municipal Research and the staff of the 
Comptroller's office have been co-operating 
for the past year is illustrated by the two ac- 
companying charts, one showing how the de- 
partment of finance is now organized to ex- 
ercise its present charter powers over admin- 
istrative departments, the second embodying 
the bureau's suggestions for the reorj>aniza- 
tion of the department of finance necessary 
to the efficient exercise of its present charter 
powers. The second chart was not devised 
until experience showed that the department 
of finance as at present organized has neither 
mechanism noY men for installing and super- 
vising the recently adopted uniform system 
of accounts for all city departments. It was 
obvious to the Comptroller that a system 
could not be installed and efficiently oper- 
ated in hospitals and police and water depart- 
ments simply by sending pieces of paper and 
accounting forms to the chief rUrV^ For the 



BETTER BUSINESS METHODS FOR CITIES. 



199 



SUOAKSTIONS AS TO TMC OnGANir ATION 

or TMC 
Department or Finance 

£ggjJJ^^jJ£g,£42^^J^T^£B£2CWTjjjHAPJ£^£gW£R^ 
OaaAMlCATlOM Cmaitt 



IcomptrollerI 




LAWDtPtfTY 



\Ummci 



I ASS»8TAMT niOWCE OVKn I 



IfcMbwTtBwIMl 



\ t^«^rti«Mmwn I 



KEHHina 







I B<«w«ii«»T«M* 1 



tm 




1 CMItrSTWISTlClM I 




\ AuDfio* Of eq»u»scwD»nl 




C 



I AUOnOR Of RCCClPIS J 

I I """* 
TzI ! T u 



MiMm 



Uaan 



. ! I auwiAU Of ouo iT ^ <iww i»»CM tiwmMTmmwa| 

I ? I ' . . . L ■ ■ ' , ■ 

QaSoMSraO ClMuuiiSED DSmSa^I] itwWaam) 



,, |^M»f*fll 



llM'irtfi] 



I Anortaa*^ »— »t ^t»«fl 



IUmwwioI 



CHART NO. 2. 

(A plan for locating responsibility within the department and for showing currently whether 

disbursements and receipts are controlled In the public interest.) 



fi 



Comptroller to give a new system of accounts 
to the water department without instructing 
the latter's bookkeepers how to use it, and 
without seeing to it that the bookkeepers fol- 
low instructions, would be just as ineffective 
as the prescription of the school physician 
who found a child brushing its teeth with the 
new tooth-brush soaked in rhubarb, both of 
which he had told the mother to buy. There- 
fore, the Comptroller asted the bureau to 
make a study of the finance department, with 
a view ta suggesting a mechanism and method 
suitable for installing and supervising depart- 
mental accounts. 

WHERE THE OLD ORGANIZATION FAILED. 

The detailed study made by the bureau 
confirms the statement of the Comptroller, 
that " the present department of finance, with 
all due respect to my predecessors, has always 
been disorganized." From the first chart it 
will be seen that all lines lead directly to the 
Comptroller. Iq the second chart no line 
leads directly to the Comptroller except that 
from his first deputy, who in. turn j^^tercises 
supervision through bureau heads responsible 
to him for sifting the significant ffom the in- 
sigoificant ^unong the multit^ide of facte re-. 
ded in dhe Comptroller's office. The first 
rt hojd^ the Comptroller responsible for ^. 
multitude of office details. The second chart, 
relieves him of all details, thus conserving his 




time and energies for the exercise of discre- 
tion on subjects that have already received the 
best attention of which his subordinates are 
capable. The first chart shows fifteen or more 
subordinates each supreme within his own 
square, because he alone understands how to 
read the meaning of the records in his charge. 
The second chart shows clearly the duties and 
responsibilities of division heads, and indi- 
cates, furthermore, that each one is to render 
an account to his superior officer, who shall 
receive currently the story told by his sub- 
ordinates' records. Please to note that under 
the plan now being worked out things of a 
kind are to be carefully kept together, and 
things that are unlike are to be carefully 
separated from each other. For example, the 
contracting and rate-making powers, the col- 
lecting and disbursing powers, are separately 
grouped. 

PRINCIPLE APPLICABLE TO OTHER CITIES. 

The confusion represented by chart num- 
ber I is not peculiar to New York City. On 
the other hand, the principle underlying the 
reorganization chart is generally applicable. 
Whether the city is large or small, and what- 
ever the department to be managed, there 
should be documentary evidence of work done 
and of money spent, so that every city official 
is protected against misrepresentation by in- 
siders or outsiders, by subordinates or : 



200 THE AMERICAN REl^IEM^ OF REf^lEWS 

riors, and that the public can definitely locate ported as received by the auditor of receipts, 

responsibility for waste, inefficiency or cor- the general auditor, the finance deputy, 

ruption. For illustration, let us choose what Comptroller, and general public can learn 

is probably the most interesting feature of this where money due has not been paid, and 

chart, viz.: (the lower right hand division) what amounts of money are being withheld 

" Auditor of Receipts," which it is noticed from the city that should be in hand to pre- 

does not appear in the present organization, vent the need for borrowing money at high 

The city of New York issues permits and interest rates, 
licenses, rents markets, buys and sells prop- 

, , J 11 1 \c J r EXPENDITURES MUST SHOW RESULTS. 

erty, sells water and collects fines and taxes. 

Receipts from these and other sources aggre- The reader interested in the methods em- 
gate over $100,000,000 annually. John ployed in his own city may be helped by ask- 
Smith may pay $50 for a license. This fact ing his city Comptroller or mayor which of 
is clearly written on his receipt. If by acci- these two charts most nearly represents the 
dent or by design the stub reads $5 for that business methods employed in the office of the 
license, the discrepancy can now be discov- Comptroller or auditor. A very important 
ered only by having a man stand over the question is whether or not this central clear- 
writer of the receipt. Thousands and thou- ing house for information as to cost, has a de- 
sands of dollars are spent in making sure that partment such as " Chief Statistician" in chart 
the $5 marked on the receipt stub is copied 2 for obtaining facts as to work done, or 
as . $5 in the cash book, in register and whether there are expert accountants with 
ledger. authority to insist upon records and accounts 
«,,,^ ,,0,, «^ ^^.^.r.rr. «x.^„TT,r,,o .^r> ^^ ^^^ vaHous departments that will make 

THE USE OF GRADUATED RECEIPTS, ETC. ^l ^ ^u i -ui u -. j * ^u r l 

the truth legible when reported to the nscal 
The reorganization is intended to provide center. The Bureau of Municipal Research 
that a stub cannot differ from a receipt with- is interested in methods only because proper 
out detection. For fixed fees and licenses, methods are indispensable to learning results. 
the accuracy of records and the fidelity of em- Whether within a city, a board of educa- 
ployees will be tested by charging a clerk or tion or a fire department, the place to look 
bureau for the number of receipt blanks at for intelligence is the place where money is 
their recorded value; where the amount due spent. If those who disburse public funds 
cannot be determined in advance, graduated acquire the habit of measuring costs by re- 
receipts will be used as in post-offices; for suits before claims are authorized and before 
water rates, taxes, etc., duplicate bills will money is paid, efficiency and honesty will be 
be sent to the auditor of receipts by the water made easier than inefficiency and dishonesty, 
department; for leases, bills will be sent out If private citizens desiring to promote self- 
by the auditor of receipts. In other words, government for the benefit of the governed 
to check up the amounts received by various will begin municipal reform by working for 
city departments, the auditor of receipts will organization and methods that disclose ineffi- 
have documentary evidence of amounts due ciency and efficiency alike, they will be sur- 
in his own office, in the form of graduated prised to find how ready city officials are to 
receipt, serially numbered stubs having a fixed co-operate. If private philanthropy will 
value, duplicate tax list, water register list, spend upon municipal research a small frac- 
or record of lease values, etc. tion of the amounts now generously given 
By setting side by side the amount of taxes to alleviate the physical and social evils of 
assessed and the amount in arrears reported misgovernment, ** America's conspicuous fail- 
by the deputy exercising fiscal functions (at ure, — municipal government," — will become 
the left of the chart) with the amount re- America's conspicuous success. 



COAL MINERS TRANSPORTING A PATIENT ON THE BACK OF A MUtE. 

WHY NOT A " RED CROSS " FOR THE ARMY 
OF INDUSTRY? 

BY ARTHUR B. REEVE. 

* *\X^ HAT are you doing for him? " asked months ago jn a mining town of the soft- 

the hoisting engineer of a neigh- coal region. To-day one miner is at work 

boring colliery, as he peeped in through the in Pennsylvania instead of having been added 

door of the dimly lighted shed at an ap- as another unit to the already large figure 

parently lifeless form with a blanket careless- of asphyxiations in the State Department of 

ly pulled over it. , Mines report. One couldn't ask for a better 

" Sending for the undertaker," was the example of what first aid to injured miners 

nonchalant response of the group of men out- is doing. 

side. Of course the State law requires that at 
" What was the matter, — gas?" the bottom of each shaft there shall be an 
". Sure." emergencj' hospital, and indeed there is, Wut 
" Couldn't you revive him ? " it has usually been found to be of compara- 
" Didn't try. What's the use ? He's done tively little use. At least that is what Mr. 
for." W. J, Richards, general manager of the 
"Well, you are a fine bunch. Don't you Philadelphia Coal & Iron Company, found, 
know anything about it at all? No? It's and he has known the coal regions most of 
none of my business, I suppose, but a few his life. There must first of all be some- 
weeks ago our company had a lecture on first body who knows how to use it. An idea came 
aid to the injured. I've pretty nearly for- to him that in each one of the fifty or more 
gotten just what you do for a man knocked collieries of the company there ought to be a 
out by gas, but, — oh, yes, it's just the same " first-aid " corps. So he had the company 
as you do in case of drowning. Now, here, doctor go to each one of them in turn and 
a couple of you men look alive and work his call for volunteers. At each colliery a dirty, 
arms, — so. Don't stop till I tell you. The grimy crowd of willing men stepped forth, 
doaor said never to stop if you kept at it for eager to enlist in the service, and out of the 
two or three hours. Gently now and steady, men themselves, — or, rather, out of the boy: 
That's it." who work at driving the mules or oD' 
This little incident happened several doors, — the doctor organized 350 into 



THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REVIEiVS. 

that case you spoke 

of. The accident hap- 
pened just as we were 
starting to come here, 
and so the squad came 
on the train with him.' 

" The ambulance sur- 
geon had said the ankle 
was dressed by a doc- 

They are now begin- 
ning to measure the 
value of first aid in dol- 
lars and cents, also. It 
was recently announced 
that as a result of it 
there would in the fu- 
ture be a 15-peT cent, 
increase in the benefits 
which injured miners 
would receive from the 
miners' benefit fund. 
In other words, prompt 
treatment has made re- 
covery so much more 
rapid and certain that 
during the last year the 
men lost less time 
through disability than 
ever before, although 
iis A FLIGHT OF STEPS ON A LiTTEH. niore coal was mined 

and the number of ac- 
Did it work? Listen to this story by the cidents remained about normal. First aid 
doctor who carried out the scheme: " One has, therefore, both enabled a man to return 
night I was on my way to the hall where we to regular wages more quickly and has in- 
were going to have our regular lecture and creased his weekly allowance while he is laid 
practical demonstration, when a telegram up. 

was handed- to me saying that a man with a I was once talking to a coal operator about 
crushed ankle was coming by the next train accidents, and before long he became angry 
to the hospital. I thought I'd stop on the and blurted out: "Well, what would you 
way and see how he was getting on, and just have us do? Stop mining coal? " No, we 
as I reached the hospital the ambulance drove cannot stop mining coal nor can we deny the 
up with the patient. truth of the assertion that even under the ' 

"'How is he getting on?' I asked the best of conditions coal mining is what the 

surgeon. Anthracite Strike Commission said it was, — 

" ' Fine, sir,' was the reply. ' His ankle one of the few most dangerous occupations 

has been dressed by a doctor and I wouldn't which any great number of men follow. But 

disturb it.' we can at least have more regard for the 

" On the way to the hall I determined to care of miners when they are injured, and, 

make that particular injury the subject of therefore, a system such as this deserves rec- 

one of the demonstrations before the boys, ognition as an object lesson, not only to cnal 

who had come from the scattered collieries, mining, but to all industrj'. 

I told the story and had one squad after afi- The fifty-odd squads for first aid meet 

other dress the ankle of an imaginary victiib. regularly for practice and instruction, and at 

Finally, as a new squad came forward, I the meetings each squad is provided with a 

asked one quiet young fellow m it if he man who is willing to be bandaged and 

thought he could handle such a case.. . - dressed as if he were really injured. Some- 

" ' Oh, yes, doctor,' he replied. ' I dressed particular form of injury is selected for the 



iVHY NOT A "RED CROSS" FOR THE ARMY OF INDUSTRY I 203 

lesson, and, after in- 
structions have been 
given, the boys prac- 
tice on their willing 
patient until they suc- 
ceed in handling him 
satisfactorily. 

Among other thyigs, 
first-aid instruction is 
carefully limited to get- 
ting the victim ready to 
be carried to a hospital, 
or to reviving him from 
asphyxiation prepara- 
tory to the arrival of 
adoctor. " What 
would you do if the 
patient should call you 
in the next day to re- 
dress the wound?" 
asked a visiting surgeon 

once, " Well, if I did dressing for coMPouNn fracture of the leg. 

it. I should expect • 

to be prosecuted for practicing medicine with- A hasty examination reveals, perhaps, a 
out a license," replied the boy, repealing the broken leg, and at once a tightly wrapped 
instructions carefully drummed into his head, package is taken from the kit, with all the 
The emergency hospital at the bottom of bandages necessary for this particular case. 
the shaft in each mine is provided with beds, The boys carefully bandage the leg and se- 
stretchers, qjlints, bandages, and other neces- cure it hetween two splints, one five feet long, 
sities, to which is added a portable case, very extending from the armpit to below the foot, 
ingeniously devised by the company doctor and another three feet long, on the inside of 
himself, containing bandages and dressings, the leg. Then the patient is lifted on the 
which may be carried to the scene of the acci- stretcher and carried to the foot of the shaft 
dent at once by one of the boys. The rest of and up in the elevator to an ambulance that 
the squad, if the accident were an explosion is by this time waiting. It's all in the day's 
of dynamite, for instance, would hurry with work of mining our coal, this matter of acci- 
stretchers and splints from the hospital. , dents, and at best the journey is likely to be 

a long and painful one. 
In the many transfers 
from stretcher to ele- 
vator and from ele- 
vator to ambulance, 
and possibly then to 
railroad train, many a 
simple fracture has, be- 
fore the advent of the 
first-aid squad, been 
changed into a com- 
pound fracture by in- 
experienced handling. 
The time of recovery 
from a simple fracture 
is measured in weeks, 
from a compound frac- 
ture in months. The 
grimy men down there 
in the coal-pits know 
umunnp unni— a blamket ahs two satuhcs. til this; that is why 



204 THE AMERICAN RE^IElV OF REVIEWS. 

when the squad was introduced there were so things as the care of the human body in emer- 

many volunteers. gencies than most of. the educated public for 

Take the case of severe burns from gas or whom they are making their vicarious sacri- 

explosives. Something must be done imme- fices " a mile or so from daylight." Besides, 

diately, and yet the burn cannot be dressed the scheme has, taken so well that the many 

again very soon, for too frequent dressing is first-aid squads have a keen sense of rivalry, 

almost as bad as none at all. Oil and cotton and now they are having contests every year 

are the usual materials used, but the cotton for medals ofiered by the company, 

becomes dirty, and perspiration and coal dust Such success for first aid is not the experi- 

render it foul. What would you do for a ence of the coal-mining industry alone. Every 

man like that?!- Ajidoctor who knows all other company that has tried it, in other in- 

about it has devised packets of lafge j^Xiare dustries, has found the same result. Its value 

pieces of cotton gauze soaked and dTi|^d,in a has been proved over and over again in dol- 

2-per cent, solution of picric acid^lifiiAjjj^ lars and cents. In the cotton mills of Rhode 

in several layers by the boys, an<i siicurely Island it has lately been installed. In one 

covered by cotton, the heat of the body quick- of the largest electrical plants in the coun- 

ly liberates enough of the picric-acid dresis- try, as you pass through, you frequently notice 

irig to make an effective treatment for at leaist the first-aid kits on the walls, with cards of 

forty-eight hours. I'That is an example of instructions for all sorts of emergencies ; while 

what scientific medical common-sense can do the company has issued a neat little booklet, 

for industry, and should be duplicated in bound strongly in cloth and fully illustrated, 

every dangerous trade. telling briefly and clearly just what first aid in 

In many cases accidents in mines bring case of electric shock is. Among the many 

serious losses of blood. The first-aid squad sociological works of the Colorado Fuel & 

has been taught the location of the principal Iron Company are its first-aid instruction and 

arteries, and the " tourniquet," a strap with splendid service. In all these cases such care 

a knob that presses on the artery, is provided, has been found to pay in measurable money 

and they are taught how to use it. Then amount. The German and French manufac- 

there is the treatment for asphyxiation, that turers have found this out, also, 

is carefully taught them. In Massachusetts a law has been passed 

Ingenuity must be used with the miner, if requiring manufacturers to keep on hand a 

nothing else. Take, for example, the " dirty- first-aid or emergency kit in the event of 

hand " problem. Of course all these dress- accident to any of their employees. Yet even 

ings, carefully sterilized and sealed as they so slight a move as the announcement of the 

are, must be applied by boys at once, and any board of health in one city, not long ago, 

one who has ever been in a coal mine knows that it would enforce this simple law raised 

that clean water is an alien conception to such a storm of abuse from some employers, who 

a place. To overcome the dirty-hand prob- charged that there was graft back of it. 

lem the gauze and other materials are When actually pinned down to facts they 

wrapped and folded in strips of paper, or the were forced to admit that the basis was a 

paper is interposed between the layers in such mere conjecture that *' perhaps somebody has 

a way that no finger need touch any part of got options on a lot of first-aid kits." On 

the dressing. Another queer problem pre- the other hand, the most considerate employ- 

sented is that of whiskey. Starting in with ers of the city with one accord hastened to 

it as a stimulant, it is sometimes so freely comply with the requirements of the law, and 

administered that a patient has frequently indeed many of them had already done so 

been known to arrive at the hospital com- voluntarily. 

pletely under its influence, in addition to his Large corporations have so far proved the 
other troubles. The first-aid Squad confines only ones to see the value of first aid. The 
its stimulants to hot coffee and aromatic spir- Pennsylvania Railroad, for instance, has re- 
its of ammonia. cently begun an aggressive campaign of edu- 

It is, of course, too soon to see yet the im- cation in iSrst aid among its 198,000 employ- 

mense educational effect of this new spirit in ees scattered over an aggregate of 1 1 ,000 

this company*s mines. When the present miles of line. This is being accomplished by 

boys in the first-aid squads are miners, and a series of lectures delivered at diflEerent 

others have taken their places, a great many points on its lines under the directiofi of the 

of the rough, and, to those who do not think, company's medical examiner. This work will 

uncouth miners will know more about ^uch be of the most comprehensive character, and 



rWK NOT A "RED CROSS" FOR THE ARMY OF INDUSTRY) 205 

those employees directly connected with train 
operation will at the end of the course be 
closely questioned on the subject when tak- 
ing examinations in the future for promotion. 
Stretchers, together with first-aid packets 
containing bandages and dressings, have been 
. placed upon the trains and at convenient 
points along the line, so that the men can 
have prompt equipment for carryirtg on the 
work, both for employees and passengers who 
are injured. The " first-aid room " in New 
York is a matter of great pride to the-com- 
panv. 

the railroad Y. M; C. A. at Camden. 
New Jersey, some time ago took the courses 
offered by the New York Society for Instruc- 
tion in First Aid to the Injured. The sec- 
retary of the association has said : " The Cam- 
den corps is doing splendid work, and its 
services are much appreciated by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. During the 
year they have been called upon to take charge 
of 227 cases, 55 of which were taken by their 
men to the hospital and 172 treated by them 
at the shops without the aid of physicians. 
All of these cases have fully recovered except 
two, one of these men having been severely 
shocked by electricity and the other having 
had a foot crushed. But both of them are 
doing well and will, I hope, soon return to 

Manufacturers who are interested can do 
no better .than make a beginning with the 
course of five lectures prepared by the Society 
for the Instruction in First Aid to the In- 
jured, which was organized as long ago as 



1 882, under the chairmanship of Gen. George 

B. McClellan, as a committee of the State 
Charities Aid Association in New York. It 
is now a separate society, aiming to give in- 
struction by means of lectures in first aid, — 
free to those unable to pay ; for others from 
$1 to $3 for the course. There is one lecture 
each week, occupying an hour and a half, a 
review of work previously gone over, and a 
half-hour of practical work such as the ap- 
plication of bandages and splints, restoration 
of the apparently drowned, lifting the in- 
jured, carrying on stretchers, etc. Diplomas 
are awarded at the end of the course to those 
who pass a satisfactory examination. Last 
year 2223 persons were instructed and 1854 
diplomas issued, while in the past twenty-five 
years 24,193 persons have been instructed 
and 18,164 have passed the examination and 
received diplomas. So far the work has been 
mainly in the police and fire departments of 
the city, with an occasional class in the Y. M. 

C. A.'s or the public schools. But the idea 
ought to be taken up by manufacturers. 

A single illustration will prove the need: 
The manager of the insurance department of 
a large corporation has said : 

Many personal-injury accidents cost less 
money than heretofore, by reason of the fact 
that, in addition to protective measures, we in- 
stalled a system of " first aid." This was a 
means of shortening disabilities. Prior to April, 
1905. the average dis^hility of shop men on ac- 
count of personal injury was sixteen days. B^ 
prompt application of " first aid " in an anti- 
septic form, this has been reduced to elevea 
dajrs. 



MAGNITUDE OF OUR TRAMP PROBLEM. 



THE NEW ANTI- VAGRANCY CAMPAIGN. 

BY FRANCES MAULE BJORKMAN. 

PpOR the first time a concerted effort is work. He is traveling for pleasure. He 

'*' being made in the United States to does not j:ramp. He rides the railroads. He 

attack the vagrancy problem. Most of the is a chronic and incorrigible beggar. His 

countries of Europe, — notably. England, deliberate purpose is to get a living out of 

Germany, Belgium, and Switzerland, — have society without giving anything in return, 

had both legislative and administrative Hard times or good times do not affect his 

means of dealing with it for many years, but numbers. There is apparently absolutely 

America, instead of instituting measures no connection between him and the prob- 

against the tramp, has raised him to the lem of the unemployed. He persists in 

heights of a national joke. Our national times of prosperity and in times of financial 

attitude toward him is. tolerant and indul- stress, 
gent. The nicknames by which we refer to 
him are, at worst, of a mildly bantering 

character, although they betray a thorough What the size of the tramp army is no 

understanding of his real, nature. The ex- one can tell, but a vague idea of its magni- 

tensive literature which he has evoked is tude can be guessed from the fact that the 

based on the popular recognition of his aver- number of trespassers killed and injured on 

sion to work, his contempt of veracity, his American railroads from the year 1901- to 

predilection for beer, and his horror of water the year 1905, inclusive, — of which it is es- 

both for interior and exterior use, — but it is timated that at least two-thirds were tramps, 

not the sort of thing that leads to authori- — amounted to 49,200: just thirteen times 

tative anti-vagrancy action. The stage more than the number of passengers and 

tramp is the most irresistibly funny of comic more than the combined total of passengers 

characters. On the whole, our mental and trainmen killed and injured during the 

image of the vagabond is a humorous one, same period. Some one has estimated that 

and we hardly think of him except in a hu- if the number of vagrants on the road is in 

morous light. the same proportion to the number of va- 

And yet the " Weary Walker " of the grants killed as the number of trainmen on 

American comic press represents a much *^^e road is in proportion to the number of 

more serious problem than his European tiainmen killed, there must be more than 

brother. In the Old World the vagrant half a million tramps beating their way on 

exists largely as a survival of the " journey- American railroads every year. The annual 

man " of the ancient trade guilds, the young loss to railroads through the destruction of 

workman, who, on completing his appren- property by tramps has been loosely esti- 

ticeship, was sent on the road to practice his mated by Major J. G. Pangborn, of the Bal- 

trade before being invested with the degree timore & Ohio, as something like $2,500,- 

of " master " and the right to set up in busi- 000. 

ness for himself. Therefore, except in ex- All this represents a tremendous cost to 

ceptional cases, the purpose of the European society. The tramp who is injured or) the 

wayfarer is to get w^ork. As a rule he makes railroad usually becomes a public charge for 

no attempt to steal rides on the railroads, the rest of his life, and the tramp who is 

and he is usually both able and willing to considerate enough to permit himself to be 

pay for his meals and lodgings. Whatever killed outright has to be buried, either by 

begging he does is of a casual nature. The the railroad or by the county, town, or State 

fact that his numbers are greatly multiplied in which he loses his life. 

in times of financial depression, when many And these things are only a part of what 

men are thrown out of employment in the it costs us to maintain our national joke. Su- 

cities, is fairly conclusive evidence that, in pervisor S. K. Estabrook, of the Wayfarers' 

intention at least, he is a workingman. Lodges in Philadelphia, estimates that 

This is far from being the case with the tramps, when they arc not on the road being 

American tramp. He is not looking . for fed and lodged by farmers and railroads, 



THE RAILROAD THE KEY TO THE TRAMP 

SITUATION. 



THE NEIV ANTI-yAGRANCY CAMPAIGN. 207 

spend one-third of their time in almshouses, viction and commitment of tramps arrested 

one-third in houses of correction, and one- by their own special policemen, 

third in missions and lodging-houses whose In places where tramps are arrested and 

rates are so low that the price of a bed can convicted, Mr. Lewis said that sentence is 

readily be begged on the street. At the ap- frequently suspended on condition that the 

proach of winter the jails which impose no offender leave town without delay. In many 

labor on their prisoners are taxed to their municipalities it is the custom to release all 

capacity to accommodate the sudden flood of prisoners convicted of vagrancy a few days 

petty malefactors who seem to be hurling after commitment. In others they are left 

themselves into the arms of the law. In the practically unguarded, that they may escape 

summer such members of the constitution- if they feel disposed to do so. 
ally fatigued brotherhood as are not in the 
country begging their way, and incidentally 
rendering the highways unsafe for women 

and children, are in the city occupying the Thus the railroads are infested with 

parks as lodgings and incidentally unfitting tramps because of the parsimony of munici- 

the park benches for use by any one but palities, and, by a sort of poetic justice, they 

themselves. become in turn the great purveyors in tramps 

_,„, to municipalities. ** Naturally," says Presi- 

AUTHORITIES ENXOURAGE THE EVIL. j . t T un << u \ 

dent James J. Hill, when every town is 

These facts in regard to the American pursuing the * passing-along policy,' each one 

vagrant were laid before the thirty-fourth receives exactly as much refuse as it gets rid 

annual Conference of Charities and Correc- of." 

tions at Minneapolis last June by Mr. Or- However, according to Mr. Lewis, the 
lando F. Lewis, who as superintendent of railroads themselves are not doing all in 
the Joint Application Bureau of the Charity their power to suppress the tramp evil. 
Organization Society and the Society for None of them is adequately policed. Few 
Improving the Condition of the Poor in maintain any police except at stations and in 
New York has made a special study of the city yards. The ejection of tramps from the 
vagrancy problem. In his paper Mr. Lewis trains is left almost wholly to the train 
showed that town and city authorities all crews, and these men are often unequal to 
over the country, instead of doing anything the task. Furthermore, many trainmen are 
to abate the evil, with only a few exceptions not unwilling to let a " bo " ride in return 
are adding materially to it by refusing to in- for a " fare " that goes no further than his 
cur the expense of arresting and prosecuting own pocket. Dr. George L. Reitman, the 
men who are caught stealing rides on the Chicago physician who has tramped with 
railroads. In support of his statements he tramps all over the world and whose rela- 
read extracts from letters of numerous rail- tions with the wandering fraternity are so 
road officials stating that their troubles with intimate that he once gave a " hobo ban- 
vagrants were almost wholly due to lack of quet " at a leading Chicago hotel, says that 
co-operation in repressive measures on the the railroad is the key to the situation and 
part of authorities of the towns and cities that if it would make the tramps tramp there 
through which their roads pass. President would soon be no tramps. 
James J. Hill of the Great Northern wrote 

ii^ ^ ,, 1 ^ • • ui *u «. «f THE PUBLICS MISPLACED SYMPATHY. 

that It was almost invariably the custom- or 

magistrates in the towns along his route to But the ill-considered economy of munici- 

let ofl all the vagrants brought before them palities and the laxity of railroads are not 

for trial with a peremptory order to leave the only causes that contribute to the perpet- 

towfi within twenty-four hours. Other offi- uation and spread of vagrancy. Mr. Lewis 

cials were quoted by Mr. Lewis as saying lays much of the responsibility to the misdi- 

that policemen, instead of arresting tramps, rected sympathy of the general public. He 

frequently order them not to get off the condemns unsparingly the sentiment that 

trains, and, in some instances, actually help prompts the kitchen " poke-out," that main- 

them to climb aboard in order to facilitate tains bread-lines and coffee-wagons, that per- 

thcir exit frdm the community. Still other mits the use of police stations and parks as 

officials wrote that they had found it neces- lodgings, that defends the free " bed-ticket," 

sary to subsidize municipal authorities with and that prevents systematic attack on the 

money or passes in order to secure the con- " hobo joint " on the ground that the poor 



208 THE AMERICAN kEl^lBU^ OP REl^IElVS. 

man should not be deprived of the only shel- without money, as fast as they get hold of 

ter which his means can buy. them, Mr. Lewis made a searching investi- 

Since Jacob Riis, notwithstanding the pro- gation into all the lo, 15, and 25-cent hotels 
tests of the sentimental, caused the practice in Manhattan and Brooklyn, 
of giving lodging to vagrants in the police He found that there are 10 1 of these 
stations of New York to be abandoned, pub- places in Manhattan alone. Although a few 
lie sentiment has changed in this one partic- charge 25 cents for their best accommoda- 
ular. Most of the large cities are now fol- 'tions, the average tariff is 10 cents. Some 
lowing the example of the metropolis and idea of the manner in which the lodgers arc 
providing more suitable accommodations for crowded together may be gained from the 
their penniless wayfarers. In all other re- estimate that from I2,chx) to 15,000 beds arc 
spects, however, there is still a strong disin- let out ever>' night. It is probably needless 
clination on the part of civil authorities to to say that in every house there reigned con- 
institute any measures that may be construed ditions of indescribable filth and corruption, 
by the public as a discrimination against the Mr. Lewis laid his findings before Com- 
poor. Last summer the Women's Health missioner Darlington of the New York Dc- 
Protective League, at the suggestion of Mr. partment of Health, and Dr. Darlington, 
Lewis, tried to get Police Commissioner after having confirmed Mr. Lewis' report 
Bingham, of New York, to clear the parks with an investigation of his own, drew up 
and squares of the all-day and all-night and had adopted a set of regulations making 
" squatters " Dy issuing a peremptory order it compulsory upon every lodging-house to 
to his men to enforce the ** moving-on " ordi- maintain a high standard of cleanliness and 
nance, but their attempt was not successful, decency, whether its patrons liked it or not. 
although Mr. Lewis stated publicly that it The lodging-house keepers, however, joined 
would be cheaper for the city to buy its va- in bringing a suit to test the constitutional- 
grants opera seats than to permit them to ity of the measure. The suit is still pending, 
make lodgings of its park benches. and, on the strength of the fact, all the lodg- 

On the same general grounds the missions ing-houses have succeeded in getting their 

have refused to discontinue their practice of licenses renewed without having been put to 

giving *' bed-tickets " to professed penitents, the expense of making any improvements bc- 

although the administrators of practical phil- yond a coat of whitewash here and there 

anthropy have pointed out repeatedly that ^,,t^.^^v .tt^,,, ,r*^«.^r^>^ w .^ 

. . • 1 r / u •_ ^ CHICAGO S NEW VAGRANCY LAW. 

this particular form of charity operates 

chiefly to encourage hypocrisy as well ^as In the absence of concerted action of any 

pauperism. It always insures a good attend- kind most of the other sporadic attempts to 

ance at meetings and a fine showing at the grapple with the problem have been about as 

mourners' bench, but, as a rule, only the men effective. Last summer Chicagp made an 

who have lost even the " hobo " standards effort to get at her gigantic floating popula-. 

of pride and decency will take advantage of tion that makes its headquarters in the polit- 

it. A certain young and vigorous member ical district controlled by the renowned 

of the profession once assured the writer Hinkey Dink and Bathhouse John, by giv- 

with tears in his eyes that " one thing he ing to municipal courts the power to fine or 

had never done in all his life was to get con- imprison persons held as vagrants, pcrmit- 

verted for a bed-ticket." ting policemen to arrest persons accused of 

vilgrancv without warrant, and permitting 

THE CHEAP LODGING-HOUSES. • .' r uu u Ik -^^ 

conviction tor vagrancy, although the person 
Recently, however, in the face of the arrested might be in possession of means, if 
opinion of the public that the poor man is he could not show that he had a regular way 
entitled to any sort of shelter that he can of earning a living. The newspapers ex- 
pay for, radical measures have been taken to pressed editorially great hopes of the new 
reform and therefore to raise the prices of law, but, although it has now been in opera-' 
the ** tramp joints " that line the New York tion for several months, it does not seem tO' 
Bowery from City Hall to Chatham Square, have had much effect. The population o£ 
Convinced by his conversations with men South Clark street has not been diminisheo' 
applying to his society for aid that the cheap in size nor altered in character, nor have th? 
lodging-houses are making confirmed vagrancy cases in the courts been materially 
" bums " and " hoboes " out of the potential- increased. The measure operated beauti- 
ly honest citizens who arrive in New York fully to enable the machine to lay hands 



THE MEli^ ANTl'^AGkANCY CAMPAIGN. 209 

upon certain unoffending citizens against fare against vagrancy all over the country, 
whom it had a grudge, — notably a number This committee was made up of some of 

of strike pickets, — ^but it left useful members the foremost social workers in America* 

of the Bathhouse and Hinkey Dink constit- William Rhinelander Stewart, president of 

ucncy untouched. the New York State Board of Charities, was 

«,«x^ ^««»,,«,^^. ,^^», ^.^«, „ .,,«o,TT«,. made chairman, and Mr. Lewis secretary. 

RIGID EXCLUSION FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE, r^. . *. ^ T»yr. *!• ^ T 

The other appomtees were Miss Alice L*. 
Such communities as have good vagrancy Higgins, general secretary of the Boston As- 
laws and as have been successful in getting sociated Charities; David B. Tilley, a mem- 
them enforced, are able to keep their own ber of the Massachusetts State Board of 
precincts clear of the tramp nuisance only at Charities; H. K. Estabrook, a member of 
the expense of their neighbors. The knights the Philadelphia Society for Organizing 
of the road merely brand each one of these Charity and supervisor of the Philadelphia 
places as " a hostile burg," and pass on to Wayfarers' Lodges; Amos W. Butler, pres- 
more hospitable localities. New England, ident of this year's conference and secretary 
which has the most rigid vagrancy laws in of the Indiana State Board of Charities, and 
the country, is very little troubled by tramps, Raymond Robbins, formerly superintendent 
but it is surrounded on all sides by territory of the Municipal Lodging House in Chi- 
that is infested with them. The New cago. Representatives of some of the most 
Hampshire IsCVv, which empowers any resi- important lines in the country were present 
dent to bring a tramp before a magistrate at the conference and promised the commit- 
and which stimulates the citizens to take ad- tee the hearty support of the railroads, 
vantage of the privilege by offering a reward The committee has been quietly at work 
of $io for each such arrest, operates chiefly ever since and has now not only sketched out 
to keep New Hampshire's just share of vaga- the general plan of organization but has out- 
bonds distributed among other States. lined a definite policy for the work. In the 
. ^,.^r.^.., .^rr,« r.^**,r. ^^tto.tv,. fi^st respcct it will be analagous to the Na- 

A NATIONAL ANTI-TRAMP CRUSADE. , i /^umj t l r^ ^^ c l L. 

tional Child Labor Committee, oub-com- 

Mr. Lewis' paper made a profound im- mittees will be established in every State and 

pression upon the reformers and philanthro- headquarters opened in all the large cities, 

pists in the Minneapolis conference, but it Affiliation will be sought with the leading 

did more than that. It made a profound im- charitable and reform associations, and the 

pression upon the public From one end of support of public officials and prominent and 

the country to the other the newspapers pub- influential private individuals will be solicited, 
lished extensive extracts from it, with edi- 

* • 1 11- *4. 4.' 4. 4.U '^'Cr.^^*^ MAKING THE TRAMP PAY AS HE GOES. 

tonals calhng attention to the signincant 

facts and figures which it contained and urg- In policy, however, the National Va- 

ing their municipalities to act upon them, grancy Committee will be the direct anti- 

The editorials called forth a flood of replies thesis of its prototype. The older body 

from private citizens, social workers, and exists for the purpose of protecting the weak 

public officials indorsing these sentiments from work, the new one has been organized 

and giving additional reasons why definite^ for the purpose of impelling the strong to- 

steps should be taken without delay. All at ward work. All its activities will be di- 

once it seemed to become clear to every- rected to the end of making it harder and 

body that the tramp is not a harmless joke, more uncomfortable to be a loafer than to be 

but a serious problem, and both the public a worker. 

and press seemed to make up their minds In pursuance of this ideal the society will 
suddenly that something ought to be done, attempt to close up every avenue through 
The. members of the conference were of which a man can get a living out of society 
this opinion also. On the day after Mr. without giving to society anything in return. 
Lewis presented his paper, a meeting was It will send out literature revealing the in- 
called for the purpose of considering the judiciousness of the " poke-out " and the 
feasibility of inaugurating an anti-tramp ** touch," urging housewives to resist all ap- 
movement throughout the United States, peals for kitchen-door aid, and requesting 
The result was the appointment of a* com- men to adopt an invincible policy of deaf- 
mittee to organize a permanent body to be ness to the hard-luck stories of street beg- 
known as the National Vagrancy Committee gars. It will attempt to dissipate the scnti- 
to cany on a consistent and persistent war- mental esteem of the public for bread-lines, 



210 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

coffee-wagons, and free bed and meal tick- ington's comparatively modest exaction that 
ets by demonstrating that these things, in- clean linen shall be placed on each bed every 
stead of helping the honest poor, only min- night, the Massachusetts fathers have added 
ister to the vices of the dead-beat. the demand that each guest shall be fur- 
It will seek to secure the enactment and nished with a clean night-shirt, — ^and re- 
enforcement of legislation forbidding the quired to wear it. 
use of police stations as lodgings and of the ,^, ^^.,^,^ ,,,, « «,,« , 

, *^ , . 1 • 1 X STIFFENING LIMBER BACKBONE. 

parks and city squares as ioungmg places tor 

habitual vagrants. It will wage an unre- To those persons who object to this policy 
lenting warfare against cheap lodging-houses on the ground that it will infringe upon the 
that do not conform to a high standard of precious right of the individual to be idle, 
cleanliness and decency, and which, there- the leaders of the movement merely reply 
fore, do not charge a relatively high price that no man has a right to be idle at the ex- 
for their accommodations. Missions and pense of honest men who work, — particu- 
other charitable organizations will be urged larly when by his idling he spreads mental 
to exact a certain amount of work for all and physical disease among the industrious, 
the aid that they give. Civil authorities To those who cry out that the scheme is 
will be asked to provide heavy labor in jails cruel and heartless and will work hardship 
for all prisoners convicted of vagrancy, and to the worthy poor, they reply that it will 
to maintain mendicancy officers in plain never tor.ch the worthy poor. To the men 
clothes to arrest street beggars. Most im- whom it will reach, however, they declare 
portant of all, every effort will be brought that it will act as a truer kindness than all 
to bear upon railroad officials to secure the the bread-lines and bed-tickets in the world, 
adequate policing of their rights of way, and In support of this contention they point out 
upon municipal, county, and State authoii- the fact that the chief cause that makes a 
ties to inaugurate a policy of active and man a vagrant is a certain lack of backbone 
hearty co-operation with the railroad police that renders him practically incapable of 
in arresting and convicting trespassers. In managing his own life unless he is forced to 
short, the program provides that there shall do so. If a man of this character finds that 
be left no place where the homeless wan- he can get through life without making an 
derer can lay his head, no avenue through exertion to support himself he will permit 
which he can get a meal and no way in every one of his faculties to atrophy for want 
which he can travel, without paying for the of use. If, however, he is met at every hand 
privilege. by an inexorable edict that he must work if 
^„ „ ,, .^ _^^,„ he would eat, he will put forth just enough 

WHAT MASSACHUSETTS HAS DONE. ^a * -. J k' J • J • J • 

eiiort to encompass his desire and, in doing 

Many of the measures proposed . have al- so, he will begin to develop into an efficient 

ready been shown to be both practical and man. 

effective by the commonwealth of Massa- ,,,,^„^ , , 

chusetts. The Massachusetts law now pro- municipal lodging-houses. 

vides that vagrants confined in jails shall be But the policy of the movement does not 

kept at hard labor; that vagrants lodged in stop with throwing the vagrant upon his 

almshouses shall be segregated from pau- own resources. In addition to the repressive 

pers; that municipal lodging-houses shall re- measures which it recommends it suggests 

quire a certain amount of labor in exchange definite lines of constructive work. While 

for meals and lodgings, and that common laboring to close up every avenue by which 

lodging-houses shall be beyond the control a man can drift down hill, the leaders of 

of their guests and shall be required to meet the movement will try to open every road 

the approval of the board of health. by which he can climb upward. They will 

The regulations for lodging-houses that urge every city, before beginning its attack 

were adopted recently by the Massachusetts upon the bread-line and the bed-ticket, to es- 

State Board of Health go a step beyond the tablish a clean and comfortable municipal 

set drawn up by Dr. Darlington for the con- lodging-house where any man, finding him- 

trol of the " Bowery joints " in New York, self without food or shelter or the means of 

Dr. Darlington's lodging-house rules pro- procuring them, can go and get both in ex- 

vided that bathtubs should be merely pro- change for an amount of work proportioned 

vided, but the Massachusetts law requires not so much to his drains upon the institu- 

that they shall be used. Also to Dr. Darl- tion as to his physical ability. 



//Off^ POUGHKeBPSIE DB/1L$ with TkAMP^. 211 

In connection with these lodging-houses The leaders of the movement believe that 

they would have free employment bureaus, this can be done if proper means are pro- 

where the employable men could be provided vided for getting hold of the novice. Of the 

with jobs; hospitals for defectives and ine- total number of men who have come to the 

briates, where the unemployable who have Joint Application Bureau for aid within the 

not yet become incurable could be restored last five years, — who are nearly all actual 

to working efficiency; compulsory labor col- or potential vagrants, — Mr. Lewis estimates 

onies, where incorrigible drones could be that about 80 per cent, are between the ages 

given a wholcsoyne stimulus toward useful of twenty and /ifty, — the best working years 

activity and an incentive to learn a trade, and of a man's life, — and that no less than 54 

decent refuges where the hopeless wrecks of per cent, are of American birth. 

humanity could be humanely housed and The leaders of the movement think that 

could, at the same time, be prevented from these men are worth saving for their own 

spreading moral or physical disease. sakes, and it is to this end, as well as for 

In its entirety the design of the organi- the purpose of protecting society from a 

zation is not only to protect society from the serious and growing evil, that the Na- 

vagrant class, but to restore the individual tional Vagrancy Committee has come into 

vagrant to the ranks of the self-supporting, being. 



HOW POUGHKEBPSIE DEALS WITH TRAMPS. 

"IXZHAT may be accomplished by follow- almost his first official act was to take meas- 

ing the recommendations of the Na- ures to prevent tramps from continuing to 

tional Vagrancy Committee, as outlined in use Poughkeepsie as a camp and forage 

the preceding article, has been shown by the ground, 

little city of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. At this time from twenty to thirty men 

Logically, Poughkeepsie ought to be in- were being accommodated with lodgings in 
fested with tramps. It is the only coaling the Poughkeepsie police station every night, 
station between New York and Albany, and — and no questions asked. Chief McCabe 
therefore all the trains have to draw up there started in to ask questions. Every man who 
to take on fuel. Furthermore, it is the only presented himself at the station-house for a 
stop made by the express trains between those lodging was received hospitably, — ^and re- 
two points. As train crews invariably take quired to give an account of himself. If 
advantage of such stops to search their cars the man refused to do so the chief inti- 
for tramps, Poughkeepsie is an ideal place mated that Poughkeepsie would continue to 
for a hobo traveling out of New York to extend its hospitality to him until he did. 
drop off and " throw his feet " for his night's If he responded, the chief listened sym- 
lodging or his next day's supplies. pathetically and then proceeded to lock 

Up to seven years ago the members of the him up until his story could be verified or 

wandering fraternity gave incessant demon- disproved. 

stration of their keen appreciation of this Once having got into the station no would- 

chance. Begging and petty thievery were be lodger got out until Chief McCabe was 

rampant, and burglaries and safe-blowings in possession of full details as to his identity 

were of common occurrence. In the year and past history. If the chief found himself 

1900, however, the municipal authorities ap- unable to extract the information he wanted 

pointed as chief of. police Charles J. Mc- by questioning, he photographed his guest 

Cabe, who had risen from patrolman to the and sent the picture to other police chiefs 

rank of sergeant, but who had been a brake- throughout the country. In this way he not 

man on the New York Central before he only found out what he wanted to know as 

joined the police force. a rule, but he was enabled to restore many 

Having, as a trainman, spent a great part badly " wanted " persons to the anxious au- 
of his time for several years of his life in thorities of other communities. He also in- 
matching his wits against those of the men stituted the custom of searching applicants 
on the road, the new chief had no illusions for lodgings, — ?l practice which brought to 
whatever about the vagrant class. Therefore light a great deal of incriminating evidence 



212 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IElVS. 

in the way of burglars' tools, concealed weap- useful information, while to the " panhan* 

ons, and stolen goods, thus revealing the fact dlers " they are invaluable for working the 

that many of the self-invited guests of the " sympathy racket " upon people who would 

city were dangerous criminals. meet the appeal of a grown man with con- 

The result was that the popularity of the tempt or abuse. 
Poughkeepsie police station as a lodging- During his life as brakeman Chief Mc- 
house fell off amazingly. However, as the Cabe had seen hundreds of little boys, — many 
crimes attributable to vagrants did not show a of them not more than eight years old, — 
corresponding decrease, Chief .McCabe drew kicked off trains to fall into the hands of 
the inference that the " hoboes " had merely these vampires or not, just as chance might 
transferred their patronage to the low 5 and dictate. To the average trainman a boy car- 
lO-cent lodging-houses along the tracks. He rider is merely a " tough kid " for whom the 
began then to make frequent raids on these method of treatment is prescribed. But 
places and to carry off transient lodgers to young McCabe saw that a large number of 
the police station, where he required them to these boys were just normally active young- 
make known their exact business in the city. sters who had " jumped " a train as they 

At the same time he instructed all rounds- would " hitch onto " a milk wagon, and had 

men and patrolmen to keep a close watch on been carried beyond the point where they had 

the streets for beggars, peddlers without intended to drop off ; or else over-imaginative 

licenses, and strangers without visible means readers of dime novels who had started West 

of support, as well as to arrest on sight every to find some place where interesting things 

illegal car-rider caught getting on or off the still happen. He realized how important it 

trains or hanging about the tracks. was that these boys should be kept from be- 

News of these high-handed ways were evi- coming the tools of criminals and constitu- 

dently passed quickly " down the line *' to all tional loafers, but until he became chief of 

members of the profession. At any rate, police he saw no way of doing anything. 

Poughkeepsie was given " the double cross." Then, however, he announced that if he 

Burglaries and safe-blowing fell off aston- could help it no runaway boy should take 

ishingly, and begging and petty thievery prac- the downward path for want of a restrain- 

tically ceased. ing hand at Poughkeepsie, — the point at 

The change is strikingly illustrated by the which so many youngsters had formerly 

police records. Previous to 1900 the number started on a hobo's career, 

of vagrants lodged at the police station aver- To this end he ordered his men never td 

aged 4100 a year. Since 1900 they have let a strange boy in town go unapprehended, 

averaged 860 a year. Previous to 1900 the but to arrest every youngster getting on or 

number of burglaries committed in the city off the trains or wandering about the city, 

averaged from fifty to sixty a year. Since and to bring him to the police station. There 

19CX) they have averaged from two to three the chief talked kindly to the lad, won his 

a year. The average annual property loss corifidence, got his name and address, and 

since 1900 has been less than $500. made him comfortable in the matron's quar- 

But this is not all that has been accom- ters while efforts were made to get in touch 

plished by Chief McCabe's anti-vagrancy with his parents or guardians. Once in the 

campaign. It has not only saved thousands chief's clutches no boy leaves the police sta- 

of dollars to the city of Poughkeepsie, but tion at Poughkeepsie except in convoy of a 

it has saved an incalculable sum to society in big policeman to take boat or train for home, 

general. In the seven years* that he has So far Chief McCabe's work has neces- 

been the head of the police force the chief sarily been repressive rather than construc- 

has caught and sent home more than 1000 tive, owing to the fact that the city has no 

boys, most of whom would otherwise, in all adequate means of taking care of and giving 

likelihood, have become parasites upon society, to the well-meaning wayfarer the lift that 

and many of whom might have developed into would very probably put him on his feet, 

criminals. ' In the meantime, he is carrying out a policy 

It IS common knowledge to police officers which keeps at least one town free of social 

that a " kid " is a valuable asset to all classes parasites. Even though, at the present time, 

of vagabonds. The traveling safe-blowers this may imply an additional burden upon 

and station-robbers, known as " yeggmen," other towns, it sets an example, which, if fol- 

can use small boys to advantage in locating lowed, would mean the elimination of the 

means of entrance and in gathering up other vagrant class. 



CHINA AND THE LANGUAGE QUESTION. 

BY HOWARD SWAN. 

(Sometime professor in the Imperial College, Peking, China.) 

[The transliteration of one language into another radically diflFerent in alphabet and syllabifi- 
cation is always difficult. The transliteration of Chinese into words formed with the European 
alphabet is especially so. Several American scholars of Chinese have highly approved Professor 
Swan's ideas and explanation of the necessity and possible methods of Chinese phonetization as 
set forth in the following article. Their accuracy and finality are, of course, a matter of opinion 
with native as well as western scholars of the Chinese language. — The Editor.] 

TpHE Far Eastern problem is and always certain habits and customs, that make the 
has been, WHiat is the future of Chinese in a sense a united nation or empire. 
China? To the Chinese themselves the But there is as yet no general spoken Ian- 
problem IS more complicated than it appears guage. Put twenty Chinamen in a room to- 
to other nations; but it is one principally of gether to discuss any important govern- 
government, of education, and of language, mental or commercial proposition, and, un- 
Of government first; because, without a less they all come from the one district, such 
good government there cannot be state-sup- as Shanghai, of Canton, or Peking, or unless 
ported schools and colleges. But if the ques- they all know Pekinese, they cannot under- 
tion of schools and colleges is thus of grave stand one another's speech. The idioms are 
importance, that of language is of still greater different, pronunciation is different, intona- 
importance, as language is at the base of all tion is different. Even simple greetings, 
education, and without a generally under- such as "How do you do?" are entirely 
stood language no subject can be taught well, different as pronounced in Shanghai from 
« ,„ „^ ^,„.,^^„ , .^T^.T*^T.»» the way they are said in Peking. In Soo- 

THERE IS NO CHINESE LANGUAGE. i / ^ . w u ' l • k^ l 

chow, for example, which is only eighty miles 
It may surprise some to hear that there is from Shanghai, it is different again. There 
no Chinese language! There are Chinese it is sounded '^ Axon che Faef (Have you 
dialects; there is a series of Chinese ideo- eaten rice?) In Peking it is pronounced 
graphic characters corresponding in some ''Chela Faan mo yuwuf" (Eaten rice, or 
degree to an alphabet ; but there is, up to the not?), — in which Che (eat) and Vae or 
present, no general Chinese language that all Faan (rice) are the same or similar, but 
Chinamen can speak and understand. The the rest of the phrase is different. In Soo- 
nearest approach to it is the Peking Manda- chow the phrase " there is not " is " 'm p'," 
rin or Gwaan-hwa (Kuan-hwa), — ^** official just two dumb consonants; in Peking it is 
talk," — ^which has spread widely because the '' mo yuwu " (like " more you "). 
mandarins or government officials have first In the writer's class of graduate students 
to reside in Peking, and carry that dialect in the Imperial College, Peking, out of 
from thence to every district. It is spoken twenty-one students from various districts in 
generally, however, only in Peking, and in the first class there were were only five who 
the hinterland of Shansi and other provinces could speak correct Pekinese. Others could 
directly behind, and by officials of other parts make themselves imperfectly understood, but 
of China in their Yamens or courthouses. each spoke his own dialect, and two were 
There exists, further, *a universal book absolutely incomprehensible to the rest, 
language, which all the better educated These two had therefore to wait until they 
Chinamen are taught; and in this the Win- had learned English to speak with the class, 
li, as It is called (pronounced Won-li, or or at least until they had learned Pekinese, 
won lee, meaning "literature language"), which is, without organized teaching, an 
the imperial edicts and higher class books are almost equally difficult task. Another re- 
written. All educated Chinese tliroughout source, peculiarly Chinese, is to take to writ- 
the empire can read these, and it is this lit- ing, not only on pieces of paper and corners 
erature language, together with the Chinese "of desks, but on the palms of the hands, in 
ideographs, the gown, the periwig tail, and the dust, or by gesture in the air; and by 



614 TH^ AMERICAN R^^IElV OF REy/ElVS. 

long practice the Chinese are very quick at Norse languages; while Greece and Russia 
this written gesture language. This palm- still use the original Greek letters that Cad- 
writing is cumbrous, but fortunately nearly mus is supposed to have given the Phoenician 
always successful when educated men come merchants to facilitate their commerce. If 
together. there were no general knowledge of Eng- 
' , „ lish, French, or German in Europe and 

WRITTEN CHINESE SPEECH A NOTATION OF^'. uij .Jnz'i lUJ 

America, but educated omcials only had a 
speaking knowledge of Latin and a writing 

Chinese as written is not a language ; it is knowledge of Greek, this would fairly repre- 

a notation of ideas. Just as our mathemati- sent the state of China, which has some 400 

cal, algebraical, musical, and chemical sym- dialects, with Peking mandarin as the gen- 

bols are known all over our continents, eral tongue corresponding to Latin, and the 

though pronounced differently, so with the Wen-li corresponding somewhat with our 

Chinese ideographs. These ideographs, or pic- use of Greek in learned works, 

ture words, are recognized by all educated „„^^^,^^^ ^t,.t.t^ ^t, ^^t,. t .^rr.,r.^^ t,^« r^,,„ 

^1 . 1 1 1 T Ti/T u J PRESSING NEED OF ONE LANGUAGE FOR THE 

Chinese, and by the Japanese, Manchus, and fmpire 
Tibetans, the inhabitants of the Malay pe- 
ninsula and other Chinese colonies. In all. What is clearly needed in China is a gen- 
some 600,000,000 (six hundred millions) of eral spoken tongue, understood from one end 
people, or very nearly half the entire popula- of the empire to the other, and taught in 
tion of the world, read some Chinese, though schools and colleges as we teach English, 
probably only 10 per cent, read and write it This should be in graded lessons, with clear 
fluently. The Chinese written language is explanations, exact phonetics to represent 
therefore a universal notation to a greater pronunciation, and plenty of lively narrative 
extent than any other language except Eng- and conversation, journalistic, classical, and 
lish. Its construction is not uplike English, poetic examples to be studied in the class- 
and its grammar is even more simple, being rooms, along with historical and scientific 
quite different in both these respects from works written in the spoken tongue, as in 
die Japanese, which is one of the most diffi- the West. By this teaching, and the con- 
cult languages in the world to learn. tinued influence of the railroads, there would 

As can easily be seen, this lack of a gen- soon spread over China a true Chinese 
eral Chinese " tongue," or spoken language, tongue. It may be pointed out that within 
precludes the possibility of public speech- recent years modern Greek was consciously 
making, and, indeed, leads to so many mis- developed somewhat in this way, through 
takes or possible misunderstandings, laying the efforts of three enthusiastic and patriotic 
the speakers open to suspicion of sedition, Greeks, who formulated a grammar on the 
that in China public meetings are usually French model, published millions of copies 
altogether banned, or in such disfavor with of ancient Greek classics, and allowed the 
the central government that private persons people themselves to develop t-he modern 
do not often care to run the risk. Capital Greek language as it is to-day. 
punishment, with or without torture, and So with the Pekinese pronunciation and 
often without a trial, is still in force in parts idiom. Books could be written in the actual 
of China, and the suggestive drawing of the speech of the people, either in Chinese char- 
edge of the hand across the throat several acters or in romanized letters, or both, in- 
times successively, even in Peking, is a com- stead of as now in a sort of abbreviated 
mon gesture to indicate the fate of suspected shorthand made up of abstract picture words, 
and denounced persons and their whole reading, as to sense, something like our own . 
families. cablegrams, but written in ideographs. 

There are eighteen provinces in the Chi- To write Chinese it is necessary to learn 

nese Empire, each with its one or several at least 2000 signs. At least 4000 are neces- 

dialects, so that the empire is really much sary to read books with facility. To learn 

like Europe was at the time of the Middle 300 of these is easy, 1000 is a task, 2000 is 

Ages, with the Chinese Emperor as Pope, a terrible drudgery, and the second 2000 is 

and the land divided up in principalities, almost an impossibility to any except life- 

In Europe we have Italy, Roumania, Switz- long students. The most that are in use is 

erland, France, Spain, Portugal, each with a 7000, though of obsolete words there are 

variety of Latin, to say nothing of Britain; 20,000 or 30,000 more of which Chinese 

with its Gaelic, Welsh, and English, and the encyclopedists have made collections. 



CHINA AND THE LANGUAGE QUESTION. 215 

CONSTRUCTION OF CHINESE IDEOGRAPHS, ^n^lessly. The most abstract word in Chi- 

nese is the word virtue, or uprightness 
A word or two as to the constitution of of character, — the basic virtue of the Con- 
Chinese writing will make plainer the diffi- fucian system. The following analysis will 
culties of this language to its own country- explain the composition of this interesting 
men, as compared with the simple alpha- Chinese character, and give an insight into 
betical nature of western tongues. In Chi- the construction of many others. First, the 
nese the written signs do not usually repre- word " upright," as of a wall or house, is 
sent the sounds, but each represents a rough made up of the signs for ten, eyes, and 
drawing of the actual thing or idea spoken straight, — meaning that what is seen by ten 
about. For instance, we say tree, and write workmen and no fault found is upright, 
the sound, t, r, ee; but with the Chinaman The signs for these are: L» ywf4 
the sound for tree is, say, Shu (shoo), but If we add the sign for ^% CJ^^ f 
he does not write any sounds to show it is footsteps of a man / we show that it is 
pronounced Sh, or u. He draws a picture zvalking upright A that is meant; and 
of a tree with root, stem, and branches, the further sign *■ placed underneath 
J ^ , which is pronounced Shu in some of a heart, thus /V% % (with its drops 
thus ^^ parts, though it may be quite of blood or ar- ^-^ teries), shows 
^ different in another district. A that it is spiritual or heart-quality that 
man is indicated by drawing his two legs, is expressed. 




A, and the word is pronounced Thus we get y( "T* ^Jy\ \ X VL>^ 

variously, jin or djin, zhin, which are ^ 

zhon, rzhon, ron, or renn, and written in one square sign, and become the 

in some parts nyin or nyen. If a Chinaman classic symbol : AJhr and this combination 

wishes to write " sun," this he calls usually for virtue or T^S uprightness is pro- 

Taa-yaang, or great male-principle, but nounced as a whole Doa (almost 

sometimes he uses another word which may like der or door without the r) , though each 

be represented Rzhi, for sun ; he writes of the smaller signs has a different pronunci- 

this |— • , which was originally the ation of its own. 

well- til known symbol, /^I?\ . So for ^ ^ , ^^„^ ,,,«^« .,«,,«^ 

i-^ , .^ -^ I • ) u • u EFFECT ON CHINESE LITERATURE. 

moon he writes t| v^ which 

was, of course, a j-\ crescent, V With such a system as this it can be easily 

The Chinese nu- merals run Jr seen how slow any intellectual progress or 

,, much like ours, but horizon- means of literary communication must be; 
tal. They are called yi (yee), and the Chinese education, while it fosters 
oerh (er), saan (sun), and concentration, memory, and application to 
so forth. The abstract or compound ideas study in a manner unknown to western peo- 
are made up of a set of 214 root words or pies, is narrow and circumscribed, and apt to 
radicals and 800 phonetics, or guides to give rise to a feeling of intellectual superior- 
sound. The 214 radicals form the Chinese ity without sufficient cause, by the fact of a 
alphabet, and range from a single stroke to conquest over such a difficult means of com- 
a complicated drawing of a bamboo with munication, while a knowledge of reading 
holes in it, written in seventeen strokes, and writing in western nations is the com- 
meaning a "flute." The 214 are classifi- mon property of every little child, 
cations rather than letters of an alphabet. To be sure, from a philological point of 
and some signs, — such as man, mouth, hand, view, when one gets used to the signs Chi- 
woman, heart, — are very useful in composi- nese becomes a fascinating study, and is easy 
tion, standing for whole classes of objects to read by eye, as each sign, when once 
or ideas. learned, usually carries within it its true 
Abstract words are made up of several of meaning and original idea. In such cases, 
these. To illustrate: woman is, one sees at a glance that the meaning of a 
and child is -^ ; the combi- '-f^ sign has to do, for example, with trees, or 
nation ^ *"J * means " good, J?S stars, or metals, and so forth. On the other 
well, Tfff* loving, kind." A hand, some signs have now little connection 
woman -^^ under a roof means with their original meaning, and many are 
" peace " ; a pig and a roof indicates extremely complicated. Chinese abounds in 
the " family " ; a mouth inside a door synonyms and hazy, ill-defined words, but 
means " to ask a question," and so on, sometimes this similarity has a useful result. 



216 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

At the time of the Boxer troubles, when the historical, philosophical, and scientific works 

imperial edict was sent out that on a certain in the Peking educated speech, or Gwaan- 

date " all foreigners are to be exterminated," hw'a (" Kuan-hua "). But neither of these 

some friendly officials substituted a Chinese two can come at all usefully for the com- 

sign similar in looks but with the meaning mon people before one of the Chinese dia- 

" protected " instead of " exterminated " lects is taken and acknowledged by the gov- 

or " slaughtered," and this saved hundreds ernment as the standard and its pronuncia- 

of lives in the friendly provinces. tion carefully put into phonetic spelling in 

A Chinaman reading aloud a public notice a way to commend itself alike to the ear and 

or edict* can hardly be understood by his to the eye. A great deal of work has been 

hearers if they do not see the writing. It already done in putting western scientific 

must be read by the eye to be certain of the books into Chinese characters, using either 

contents. Further, a man from a different the official or literary language. But there 

province would read it aloud quite differ- still remains the difficulty of educating the 

ently, and even then none could be sure of common people, who cannot afford to give 

the meaning by hearing alone, unless it were ten years of their life to learning the neces- 

couched in the idiom of the district, which sary characters. 

is usually not done, as the common tongue From the foregoing it will be seen that 

of the people is despised for literary pur- much remains to be done before government 

poses, much as Italian was at the time of and commerce can be carried on with the 

Dante, or ordinary Greek at the time of the same facility with which western nations 

writing of the Christian books. Consequent- manage their affairs. In the western na- 

ly, books are written to be read by the eye. tions every boy can read and write easily at 

Ordinary language is not employed, but a eight or ten years of age, and the whole of 

highly artificial and stilted style has been literature and science is thus thrown open to 

developed. China wants a Cadmus, a St. him by degrees with this key. But in China 

John, and a Shakespeare, — the one to put its only a small proportion can " read charac- 

best and clearest dialect into phonetic writ- ters," and a still smaller proportion read and 

ing; the second to teach the highest philo- write easily and correctly, 

sophical and moral truths in the simple There are several ways in which the Chi- 

words of common life; and the third to open nese could remedy this: one by learning aii- 

the imagination and bring all into harmony other language, as English or Esperanto. In 

in one grand .plan of the ideal man and Japan, English forms the second language, 

woman ; while a fourth, — a Chinese Huxley, and the million of students who can now 

— is required to explain scientific truths in a read English must have added very largely 

simple and easily understood manner. to the power of intercommunication of the 

FORMS OF LITERARY EXPRESSION IN CHINA. {""^"^^ "^*'"°"' \ ^^ "°''^'"g "V^t"-' 

knowledge of i^rench and German, which is 
The Chinese have no lack of poetry of considerable, though far less than of Eng- 
their own, much of it of a high degree of lish. But in China a better means would be 
excellence, as can be seen by reading Pro- to put their own simple language into pho- 
fessor Giles* volume on " Chinese Litera- netics. This can be done in several ways, — 
ture," in the World's Literature seri^. The by a syllabary, with signs for separate syl- 
drama is held in low esteem in China, and lables, as ba, be, bo, bu, and so on, as is 
actors are regarded, with barbers, as being done with the Japanese Kana. A more use- 
too low to admit into the colleges. The ful way, however, would be to use a care- 
spread of the love for imaginative dramatic fully adjusted system of romanized spelling, 
poetry may come about, as in other coun- using phonetic signs of the roman alphabet 
tries, by a translation into Chinese of Shake- which all the other nations could easily read, 
speare's plays, or by the springing forth of At present the Chinese themselves have no 
a new Chinese poet writing in the common phonetic spelling, and no study of exact pho- 
tongue. The common tongue bears on its netics, or so little of it that it practically 
waves the great vessels. In Japan the west- counts for naught. The Chinese idea of 
crn styles have been taken up, and novels phonetics is to take one of their best-known 
and poems written in ordinary language characters, — let us say, for example, a char- 
about everyday themes are now becoming acter called (n Pekinese chu, — and another 
common.' The second desideratum can be pronounced ping; and by putting the two 
satisfied by the translation of biographical, together (chu-ping) the first sound of the 



CHINA AND THE LANGUAGE QUESTION. 217 

first character is added to the last sound of comparable to English, French, or German, 
the second character, so obtaining the re- are Wade's (Mateer's is nearly the same), the 
suit, " ching." This is found useful among Standard, and the International Phonetic, 
the Chinese in cases of disputed pronuncia- It is not necessary to consider these sys- 
tion, or for indicating that of foreign words, tems in detail. We must constantly keep 
Unfortunately, useful as it may appear at in mind, however, that for China to hjive the 
first trial, the Chinese pronounce their words benefits of western science and for other na- 
so differently in different provinces that it is tions to treat her as on a par with themselves 
not possible to rely on this device. It is no she must have a constitution, an organized 
exaggeration to say that in different parts of educational system, and for this, a national 
China what is in one province called chu spoken language. To have the language 
in others may well be either chu or ju, cho, become truly national she must somehow 
jo, chowu, jowu, juwu, or possibly ngo, nga, or other have phonetics properly studied 
or even waa! Chinese phonetics are par- and carefully taught in her schools, as a 
ticularly fluidic. To the average Chinaman, means to indicate the correct standard pro- 
even when educated, it makes little differ- nunciation. 

ence if you pronounce " International Law," A method of teaching Chinese either to 

or " International Gnaw," or " Internation- Chinese themselves or to foreigners should 

al Raw," — all will be understood, and he include a course in Peking mandarin, as 

will use these interchangeably. the official language. The pronunciation 

PHONETIC SYSTEMS NOW IN USE. fi^^^^ ^^ indicated phonetically either with 

Cnmese signs or the Roman alphabet, or 
Among the foreign educators, missionaries, both. Preferably, the tones should be indi- 
and diplomatists in China there are several cated if possible by additional letters or 
phonetic systems now used or being tried, doubled signs within the body of the word, 
Among these are the following: The early rather than be entirely omitted, or indicated 
French romanized, now nearly obsolete; one by figures above the line, as in the Wade 
or two German systems of greater or less system. The recognized international pho- 
complexity and weirdness; the English dip- netics as used in Japan should be used, but 
lomatic romanized, known as Wade's sys- somewhat modified to give room to indicate 
tem, which for want of something better has the tones. The principle of this interna- 
become almost universal, and the American tional system is : " English consonants and 
missionary system, known as Mateer's ; the continental vowels." The Chinese language 
Standard' Romanized Pronunciation system should not be regarded as monosyllabic, but 
(a compound and improvement of these lat- those syllables which naturally run together 
ter two) ; M. Murray's numerical system, in speaking should be run together in writ- 
used chiefly for Braille printing for the ing. The ideal should be to take the most 
blind, in which the 408 root Chinese sounds distinct and important dialect, say Pekinese, 
are given numbers and are indicated by a and form a language which could be easily 
raised system of dots punched on paper in read by all who knew the Roman alphabet, 
tiny squares; a Chinese syllabary based on so that whether American, British, Norse, 
the Japanese Kana; several new and wonder- French, German, Italian, or Japanese, all 
ful Chinese systems, based on Chinese sign would be able to use and understand it. 
writing, and looking like Chinese (the Chinese is a language that now requires 
schools and colleges are full of inventors of studying from five to ten years to learn at 
these wonderful systems) ; a method of Chi- all usefully. One becomes skilful in it only 
nese shorthand, which is said to have great after twenty years of hard work. With a 
vogue, especially among women ; and finally phonetic system and a good method of ar- 
the International Phonetic System, worked ranging the common idioms of daily life, we 
out by the present writer, and taught by should be able to speak Chinese fairly well 
him in the Peking Imperial College. This in six months or a year, 
is somewhat similar to, but more complete With such a good phonetic system fully 
than, the international romanizing suggested worked out for all the ordinary phrases and 
by a Japanese missionary, and now used for idioms of common life, some simple grammar 
their own language by the Japanese. The and a dictionary of words on the same plan, 
only three systems worthy of consideration, it would be quite possible to put China on a 
however, for the purpose of transcribing Chi- level with other nations in the possession of 
nese into some kind of a written language an easily read and easily acquired means of 



218 THE AMERlCAht kByiE]V OF kE^lElVS. 

verbal intercommunication. This would be philosopher Leibniz longed for, but in vain, 

not only of great service to commercial and The Chinese have kept their unity amid the 

diplomatic circles throughout the world, but clashings of empires, by the sole means of this 

would prove of the very greatest advantage notation; but they have also remained in 

to philology and linguistics. China has semi-darkness while other nations advanced, 

something to teach, but its chest of treasures by the continued use of a language which in- 

is as good as locked up, owing to the heavi- dicates ideas instead of pronunciation. To 

ness of the key, which only a giant in intel- change is to progress. Progress is based on 

lect or patience can turn. The Chinese have education. Education is based on language, 

advanced in the past by their unique posses- The Chinese problem is a language problem, 

sion of a complete philosophy without su- and if China herself and the other nations 

perstition, and a universal notation of ideas, recognize this the " Eastern Window " will 

— two great desiderata which the German soon open for light. 



THE NEED OF LAW REFORM IN CHINA. 

BY CHARLES SUMNER LOBINGIER. 

Zi N interesting phase of the many-sided ers appears less extensive, though the results 

progressive movement in the Chinese may be quite as effectual. The system of 

Empire is the undertaking to reform its punishments has, indeed, already been consid- 

judicial system. A commission charged with erably mitigated, largely through the efforts 

this duty is now at work, and during a recent of Wu Ting- Fang, well known in America 

visit to China the writer had the opportunity by reason of his long and efficient service as 

of meeting a member of this body, Mr. Y. L. the Chinese representative at Washington. 

Kuan, — whose official title is Secretary of But it does not seem to be the purpose to 

the Ministry of Law, — and of learning from change materially the system of private sub- 

him some of its program. stantive law, and for this there appear to be 

excellent reasons. 

THE EXAMPLE OF JAPAN. 

T ^ 1 . ^1 . ^ . 1 THE CHINESE CODE. 

In takmg this step, as m many other re- 
spects, China is now following in the foot- It may not be generally known that China 
steps of Japan. One of the first innovations has an ancient and elaborate, not to say 
of the Mikado's government after its over- voluminous, code of written laws. In point 
throw of the Shogunate was the establish- of antiquity it is by far the oldest of all codes 
ment of a judiciary' upon western lines. This now in force. Only such instruments as the 
was inaugurated as early as 1872, and its Decalogue or the Code of Hammurabi seem 
existence afforded one of the principal argu- ancient beside it. If the Code of Justinian 
merits whereby seventeen years later, but pre- had been continuously operative since its 
maturely, many now believe, foreign powers promulgation it would still be youthful as 
were induced to relinquish their claims of compared with this Chinese product. In- 
extra-territorial jurisdiction in Japan. trinsically it consists of some twenty-four 

The Sunrise Empire followed up this first volumes, in the literary language of the em- 
reform with a series of sweeping changes in pire, and it not only covers the general field 
the laws themselves, resulting finally in the of substantive civil and criminal jurispru- 
creation of an entirely new legal system se- dence, but it also touches upon nearly every 
lected from the best foreign sources. In phase of human interest and duty; for the 
1 88 1 a new criminal code (now about to be Chinese conception of law is broader than 
superseded) was put into force abolishing the the Occidental and includes many subjects 
severe and barbarous penalties which had been which western jurists would regard as be- 
borrowed from the Chinese many centuries longing to the domain of ethics or etiquette.* 
before. Codes of procedure, both criminal Independently of its contents the external 
and civil, were promulgated in 1890, and character of this code affords^a guaranty of 
about three years later a commercial and a . such, e.g., ^re the numerous inTunctions ot'^i 

civil code, both based upon German models. duty enforced by severe penalties, and the minute 

The program of the Chinese law reform- L'fnts"""'"' '°"«'""°« '""'"'«* "" "«" ""K"**" 



THE NEED OF LAW REFORM IN CHINA, 219 

its permanence. It is saidt to consist of the ^^^^^^ ^^ administration needed. 
accumulated decrees of the emperors, datmg 

back twenty centuries, collected, revised, and Nevertheless, the Chinese code is one of 
arranged in logical order, and is thus an ap- substantive law only, — f. e,, it prescribes 
plication, upon an elaborate scale, of the sys- rights and duties, but does not, it is said, 
tem of adjudicated precedents which forms contain any provisions governing procedure 
the foundation of our Anglo-Saxon juris- or the methods of enforcing rights. More- 
prudence. But in China the respect for prec- over, there seem to be no distinctively judicial 
edent and written authority is much greater officers in China; the governmental system 
than with us. " A quotation from Confucius has come down unchanged from a time when 
has .settled many a quarrel, arbitrated many a >the various classes of functions had not been 
dispute."^ The only class at all correspond^ differentiated, and one set of officials might 
ing to our lawyers is that known as " searon- perform any sort of duty. To-day the court 
ers," whose business it is to find a precedent of lowest grade is the Yamen of the district 
according to which a litigated question may magistrate, who, besides being the all-around 
be decided. With such notions thus deeply administrative officer of his locality, hears 
rooted, a code containing the precedents of causes of any character. From his decision an 
ages and embodying die sum of Chinese jurid- appeal may be taken to the prefect, the pro- 
ical philosophy is not apt to be seriously dis- vincial magistrate, the viceroy, and formerly 
ttirbed even by the mighty upheaval now tak- to the censorate in Peking, though a court 
ing place in the Celestial Empire. of cassation has now been established there. 

Nor is it clear that such a result would be As the rules require the decision of every 
desirable. The displacement of an in- inferior tribunal to be reviewed by a higher 
digenous, time-honored system of laws, even one, it will be seen that the simplest piece of 
though defective, by one of alien origin, per- litigation is subject to long and vexatious de- 
haps abstractly better, is a serious undertak- lays,' while in no case can it receive the at- 
ing, and the results are likely to be disap- tention of a class of skilled men specially 
pointing. It is doubtful if the Japanese have trained for the task of administering justice 
succeeded in adapting their exotic, though according to law. It is to the removal of 
smoothly phrased, codes to the spirit and un- such patent and inherent defects that the 
derstanding of the people. While in Japan reformatory commission is now devoting its 
recently the writer was informed, upon good labors. The plan is to establish a real judi- 
authority, that the judges themselves are often ciary, whose functions are to be separate and 
at a loss to understand these codes and that it distinct from those of any other branch ; its 
is not \incommon for them, confidentially, to members to be selected only from those espe- 
seek the assistance of foreign lawyers in cases cially equipped for its duties, and its pro- 
of doubtful interpretation. cedure to be regulated by uniform and recog- 

In China, however, if we may believe im- nized rules, instead of being left to the discre- 
partial critics, not even theoretical superiority tion of each individual magistrate. Recog- 
of foreign systems can be urged in favor of nizing, no doubt, the hugeness as well as the 
displacing the ancient national code. The importance of the task and the undesirability 
author last quoted says that the Chinese laws of hasty action, the government in its imperial 
" as a whole are mild and humane, far supe- edict providing for the change allows fifteen 
rior to those found in any other Asiatic coun- years for the establishment of the new sys- 
try." And the translator of the code. Sir tem. With this period at their disposal and 
George Stanton, declared : " When we turn with the experience of Japan to guide them, 
from the ravings of the Zend-Avesta or the the Chinese commissioners ought to be able 
Puranas to the tone of sense and business in to avoid the errors which have caused such 
this Chinese collection, it is like passing from dissatisfaction on the part of aliens residing 
darkness to light, from the dwellings of in the former country. For the good of 
dotage to the exercise of an improved under- China, not less than of the stranger within 
standing; and redundant and minute as these her gates, it is to be hoped that her reform- 
laws arc, in many particulars, we scarcely ers in achieving their task may realize that 
know a European code that is at once so the due and speedy dispensing of justice to 
copious and so consistent, or is nearly so freed foreigners as well as to the subject is the first 
from intricacy, bigotry, and fiction." concern of the state, a requisite to lasting 
— --rT — 7 — ,,,^ ^ — rrz: ;; ^a iok — commercial prosperity, and the surest pass- 

fHolcombe, "The Real Chinaman," pp. 30, 195. ^^^. rX ^ i ^.j . ^ 

1 75 p 45 port to the conhdencc of outside nations. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



THE MECHANICAL HANDLING OF THE WORLD'S STOCK 

OF GOLD. 

]^f ORE than $i,ooo,CXX> per diem is the amount of gold equivalent to less than a sin- 
value of the supply of gold to the gle year's production of our mines alone, 
world, yet it is so mechanically managed that This is, in part, because gold enters into the 
it fails to subserve fully the tremendous in- arts and the coinages of the commercial world 
terests which depend on it. In the various as soon as it is produced, 
treasuries, banks, and other depositories of As the case stands to-day every state re- 
the commercial world there is to-day a stock quires, and must have, command of the means 
of gold coin and bullion equal in value to to liquidate its paper issues in gold, but there 
about $3,300,000,000. Late in 1907 the is no necessity herein 'for selfish accumula- 
United States Treasury held of this aggre- tion, rendering it difficult for neighboring 
gate $916,000,000, Bank of France $541,- states to obtain it when required by the 
000,000, State Bank of Russia 508,000,000, exigencies of legitimate commerce, without 
Bank of Austro-Hungary $229,000,000, being obliged to sell securities and products 
Bank of Italy $167,000,000, Bank of Eng- at bankruptcy prices, says Mr. Alex. Del 
land $159,000,000, Imperial Bank of Ger- Mar in the Engineering Magazine for Jan- 
many $146,000,000, Bank of Spain, $78,* uary. Accordingly, he suggests a project to 
000,000, Bank of the Netherlands $38,000,- remedy this embarrassing condition, which lie 
000, Bank of Naples $35,000,000, Bank of describes as " purely mechanical ": 

Scotland $26,000,000, National Bank of r* • * wv *u *• * 1 r u u 1^ 
,^ 1 rf^ XT ^* I T> I L It IS to mobilize the entire stock of gold held 
Denmark $24,000,000, National Bank of ^y the contracting states, by means of issuing, 
Belgium $21,000,000, Royal Bank of Swe- against such stock, certificates of deposit, which 
den $21,000,000, National Bank of Rou- shall be made legal tenders in all of the con- 
mania $20,000,000, Bank of Ireland $16,- ^\^f^^ states, except at the treasury of the 
o'lji. 1 £. ' & J State of issue. Each state shall substitute such 
000,000, Switzerland banks of issue, $13,- certificates in place of the gold for all pur- 

000,000, National Bank of Switzerland poses for which the gold is now employed, and 

$12,000,000, German local banks $11,000,- shall undertake to pay them on demand. The 

000, Bank of Sicily $9,500,000, Bank of security afforded by such certificates would be 

XT d" tT 1 i T> 1 • &£. just as good as, — nay, even better than, — that of 

Norway $9,000,000, Bank of Bulgaria $6,- ^^^ g^i^ ^^3^1^ The expense entailed and time 

000,000, Bank of Portugal $5,500,000, Bank lost in conveying the metal to and fro across 
of Finland $5,500,000, National Bank of the ocean and of recoining it would be avoided; 
Servia $3,000,000, National Bank of Greece ^nd in case of urgent demand from either side. 
d>-^ ^Z^ J • *u J "^ • . ^1 • or as between the first-class powers, the certifi- 
$500,000, and in other depositories in this ^^^^3 ^^uld respond to the demands of corn- 
country, Canada, Mexico, Central and South merce and of exchange with a celerity and cer- 
America, the Colonies, Turkey, Egypt, In- taintv that cannot be imparted to the metal 
dia, Japan, and China there was, approxi- itself. 

mately, $280,000,000 additional. That this could be accomplished he points 

This immense stock of gold is popularly out that states have frequently admitted into 

supposed to flow whither exchange demands; their monetary circulation, with full legal- 

but this is a delusion, and it is attached by tender power, the coins of other states. For 

numerous and invisible ligatures to the coun- instance : Spanish coins were accepted in this 

tries which secure possession of it. Indeed, country, Portuguese in England, and English 

It is so tied up that a demand from one in Portugal. The Latin Monetary Union 

county to another, even in exchange for in 1866, between France, Belgium, Switzer- 

securities or commodities offered at a depre- land, and Italy, later including the Papal 

ciation of from 25 to 30 per cent., is re- States, Greece, and Roumania, and the Scan- 

sponded to with the greatest reluctance, diffi- dinavian Union, — Denmark, Norway, and 

culty, and delay. The events of our recent Sweden, — ^are illustrations of inter-state 

crisis demonstrated the difficulty of with- agreements for uniform coinage recognition, 

drawing from Europe to this country an The international postal union and money 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 221 

Ofdei* system deals in credits amounting to and let the commissioners of all the contract- 
hundreds of millions per annum. " Why ing states countersign and register the certifi- 
not," says he, " a system of international cates of each state. Since the legal-tender 
legal-tender certificates backed by deposits of quality depends on more than two belligerent 
gold coin, to the full amount of their issue, states, and would be regulated by the conven- 
but, unlike the coin, full legal-tenders in each tion obligatory in all, no danger need be ap- 
and all of the contracting states? When prehended from the second query ; and a scale 
wanted at home, as a basis for other issues, which enables large sums in pounds-sterling, 
they could be locked up in the treasury; francs, marks, florins, rubles, and dollars to 
when wanted abroad they could be used at be expressed in national integers of equiva- 
once, without expense of carriage or recoin- lent gold weights exists to solve the denomi- 
age." national apprehension. Hence, ** the plan 
Three objections, he concedes, may be herein outlined would virtually provide a 
urged : Where shall the stock be deposited ? Bank of the World ; and its promise of influ- 
Shall the contract be observed in case of hos- ence in securing the peace of that world 
tilities ? How may different coinage de- should be great enough to sweep away any ob- 
nominations be regulated ? He replies, in jections to its adoption that may be raised by 
order, thus: Let each state keep its own stock either class interest or diplomatic intrigue." 



IN THE SERVICE OF UNCLE SAM. 

A TTRACTIVE as is the civil service and " kicking.'* This the incumbent quickly dis- 

alluring as is an official position at covered. The thousand-dollar grade was a 

Washington to most young men, the delights gathering of all sorts: those who could get 

of serving the Government at its principal no higher and those who had been reduced 

seat are not unalloyed with drawbacks and from higher grades. The lawyer's clerk 

disappointments. A former ten-doUar-a-week emerged from that environment, however, 

clerk in a country lawyer's office, who sue- and in the process discovered that " effi- 

ceeded to a clerkship at $900 a year in Wash- ciency " workings are taken in a Pickwickian 

ington under civil-service regulations, found sense and are construed in an esoteric sense 

his position by no means a bed of roses. by that patient personage, the appointment 

Describing his experiences in the National clerk, who reads them through a pair of spec- 

Magazine for December, Mr. H. C. Gauss tacles entirely his own, and who is, in the 

says that nine o'clock each morning saw the main, correct in his translation of the sym- 

commencement of this public servant's labors, bols. He also discovered that the man who 

With the exception of half-an-hour lunch in- hides his light under a bushel runs no dan- 

terval he worked until 4 : 30 p. m. daily, prin- ger of being unearthed, 

cipally taking dictation from an older clerk. At the twelve-hundred-dollar stage he con- 

His salary was paid in two instalments, half eluded that his limit was reached and that he 

on the 15th and the remainder on the 30th. was idle a good deal of the time. Hence, he 

Thirty dollars was the minimum for board studied law, and, on admission to the bar, 

and room ; $5 for luncheon ; $3 for car-fare, made a good connection with the lawyer who 

and laundry and sundries consumed so much had first employed him. On his retirement 

of the balance that he was eagerly awaiting he summed up his experience of civil service 

the second month's pay-day. After six months as follows : 

he congratulated himself if pay-day found There are not many good positions in gov- 

him with cash on hand. emment employment accessible from the clas- 

His grade was the lowest. Next to it was sified service, 

the thousand-dollar division; above that the There are also many bright young men 

twelve-hundred-dollar class; then the six- constantly striving for these places, and the 

teen-hundred and eigh teen-hundred dollar large side of the ratio is on that of the striv- 

variety, next to the chief clerk of division, ers. 

Over that functionary was the chief clerk of The best positions in life attainable through 
the bureau, subordinate only to the chief the classified service are those in outside em- 
clerk of the department. Efficiency in work ployment, preparation for which is made pos- ^ 
is a lever for prometion assisted by forcible sible by the conditions of government work. 



222 THE AMERICAN REl/lElV OF HEk'IEWS. 

Securing emplo3rment in the classified serv- expectation of a satisfactory outcome. While 

ice is largely a matter of chance as between there is continuous employment at good pay 

a given number of persons of probably simi- during the productive years, the intangible 

lar qualifications; but the chance offers the surplus of friends and associations does not 

opportunity of hitting upon individuals well accumulate as in outside life, 

adapted for the work. Any rigid system The problem of disposing of old and dis- 

would fill the departments with clerks who abled clerks cannot be settled by opposing a 

would conform to the pattern of the system, civil-pension list. It is settled now and could 

which in turn would reflect its creator, so that be administered at less expense if given its 

the clerks would be very much of one kind. proper name. 

Very much of the new material is impres- Comparative efficiency cannot be ascer- 

sionable, and is quickly modified and molded, tained until a standard of efficiency has been 

In promotion, the personal equation has its established. No one knows whether the Gov- 

influence. The academic system of marking ernment work is being efficiently done. The 

for efficiency is absurd. Modified by those most one can say is that it is being done, 

who have to deal with its results, it works Readers of this article by Mr. Gauss will 

with a reasonable amount of justice, though be able the better to appreciate the work 

with inevitable cases of individual hardship. of the Keep Commission, described on page 

The pathos of the service is the absence of 190 of this number of the Review. 



T 



THE AXIS OF EUROPEAN POLICY,— THE BAGDAD 

RAILWAY. 

HE culminating point of German policy cession has marked a veritable epoch in the 

in the Near East is, says M. Rene economic history of the East. 

Pinon in the Revue des Deux Mondes, the The resurrection of Asiatic Turkey is so 

construction of the Bagdad railway. The gigantic an enterprise that it cannot be the 

French reviews have recently been devoting achievement of one nation alone. M. Pinon 

considerable attention to this question, and strongly advocates an entente between Ger- 

M. Pinon discusses in great detail the rela- many and France in the Levant. The greater 

tions of Germany and Turkey. He analyzes the task, he says, the more dangerous the pos- 

German methods very carefully. He points sibility of disputes, the more need there is 

out that the most important element in Ger- for ententes, 

man preponderance in the Near East is the ____ „.,, „-.^^ ^ ^.^r^T.« «^t*.«, 

J. , *^, . . . , ^ .1. rr . THE RAILROAD A DANGER POINT. 

cordial relations existing between the Kaiser 

and the Sultan. Therein lies both its great- M. Francis Delaisi's article on the Bag- 

est strength and its weakness. dad railway in La Revue may be read in con- 

_,, ^ ^ . , , . . e nection with the above article. He recapitu- 

The German banks are the real inspirers of , ^ j^j ^ ^ g ^^ j, 

German economic and colonial expansion. The , j u j-/r 1 • & «^ '«"«'«»/ 

maxim of the German financier is that the bank scheme, and the difficulties Germany has had 

ought to precede commerce in order to facilitate to contend with down to the summer of the 

business transactions and organize credit, present year, when the 3 per cent, increase of 

While German banks have been multiplying in the Turkish Customs dues was instituted to 

the East, Berlin and Constantinople have been occii»-o «-ko nTnT-In'oV. nM,o^or^4-o^ i^^ ..K^ ..»:!...».. 

linked together by telegraph, and the German ^^'"^^ ^^^ Turkish guarantee for the railway. 

hope to extend telegraphic communications by The railway is to make Bagdad five hours in- 
the Bagdad railway to Bagdad and the Persian stead of fifty-five days distant from Constanti- 
Gulf and thence to the Dutch Indies. But Ger- nople, and it will enable the Turks to convey 
many places even more reliance upon her mari- troops rapidly to their most distant frontiers, 
time organization, and, in addition to the con- In short, it will consolidate the Ottoman Em- 
quest of the Mediterranean, her object is to pire. It will accelerate the present route to In- 
found agencies in the Turkish ports, the Persian dia, and the Suez Canal will lose much of its 
Gulf and the Indian Ocean. All these means, commercial importance. Naturally the Germans 
however, are but the avenues leading up to the wished to retain for themselves all the glory of 
construction of the Bagdad railway. Hitherto the scheme, — and the profits; but England, 
the great international routes have surrounded France and Russia being opposer to such a 
the Ottoman Empire without penetrating into monopoly, the railway for the last four years 
its interior. The creation of a network of rail- has been the axis of European policy. Times 
ways in Anatolia and the Bagdad railway con- have changed since the railway was first pro- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 223 

jeCted France is no longer ready to offer her M. Berard suggests that neither England 

capital unconditionally, and the powers insist on ^^qj. Europe will gain by not recognizing this 

the railway beiyig an international affair. ^^^^^ ^^ p^j^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^j^j^ j^^ 

Why the Kaleer Must Have His Bagrdad. believes the conflicting interests of England 
Writing on the Kaiser's visit to England, and Germany might be reconciled. He 
the editor of the Revue de Paris (M. Victor viould allow the Germans to build the rail- 
Berard) assumes that the question of the w^ay as far as Basso rah, an arrangement 
Bagdad railway must have been one of the which would not hinder English boats as- 
chief topics discussed at Windsor. For sev- cending the Tigris as far as Bagdad. As 
enteen years this question has dominated the compensation for the German railway on 
relations between London and Berlin, and the Euphrates, the English should ask for an 
the construction of the railway has always extension of the privileges of the Lynch 
been one of the cherished objects of the Company on the Tigris, and they would find 
Kaiser's ambition. Now that the marshal- that neither their political influence at Bag- 
ship of the world is no longer in his hands he dad nor their commercial advantages would 
is more than ever in need of a victory, and be reduced in any way. 



THE FIGHTING VALUE OF THE FRENCH ARMY. 

(GENERAL LANGLOIS, of the staff of clear, would be of little avail. In the more im- 
^^ the French army, contributes to the PO!"^^"^ operations which must succeed, the po- 
n J T\ n^ J /T> ' \ sition of the rrench army, according to the 
Revue des Deux Mondes (Pans), a paper schedule, is the following: to the fifty-six 
in which he contrasts the French army of squadrons, sixty-five sabres strong, the German 
to-day with that of Germany, a study the army could oppose, in the first pitched battle, 
conclusions of which go to show that if "4 squadrons, 130 sabres strong, or 14,820 Ger- 
T- ^ ^ I- ^ j-^- 1 ^ • man horsemen'agamst 3640 of the French army. 
France were to meet her traditional foe in j^ere is, moreover, our admitted inferiority in 
the field at the present time, her fate could artillery to be calculated. Such being the case, 
hardly be different from that which befell the dangers of assuming a sudden offensive, dis- 
her in 1870. The eventuality of a war, he appear entirely in the case of the Germans. The 
, , • V 1 ^ ^u • \.u French, m the initial stages, at least (and re- 
declares, IS not less present now than in the ^^^ses in the beginning have an incalculable 
past, and a consideration of our situation as effect on the morale of French troops, particu- 
against that of the German army is not larly), would be practically at the mercy of the 
without its. own sinister interest. Says the invading army, 
general: Nevertheless, the General maintains that 

Since the law of March, 1905. Frknce has been >" respect of individual worth, the French 

in a position very inferior to that of Germany, army is incontestably superior to the Ger- 

from the point of view of the number of com- man. The French soldier, he says, is nat- 

batants. Exactly, therefore, what would happen ^^ally disciplined when properly led. By 

in the case of war may be here shown. It is ^, -' ^ '^ ^ 1 . 1/ ^^u 1? u 

highly probable that hostilities would begin ^"e very force of his self-respect the t rench 

without any formal declaration whatever, per- trooper is capable of superhuman efforts, 

haps unexpectedly, and in the course of a period His genius for war, moreover, a quality 

of political tension. Germany alone is capable lacking in the Teuton, renders him, in cam- 
of assuming the offensive m so brutal a manner, • j 4. ui -. 11 l ^ »,• 

since her Emperor has decided that he alone Pa»g^» adaptable to all manner of contin- 

shall be the arbiter of war and peace. In gencies, particularly in modern warfare, m 

France, war can only be declared by a decree which personal initiative is ever growing, 

of the Constitutional Parliament, even in re- ^^d which was unknown almost altogether 

sponse to an act of aggression. Consequently . .1 ^ 1^,,^ t u ^1 ^^ ^^^^ »» ^«.-,o«.;^«« 

an initial delay must arise in the matter of »n the days of close order operations, 
mobilizing the French army,— at least a delay of Contrary to what is generally thought, 

twenty-four hours, if the Chambers be in ses- says General Langlois, there is now more 

sion ; if not a more protracted one. This would ^han ever an opportunity for the private 

undoubtedly allow Germany to harass in a very ^^1 i- , ^^ ^K^,., uL «,-.«.«.lo *^ ^^^,r^ k;« 00 

serious way our early operations, and to give soldier to show his mettle, to prove his ca- 

battle under conditions peculiarly advantageous pacity for initiative, and thus to bring him- 

to herself. Her first movement would be di- self to the notice of his superiors. This is 

rected upon French soil, and a series of ag- ^hat is known as the fighting value of the 

gressive actions must take place, against which 1 1-^ ^ru- ^^ii-..,*' ° ^ 11 £ 

the present defensive forces maintained on the ^^^'^^: ^h^ 5° '«^,^!Yf moral value of an 

frontier, far below their normal figures, it is anny is an entirely diltcrcnt thing, and, un- 



224 THE AMERICAN REyiE[i^ OP REyiEU^S. 

fortunately, according to General Langlois, pJes and interest. The consequence is that the 

the policy has for some time past prevailed queers of regiments are for the greater part 

17 r , • ■, ^- f »u divided against each other; that this lack of 

m France of lowering the prestige of the ^^^^^ de corps has its effect upon the troops 

army and exalting officialism. who perfunctorily, if not with perfect disgust, 

Tlie morale of the French army and its for- approach and perform their military duties; 

mer spirit and verve can only be restored by a and, finally, that there is, as the logic of the 

complete overhauling of the whole military sys- whole situation, a general fear prevalent in the 

tem. Justice in the promotion of officers is army that a meeting with the Germans on the 

almost a farce. Military or soldierly merit is field of arms would mean but a repetition of 

recognized only according to backstair princi- the tragic episodes of 1870. 



THE JAPANESE, CANADA, AND SOUTH AMERICA. 

A FTER characterizing Canada as "one lature passed a bill increasing the entrance 

of those neighboring lands of vast but tax on Japanese immigrants to $500. Three 

only partly peopled spaces where the subjects times this measure was insisted upon by the 

of the Mikado may take lessons in western province, but each time the Dominion Gov- 

civilization, earn large incomes, and estab- ernment opposed the bill. Commenting on 

lish profitable industries pending their return this, one of the Vancouver newspapers re- 

to a life of ease in their native land," M. cently remarked: "We must resort to other 

Louis Aubert, writing in the Revue de Paris, tactics*; we must convert the rest of Canada 

says: to the opinion of Columbia." 

The measures taken by the Dominion of Can- After reviewing the anti- Japanese sentf- 
ada in regard to Chinese have guaranteed the ment on the Pacific Coast of the United 
Japanese against the only competition they ^o^^ gtates, the writer in the French review draws 
not have mastered. Since January i, 1904, the 1 • x r ^u j ^ « « » 
per capita tax on Chinese immigration has been a novel inference from the departure of our 
$500. Since then the Canadians appear to be fleet for the Pacific Ocean. He says: 
mcreasing their precautions. A recent law for- 
bids the employment of Chinese labor in work- The United States is maintaining, renewing, 
shops and factories. They may be employed as and developing her Atlantic fleet to keep pace 
domestic servants, they are permitted to work with European ambitions covering Central 
in canning factories, but are not given licenses America and South America. She is also, how- 
to fish. €ver, gradually turning her back on Europe, so 
rr»i • • • / ^L T • r« J that she may see with her eyes what Japan is 
The activities of the Japanese in Canada ^^^^^ ^^ross the Pacific. By the good will of 

are quite different. Those who are in a Europe the Monroe Doctrine is to be respected 

servant's capacity are cither stewards or hotel on the Atlantic front while the American fleet 

employees. They work chiefly, however, in is in the Pacific In this enterprise the United 

i*^/^"', J . X. ^ e J ^^ • States wisely trusts to the wisdom and good 

the fields, in the forests as wood-cutters, .n fe^Hng of the Latin republics. The wisdom of 

sawmills, and on the roads. They are per- this confidence is evident when it is remem- 

mitted to take out naturalization papers, and bered that with the fleet in the Pacific there is 

after the legal term of residence may obtain "° f^"}> *^ ^""^ C"^^' San Domingo, and Vene- 

1. f \ t *i Til zueia lo terms. 
icenses to nsh and act as sailors. Indeed, 

almost a third of the fishermen to-day in The question of the Far East, says M. 

Canada are Japanese. Aubert, will develop the Monroe Doctrine. 

The Chinese being barred, the Japanese profit The immigration of the Japanese, their col- 

by the demand for cheap labor on the sparsely onization all the way down the coast of the 

peopled plains, where the syndicate white men Pacific Ocean from Canada to Chile, and their 

demand too high prices for their work. Since attempts to form on the Western Hemisphere 

California halted the Japanese these people have many Shin-Nippons (New Japans) are now 

poured into Canada in increasing numbers, menacing the United States, not only in Call- 

Until ten years ago the Chinese monopolized all fornia, but in every country of the Western 

the fishing in the praser River ; now the Japan- Hemisphere. If it can be imagined that for 

ese have It all. A Japanese economist, Kozaki ulterior motives of their own some of the South 

Hirokichi, who visited Canada some years ago, American republics might count on Japanese 

recently wrote in a journal of Tokio (in Feb- assistance, it is quite evident that when Japanese 

ruary, 1906): "The Japanese fishermen who patriotism and Japanese energy have made 

earn the least make J$300 per season ; some earn themselves felt in the South American repub- 

as high as $300a" lies, as they have already made themselves felt 

M4.^^ ♦k- ^«««.^M»«.»«>«.:/>^« :« 'R*:«.:<,u r*,.!,.^ ^" California and in British Columbia, the anti- 
After the demonstrations m British a)lum- Japanese spirit may awaken a real sentiment of 

bia, some months a^O, the provmaal Legis- pan-American solidarity. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 226 

THE GREATEST COAL-MINE DISASTER IN OUR 
HISTORY. 

npO the Ions list of mining disasters in volved, the rescue work, and the measures 
*■ this country that in the mines of the for precaution in mine- working, as well from 
Fairmount Coal Company, at Monongah, the viewpoint of the employer and employee 
W. Va., on December 6, 1907, must be as from the State itself. " West Virginia 
added, with the observation that, its death mines," says he, " have a bad name. We 
tally is the most appalling in American coal- know that they kill a great number of men 
mining history. Death made a clean sweep in the course of a year." Number 6 and 8 
that day, and his harvest was 344 souls, — (in which the men lost their lives) of the 
miners, bosses, and engineers, — every man Monongah mines are splendidly equipped 
below ground when his signal came, save from a production standpoint. No. 8 is a 
four, who escaped somewhat miraculously new mine; its tipple is the biggest in West 
through a " toad hole." That desolation's Virginia. A giant fan whirred at the mouth 
hand is heavy on the bereaved in Monongah, of a separate air-way. Machines did the 
and that it is still resounding with a ritual of cutting and electricity ran the cars that car- 
sobbing, is inferable from the statistics of this ried the coal. 

awful visitation. Approximately 250 wid- When the mine was running the great fan 
ows, 1000 children, and many aged persons referred to sucked the wind up the air-way 
have been left without means of support, and at the rate of fifty miles an hourj — against 
this does not include unborn children, — the which a man could not stand in so small a 
greatest hardship of all. The population of passage. Thus, to falling masses, and dark- 
the town was about 3000, so the disaster has ness and gas, new hybrid forces, half safe- 
destroyed about one-half of its breadwinners, guards, half dangers of the air, — explosives 
Most of the families live in the company's and wind and lightning are added. Despite 
houses, and as many of them desire to return the electrical apparatus the ■ West Vir- 
to their relatives in Europe, the little town ginia statutes prescribe no standards to 
may be materially depopulated wirfiin a short safeguard the lives of miners. No appren- 
time. ticeship is necessary, and no examination, for 
In Charities and The Commons for Jan- such positions as mine foreman or fire boss, 
uary 4, Mr. Paul U. Kellogg contributes a The machine has led to an influx of for- 
graphic and comprehensive article on the ex- eigners, — instructions jn seven languages are 
plosion, its apparent causes, its effects on the hung at the mouth of the Monongah mines, 
people, the economic and social questions in- — who know practically nothing about the 



THE Mf>(TI[ OF VO. 8 MINE. AT MOVONOAH. 

(ShowbiS hole* lOMped out in Ihe bill hf the force of tbe I'lplonlon on DecemlxT 6, 11)07.) 



226 THE AMERICAN RE^lEU^ OF RE^IElVS. 

dangers within a mine, and, consequently, vas, and cement, and a spinning fan at the 

are unable to exercise the care essential to mine mouth. 

their own safety. He describes the work as follows: 

In the light of the recent explosions the vital The entries of a mine are parallel tunnels con- 
question IS whether mere willingness to sell your ^^.^ted every so often with cut-offs, like rungs on 
labor is to remain the badge that admits to a ^ j^^^^^. Butt entries, similar to the main en- 
mine, or whether some positive standard of effi- ^^. ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^j^^ 1^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ 
ciency shall not be required by law, even it it ^ ' , , ^^ ^ . ** ^ ^, * \ 
raises the labor cost, before a man is turned ^'°"' these butt entries open out the chambers, 
loose in the offings ^^ rooms, from which the coal is cleared. 1 he 

fans forced the air down one entry until it came 

DUST VERSUS GAS AS THE CAUSE. to a cut-off, around which the current set, cora- 

. ing back up the other entry. The men followed 

Various rumors were current as to the the air, until they reached the cut-off, where they 

cause at Monongah. Some laid it to gas. set up a brattice, or temporary partition, blocking 

A mining engineer held that a runaway trip the connecting passage. Then the air current 

of cars had smashed the electric wiring deep had to push on to the next cut-off before it could 

in the mines, and that the presence of coked J^"^ ^" ^"^^^^ ^^ /he other entry. The men fol- 

dust throughout the headings after the ex- ^^^f^' ^ ^f"^.^^ ^l""^. ^^'f^"". ^^ th,rty-five, the 
I . *=* , , I , 11 explorers leading, lifting their safety lamps to 
plosion proved that coal dust rather than ^^e roof and watching the flame. If it length- 
gas was to blame. The officials claimed that ened there was fire-damp there and they would 
a " windy shot " had caused the trouble, for know they were treading on the heels of another 
under the West Virginia code there is no explosion and m.ust wait; or else they lowered 
provision for clearing away the dust from a their lamps and watched the flame. If it died 
chain saw after a machine operation before down, there was back-damp there heavy-settling, 

u ^- ^u ui ^ ^u • • 17 T^u but ready to reel over the man that breathed it. 

shooting the blast, as there is in France. The ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^-^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j,^^ 

general manager stoutly maintains that there ^^^ ^^y ; must hold canvas barricades against the 
never has been any gas in the mines, and after-damp till their arms ached, while the brat- 
that economy in operation and equipment tices slowly went up; and all the time must 
has never been attained at the expense of the forage for death in that breathless sweater, find- 
miners' safety. These, however, are ques- i"g '}^ 'P ^ disemboweled mule, or the charred, 

tions for the consideration of the State and f ^"^^^^ ^^^"^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^" ^ l^^^"^^' ^^ ^ ^^^- 

, , I 1 . . less trapper boy, or an empty shoe. 
federal authorities. 

The rescuers were mostly English-speak- 

MAGNIFICENT RESCUE WORK. j„g ^^e son of a Michigan judge, a young 

Of the rescue work the writer speaks in volunteer in a grey sweater, and former mine 

tones of commendation. An Italian laborer, superintendent, was placed in charge of the 

outside the Catholic church, where services explorers. Some of these had no rest for 

were being conducted for the dead, offered to three days and nights. The company's 

carry the coffins to the churchyard, remark- policy has been considered liberal in case of 

ing, in broken English: " Every one is the accidents. It never dispossesses widows, and 

brother of the other, no matter what na- gives them a chance to make a living at 

tionality he belongs to." It was that spirit washing or keeping boarders, and requires 

that brought the president, vice-president, others to patronize them. It also gives the 

and directors by special train to the mines children employment, and its record for 

and kept them there day and night. Like- safety precautions was above the State's 

wise, other miners from Pennsylvania, standards. Still, it was not what it might 

Maryland, and Ohio, — all volunteers, ex- be. The managers of mines in West Vir- 

pert in feeling their way in " after air," in ginia have resisted and blocked, says the 

building brattices, and clearing entries, and writer, preventive legislation in that State 

willing to work seventy-two hours at a for many years. *' They had .kept down 

stretch, if necessary. " This mustering of unions through which the work sense of the 

the minute men of the coal pits," says he, " is men might have found expression ; and they 

one of the finest things in industrial life in had resisted State supervision. And 344 

America to-day." Nos. 6 and 8 were on the men were dead." 

same bank, a mile and a half apart, and con- Reverting to the families of the suffocated 

nected underground. The roof caved in miners, the writer claims that their destitu- 

only in a few places, and it was mainly tion to-day is owing to the failure of the 

" after-damp " that the rescuers had to fight, social mechanism to keep pace with indus- 

Their principal weapons were boards, can- trial development by devising ways in which 



■LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 227 

these mobile family groups shall have lodged has used and crippled. A relief jund of 
in them some measure of economic integrity, $200,000 is being raised for the widows and 
which shall survive the death of the bread- other sufferers, to which the Fairmount 
winner in the mines. The fact that the very Company contributed $20,000, and the Car- 
homes of the miners were part of the prnduc- negie Hero Fund Commission $35,000. It 
ing plant emphasizes the break where an in- is intended to give to each widow $300, and, 
dustry turns back to society the families it also, $100 for each child under sixteen years. 



THE DETROIT RIVER TUNNEL. 

'\\7^HERE the Detroit River defines the river, to reduce the time of 

boundary line between this country to seven or eight minutes, . 

and Canada five important railroads cross : and expense incident to tht 

Michigan Central, Wabash, Grand Trunk expensive ferries, which are slow and cum- 

system, Pere Marquette, and Canadian Pa- bersome. l"his tunnel will come as the cul- 

cific. Powerful transfer steamers up to the mination of Mr. Henry B. Ledyard's suc- 

present, capable of taking on their broad cessful administration of the Michigan Ccn- 

decks entire " limited " trains, have served tral system. He is the originator of this 

as the conduit for passengers and traffic stupendous undertaking, which is now in 

from Detroit to Windsor. Fifteen minutes charge of an advisory board of engineers, 

is the usual time in crossing the river, but consisting of Mr. William J. Wilgus, chair- 

the switching and coupling on the other side man, vice-president of the N. Y. C. & H. 

occupy thirty or forty minutes, — a serious R. R. ; Mr. H. A. Carson, chief engineer of* 

delay in fast service between the East and the Boston Transit Commission, and Mr. 

West ; but in winter, when the ice floes oh- W. S. Kinnear, chief engineer of the Detroit 

struct the river, the delay is longer. Freight Ri\'er Tunnel Company, in direct charge of 

traffic has grown to enormous proportions in construction, says Mr. James C. Mills in 

recent years, and this renders the ferry more Cassier's Magazine for January, 
than ever inadequate. Months and months have been spent in 

PIcnce the project of a tunnel between planning this tunnel, until the final method 

Detroit and Windsor, below the bed of the of construction was adopted in the summer 



PAIS OF TUNNEL tUDES, READY FOK FLOATING. 



228 THE AMERICAN kEy/EH/ OF kEyiElV$. 

of 1906. This provides for a " double- squeezed together between the ends of .the 

barreled" tunnel of steel and concrete, tubes, forming a tight joint. A space of 

through which trains will be operated by three by eighteen inches is thus formed 

electricity. The Butler Bros.-HofI Com- around the tubes at the end of the joint, and 

pany, of New York, is the contractor, and this is filled with a grout of cement, 
in the early summer of 1909 the tunnel is Concrete is the next factor. Gravel is 

to be opened. Its method of construction first deposited over the bottom of the trench 

is novel and unlike all other plans for simi- to a depth of two feet, to make a proper bed 

lar undertakings. The section of this tunnel for the concrete, which, upon hardening, en- 

under the stream will be 2622 feet long, and compasses the foundation, piling, the tubes, 

the river's depth varies from twenty to forty- diaphragms, and sleeves in a solid mass of 

eight feet. A wide and deep trench is being stone. A trough of oak planking is built 

excavated, into which great steel tubes will without the tubes, and into this trough the 

be lowered into place and, when adjusted, concrete is chuted and spread over the bot- 

covered with concrete. Briefly speaking, this tgm of the trench, and is carried up over the 

is the tunnel. It is the idea of Mr. Wilgus. tops of the tubes to a thickness of about five 

The trench will be excavated to the depth of feet. Within these tubes will be built twen- 

forty-five feet below the bed of the river, and ty-inch thick rings of concrete, and these are 

will be forty feet wide at the bottom. Piles the tunnels proper. When completed, there 

are then driven down to the bottom of this will be a clear head of eighteen feet from the 

trench to serve as a support for the huge top of rails to center of arch, and sixteen and 

tubes while they are being bolted in place, one-half feet wide across the center line. 

Building these tubes is a colossal work. Ten 260 feet sections will be required to 

Made from plates of steel three-eighths of connect the American and Canadian dock 

an inch thick, the sections are twenty-three lines. Including the approaches, the total 

feet in diameter and 260 feet long. At in- length is 7960 feet from portal to portal, 

tervals of eleven and one-half feet on the and the open cuts are 4840 feet additional, 

outside there are transverse diaphragms or, in all, nearly two and one-half miles, 

which strengthen the tunnel and divide into Concrete is the main factor in the constnic- 

sections the space to be filled with concrete, tion of this tunnel, and it is estimated that 

When ready for lowering, the tubes, with 300,000 barrels of Portland cement, 250,000 

ends " plugged " to render them watertight, tons of screened gravel, and nearly 1,000,000 

are floated and brought exactly over their barrels of sand will be required. The tunnel 

intended resting place. Then water is ad- will be of the light concrete finish, brilliantly 

mitted, and they settle by gravitation on lighted, clean and well ventilated. Its cost 

the submerged supports. This operation will be at least $8,000,000, which will be 

calls for the highest engineering skill. To defrayed by the Michigan Central Railway, 
aid in this undertaking each tube is provided In constructing the approach tunnels, two 

with a detachable upright at each end to in- shafts were sunk on each side of the river, 

dicate its position when sinking. As these one on each shore, and others about half way 

extend about ten feet above the water, they between the first shafts and the portals. In 

serve to adjust the lateral position of the this way a number of excavating gangs may 

tubes. be worked at the same time by digging in 

When laterally adjusted, divers descend both directions. The operations are going on 

and examine the tubes carefully, to see if steadily, and beside the excavating, conciete 

the bearings of the diaphragms on the beams gangs are mixing and building up the walls 

of the pilings are in place and, also, to bolt of the bores with concrete. These walls are 

the huge sections together. On each tube is four feet thick, arched overhead, and covered 

a " sleeve " at one end, which can be slipped with a water-proofing of layers of tar, pitch 

over the end of the tube previously sunk, and felt, which, in turn, is protected from 

This has a flange that is bolted to a corre- injury by four inches of cement and brick, 

sponding flange on the other tube, a rubber The shafts near the river banks are to be per- 

gasket being placed between them. A simi- manent, and are lined with strong double 

lar gasket is fitted in the inner end of the walls of concrete. They will serve to venti- 

sleeve bearing up against the edge of the late the tunnel and as outlets for the drainage 

other tube. With the sleeves and gaskets pipes, as well as an exit in case of accident in 

in place, bolting follows, the gaskets being the tunnel. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 229 

THE RUSSIAN BUDGET FOR 1908. 

"TTHE Rttsskiya Fyedomosti In comment- 
ing on the speech of the Russian Min- 
ister of Finance, Koltovtzov, in the third 
Duma, on the budget for 1908, brings out 
some interesting data, throwing light on the 
present economic condition of Russia. This 
journal agrees with the minister's optimistic 
view that " as soon as the inner life of the 
country again becomes normal the prosperity 
of the working masses and the financial con- 
dition of the country will be on the way to a 
steady improvement." Neither does it dispute 
his thesis that " the marked signs of the pa- 
cification of the country serve as favorable 
symptoms in the estimation of the nearest 
future, when compared with the recent past," 
But this evasive bureaucratic phraseology, 
says the writer of the article quoted, leaves 
out of consideration the more serious ques- 
tions connected with the subject. According 
to the minister, the abnormal phenomena in 
the inner life of Russia ends with the un- 
fortunate " war," the failures of crop, and m. kokovtzov. 
the internal disorders. But much that the (inissian MEnistpc of Finftnce,) 
minister considers to be normal must in real- 
ity be called abnormal. In 1905 Russia the elevation of the peasant masses. With its 
raised 3,784,000,000 poods of grain (a pood oligarchical tendencies it is certainly not able- 
equals forty pounds) ; in 1906, 3,257,000,- '" '^^ ^°- 
000 poods, — 1. e., 527,000,000 poods less. In In a second article the writer points out 

1905 697,000,000 poods were exported ; in that a government organization, in collecting 

1906 590,000,000, — i. e., 107,000,000 poods taxes from the population, is obliged to create 
less. For the domestic consumption there conditions for the cultural development of 
remained 420,000,000 poods less, and for the country, in order to enable the citizens to 
the aid of the peasants suffering from failures pay these taxes. In comparing the Russian 
of crt^ 40,600,000 rubles was expended in budget in its general features with the bud- 
1905, against 1 10,800,000 rubles in 1906, — gets of the ordinary income of Germany and 
i. e., 70,000,000 rubles more. The export of Great Britain for the .past ten years, the 
grain is apparently the main trump in the writer finds this statistical comparison : 
official estimation of the economic condition 



ot the country. The Fyedamosli con- i" the ordi- increase 

nat)' Income Income oF taiea on 

tmues: ot the Gov- from eacb each Inhftb- 

eniinent for tDtiablUDt Itant tram 
We do not intend to stand uj> in defense ot p|?pen°t^' r 'tT^' ^*^*"^*'^- 

the widely spread thesis that it is wrong to ex- Prussia no " 36. l'' ^^3™ " 

port grain while the population is starving. On iJreat Britain 43 30.0 27 

the contrary, reduce the export of the Russian Kuaala 42 ii.6 24 

erain, and the population will probably starve. t>, n • t > i ■ 

But take off the yoke from the oppressed pro- The Russian budget grows more slowly 

(iiictive power of the people, and our father- than the German and the English in absolute 

land will begin to catch up rapidly with the figures as well as in the calculation accord- 

transatlanlie republic, which exports agricul- ;„ „ population, and there is a greater in- 

tural products for nearly two millions of rubles .-■v ■ c i_ n 

per annum. Of this pressure, which is now tensiveness in the taxing power of the Rus- 

keeping down the productive power of the peo- sian masses than in those of the western 

pie for ages, the Minister of Finances does not countries, 
speak at all. It is certainly not his fault, but 

the fault of the system of which his office is a But the cultural demands of the Russian pop- 
part. The agricultural development of Russia ulation are satisfied by the government much 
IS also limited to a certain class only, and the less than in the western coutries. It is there- 
government has never done much in the way of fore much harder to increase the Russian budget 



m THE AMEklCAhJ kEyiEW OF REt^lElVS. 

than the English or Prussian. And who knows ing class, but to the middle claSS of merchants 

how long this economic, political, and moral and officials. 

pressure will continue in Russia. As a sign of ^s to the optimistic view of the minister 

the increase in Russia s wealth Mr. Kokovtzov ^^„^^^„* „ p„ee;o*e nf^A\^ «-Vi«. «mV«>r fKi'nIrc 

points out the increase of deposits in the Rus- concerning Russia s credit, the writer thmks 

sian savings banks. But statistics show that in that only a decisive, earnest, and sincere 

Prussia the per capita bank deposits were, in change in domestic policy and an elevation of 

1906, 224 marks, in the United States $42, and ^jjg productive power of the country can 

in Russia 8.3 rubles. Besides, the greatest num- /;„^ii„ \^'^„ k«^u «.^ D.ioe.'o V.-^ ir^^i^\¥^A r*/^ 

her of depositors and the largest amounts of finally bring back to Russia her forfeited po- 

depcsits do not belong to the farmers or labor- sition m the world s money market. 



CURACAO A REALLY SUCCESSFUL TROPICAL COLONY. 

INHERE has been so much talk of late As early as 1752 there was a great insurrcc- 
-■- years about the lamentable results ob- ^ion among them, showing that they must have 
/ , I . ^ . been unusually spirited, since slavery was a gen- 
tamed when white men try to govern tropi- orally accepted institution at that time. This 
cal colonies, that it is refreshing and sur- rebellion was put down with the inhuman fero- 
prising to hear of one colony which is a con- city to the lower classes thought necessary at 

«stanf nroof that it is reallv Dossible for a ^bat date as the only means of preserving so- 

stant proot tnat it is reaiiy possiDie lor a ^ ^^^ mutinies and rebellions continued till 

European nation to admmister successfully t^e King of Holland finally emancipated all 

and very profitably a region not far from the slaves by an admirable royal decree, allowing 

equator. To most people the name of $80 to owners for loss of each slave, and 70 

Curacao is a combination of letters difficult centimes a day for each of the sick and a«ed 
" ^^ . . . ., . . . , ^ slaves, thus thrown on their own resources after 
of pronunciation, signifying nothing but a ^ lifetime of dependence. Since that time so 
delectable and fiery drink with an indefinable profound a peace and quiet has reigned that the 
aroma about it, which after meditation sug- annals of the colony seem scarcelv like those of 
gests that orange skins may enter into its ^ real comer of this wicked world, 
composition. An excellently illustrated arti- The population numbers about 50,000, ai- 
de in Hojas Selectas (Barcelona) presents though, since no census has ever been taken, 
the name with entirely different associations, the same uncertainty floats over these figures 
as belonging to a little island of the Antilles, as over the age of some old negroes. It is 
just north of Venezuela, whose charactefistics guessed at and estimated. At any rate most 
are as pleasant as they are unexpected and of what population there is is concentrated 
unique. in the one city 'of the place, Willemstad, 
The island is one of the inconsiderable which is a very urban little metropolis, with 
colonial possessions of the Dutch, whose all the conditions of life of one of our smal- 
complete success in governing and cultivating ler cities, but it has a record that puts to 
this tiny corner of the tropical world is little shame any city of our own. In an absolute- 
known to the general public, although the ly indefinite number of years not a single 
island has been occupied by Europeans since capital crime has been heard of either in the 
1523, a hundred years before the landing of city or among the rural population, 
our own Pilgrim Fathers. The date of its The author of the article in the Spanish 
discovery is not certain, but the leading magazine attributes this remarkably credita- 
events in its mildly checkered career are well- ble history partly to the pacific nature of the 
known. It has changed hands two or three inhabitants, and largely to the wnse, tcm- 
times, but the Dutch have generally been in perate and eminently just administration of 
possession, and have had no dispute to their this colony by the Dutch Government, 
claim for 200 years. In 1694 a large num- .^^^ ^^,^^^.^^^ ^^^, ^^ ^^^^^^j^ ^^^ .^^^^^ ^^ 
her of Jews settled there, fleeing trom perse- ^^^^^ rulers that, though they send no deputy to 
cutions in Europe, and still form a considera- the Dutch Parliament, nor have in any other 
ble element in the character of the place, way a share in the home goverament, they arc 

Another factor of population is the large col- perfectly satisfied with the arrangement, and 

x^iyii^i i«uiwi v/x pv/j/i* » fe ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ clamors for self-government so 

ored element. ^ ^ ^ usual among far-away colonies are ever heard 

That the successful administration of the among them. The island, and several others 

Dutch has not been due to absence of the even smaller, are governed by a chief official ap- 

usual perplexing problems of tropical coun- ra"i^\Vra"Lbi''ne?a„?ryVlo5°^^^^^^ 

tries and peoples is shown by the history ot council which serves as a legislature for the 

the liberation of the slave element. colony. The present incumbent rejoices in the 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTIJ. 



THE fOVEBMMENT HOUSE OF CURASAO. 

name of O. de Yong van Beek-en-Donk. and sources, for I't is of volcanic formation, hilly, 

rules with perfect equity over a motley popula- ^^^ entirely without water except what 

tion, one-third of which is composed of emanci- , ■ r n i ■ 

pated slaves and their descendant.. The Jews comes from rainfall. It is, moreover, very, 

are very numerous, prosperous, and influential, very tiny, being only forty miles long and 

having virtuaUy all the business of the place in about ten miles wide; but from this little 

.'K'S- Jde^I'ieS ;„d"ht.Lro"s;„°a! -"p °« If"'' ">= -t-'-y ■"'! '-i^r'' °' 

gogues. The rest of the population is almost ^^e Dutch planters have obtained^ large rc- 

soUdly Roman Catholic, which is another curious turns. In spite of the concentration of the 

elMient in a colony which has for so long been population in the city, the rest of the island 

a dependency of Protesta:,t Holland. j^ ^^.jted with farms and farmhouses where 

The city of Willcmstad itself is a very some of the usual tropical crops are raised, 
attractive modern metropolis, through which tobacco, indigo, sugar, etc, but especially 
the Dutch, true to their home ideals have run medlars, which are the best in the world. 
several large canals. These not only facili- The physical aspect of the island is described 
tatc immensely the transportation of mcr- by the Spanish author as extremely pleasing, 
chandise, but give the town a charming half- In the city are a number of flourishing in- 
Dutch, half-Venetian aspect on whidi the dustrics, such as the making of straw bats, 
Spanish author of the article dwells with fine cabinet-making, etc A large quantity 
delight. He is also struck with the singular of salt is exported yearly and a very valuable 
cleanliness of the town, a trait which is again mine of calcium phosphate is worked with 
pre-eminently Dutch. great profit. But the real industry is the 

The city has two synagogues, two Roman manufacture of the celebrated liqueur which 

Catholic churchesj two Masonic lodges, two takes its name from the island. Tins is pre- 

banks, — one a savings bank, the other a trust- pared from the expressed juice of the skins 

company —two casinos, two hospitals, an ice ^f ^ peculiar variety of orange which grovre 

factory (a great luxury in so small a tropical / , . f-. 1^., r ti. . -l- c 

city), electnc lights . . . all those modem freely m Curagao. The fact that this sort of 

conveniences which make it seem oddly like a orange apparently grows only on that island 

piece of Europe floated away from its moorings, means virtually an eternal monopoly of the 

It is singular to think of this busy little center industry by Cura<30, which in turn virtually 

of life, hopefuL prosperous, pursuing Its way m ' ' ■._ f u .l t 

perfect ac^rd with the spfrit of the modem «^H^ prosperity for aU the future, 

world and beating it at its own game of ma- The Spanish author, evidently with the 

terial success, although almost wholly unknown memory of Spanish failures in colonial ad- 

'° "• ministration fresh in his mind, speaks espe- 

The great prosperity of the island depends cially of the exceptional uprightness and 

by no means upon extraordinary natural re- honesty of all public officials, who secure the 



282 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REl^IElVS. 

administration of justice without delay and are trying to accomplish the same thing m 

without favor, and says that Holland owes tropical regions. The loyalty of the inhabi- 

to this policy, steadily carried out, her tants of Curasao to the crown of Holland 

remarkable freedom from the rebellions and is a fitting reward for the justice which they 

discords which disturb other countries who have always received. 



SWEDISH EXPERIMENTS IN COMMUNAL OWNERSHIP 

AND CO-OPERATION. 

THE parish of Orsa in the province of tion, to set aside one-third of the lands alloted 

Dalarne (The Vales) has long been ;;;o;';U!traro° h^TaU rarcelTerou! 

known as the richest community m among the landholders, as was done elsewhere. 

Sweden," and not without good cause. The arrangement was confirmed by royal patent 

Thanks to the vast forest lands owned and and some 160,000 acres of timber land was re- 

worked by the parish as a con,mune. its in- ^^tlf Tha'parX^U^ to thTUsenft&t; 

habitants have been wholly free from taxes sale of timber from those forests has brought 

of every kind for the last twenty-five years, the commune in all nearly 10,000,000 kronor, or 

During the same period a number of impor- about $2,600,000. According? to the rules laid 

tant and far-reaching improven,ent schemes ^"In^ '/ccru^To^tr oU° FoV«t Ihe 

have been carried out, resulting in making proceeds were to be applied as follows: (i) Ex- 

the roads and the schools of the parish rank penses for the protection, renewal, and working 

among the finest in the country. But this of ^be forest; (2) 10 per cent, until a total of 

^^^^^^it^r Koc «««. ^»:]^A 4.r. « .-^^^^ ««,r,, »^A 300,000 Kroncr ($78,000) be reached, as an emer- 

prosperity has not failed to arouse envy, and ^^„'^y ^^„^ for "famine '' years; (3) for pur- 

recently insinuations have been heard to the poses regarded as generally useful to the com- 

effect that the people of Orsa were being mune, such as medical attendance, care of the 

"pauperized," and that the great funds poor, popular education, improvement of agri- 

^»:^^A k„ 4.u^ ^^ii;.^, «f *;«,k«.. ,..— . u^:^^ culture through irrigation or otherwise, develop- 

raised by the selling of timber were being ^^^^ ^^ 3^^^^^ ^^i^f^^^ improvement of police, 

squandered in a way that would justify in- and the construction of new as well as improve- 
terference by the national and provincial ment of old roads. The regulations established 
authorities. provided expressly that if any part of the funds 
rj., ' . J 1 «. . « J be used to meet taxes, whether national or com- 
These accusations and the officially made sug- n,unal, this must be done in such a way that no 
gestion that a special auditor be appointed by special favor was shown to the landholders of 
the government to go over the accounts of the the parish, to whom, as a body, the communal 
parish have caused the more bitterness in the forest is regarded as belonging, 
hearts of the Orsa people because the automony rj^, ill i_ n i_ 1. 
granted the communes in Sweden is remarkably ^ he result has been that all the taxes have 
great, jealously guarded, and invariably merited, come out of the fund, and that the citizens, 
And the sturdy peasants of Orsa have hinted in whether owning land or no, have been ex- 
retort that much of the hostile criticism might emoted from taxation of anv kind If wa« 
be traced to the known desire of its population ^"^P^^^ ^\^^^ taxation ot any kind. It was 
that a great portion, if not all, of the land ^^o provided that not more than I,CXX),000 
within the parish be held collectively as com- kronor should be invested in railroad build- 
munal property and leased to the tillers. ing. The handling of the fund was en- 

The whole matter is made the subject of trusted to a commission of three, one of 

an interesting article in a recent issue of the whom is appointed by the provincial govern- 

Social Tidskrift (Stockholm). ment, while the other two are elected by the 

Up to 1879 Orsa was known as one of the landholders of the parish. Three auditors 

most poverty-stricken communes in Sweden, chosen in the same way go over the accounts 

Its soil was at. once meagre and swampy, and of the commission annually. This is how the 

for those reasons particularly exposed to the proceeds of the fund have been applied so 

ravages of the heavy fall frosts. Agriculture f^^: 

was declining steadily, and the emigration The payment ©f all taxes during the last 

from the parish was appalling. There were twenty-five years has already been mentioned. 

wy^ ^«;u^«j« « J ^^ J About 200 miles of excellent roads have been 

no railroads and next to no roads. built, at a cost of $235,000. Irrigation ditches 

At that time a royal commission was at work totalling in length 550,000 feet have been dug 

distributing and disposing of certain forest at a cost of about $80,000. Where not long ago 

lands which had before been reserved as crown could be found only two poorly equipped schools 

property. Some one persuaded the representa- with a couple of teachers, there are now thirteen 

tives of Orsa, rather against their own inclina- model schools with a staff of forty-five teachers. 



LBADMG AkTiCLES OF THE MONTH. 



Hot to mention two 
" school Idtcbens " for 
the inftruction of girls 
in domestic duties. The 
teachers are all paid 
about 10 per cent, more 
than the law requires. 
And a system has been 
established enabling the 
children after finishing 
their schooling to return 
for brief periods each 
year to freshen up their 
knowledge. A parish 
hospital has also been 
built, but comparatively 
little has been done so 
far for the care of the 



ried o 



The general result (Known aa the rlchCBt community In Sweden.) 

of these improvements 

has been to raise the standard of intelligence from the fund was the freedom from taxatiwi. 

and education among the people, as well as With his private economical condilion everyone 

» b.,», thdr e«,„omic^ condition by ™k. Jj? » £ '^ ,t 'prien!«,?„e TJ *e"," „" 

ing the parish practically immune to frosts decrease o£ private enterprise among the Orsa 

until aiter harvest time. On the other hand people, while, on the other hand, a large in- 

the commission has managed to evade the crease in llie interest for all public matters 

provisions of the letters-patent by investing '"'^" '"*" "'■ 

not less than 2,5(lo,(XX> Itroner in three dif- Inter^Communual CoH>p«ratlon In 

fercnt railroad lines, none of which has Sweden, 

proved an interest bearing investment so far. ~^^^ j„, Swedish Communal Congios 

To do this, tlie parish has borrowed the ^^ ^jj ,, Stockholm on October lo, II, 

money thus employed above the sum which j„j „ „,,„ ,,,„„, ^^ delegates from some 

the Uw permitted to be taken for such pur- ,„,„„ j|,j„ boroughs and towns met and 

pose from the fund itself. And at present „,jamied the Swedish Cities' Union. The 

the anomalous condition exists tltat the rich- ^^ ,„ ,,,, congress was issued by the Cen- 

est commune m the country is hard up for ,„[ Association for Social Work and was 

cash at times with which to pay the mterest ,; j^ ^„„ „,|,„5 ^ ,„„, members of 

on the radroad loans It is admitted by ,^, city Council of the Swedish capital, two 

every one, however, that the roads encour- „, „,,„„ „, j,„ „e„bj„ „f ,|,t Upper 

aged by the parish have been free from all House of the Riksdag. The programme for 

specuktivc features, and that their buildmg ,,„ congress is printed in a recent number of 

has been of great importance m opening up ,|,j s„;„, riVf.*rV/l and conuins the follow- 

distnco which previously were practically ; subjects of discussion: 

shut off from all communication with the ., , , . 

n..M;ja nui.lJ Modetn development of urban communities, 

outside world. The problem of cily suburbs. Cities a. em- 

H anybody should ask an Orsa peasant to- f'"","; .JJ' '*,"'' """y.?' "!' ""? ''''" """ 
day whither the fond has been of use to the ™"' building law and the city ordinances re- 
parish or not, the man would laugh ouiright and '""Pf '« buildings The cities and the hou.mg 
reply: "Where would we be without thaHond?" proWem oj the laboring classes City budget. 
And if you ask persons in different walks of Communali.ation of public utilities. The food 
lite whether the nches coming from the forests question m the cities. 
have had a demoralising influence on the people. Jn connection with the convening of the 

»SrSy"S:'°4".Tir,"h,"a';en ,£ ""K'- 'l-' f^ <-"f-'' P""!*- »." - 

puipose of the fund was not yet known to a teresting review of the progress of intcr- 

majority, those were found who imagined that communal co-operation both in Sweden and 

it would be useless to strive and struggle in the ;„ other countries. Attention is first given 

Sfc.S* Z f^t ihtp^'oSeta'S f the development of municipal enterprise, 

ftat the only direct advantage coming lo them for the improvement of individual citie^ 



284 THE AMERICAN REl^lElV OF REyiEWS. 

which brings out some interesting and little the foreign capitalists were tendering thdr 

imown facts. Urban communities in Sweden f^""'*^"' v"? J? -f ''"** '■""\ ^* last, in i8^ 

, , • r II ■ ^i I <• J the city built its own power house, and then in 

were rather slow in followmg the splendid su^h a manner that electricity was provided not 

example set by the cities of England above only for the streets and. public buildings but for 

all, but also by those of America, Germany, every private home in the city, while there was 

and France. Thus the author of the article **'" *"°"^I' ''fJ '^'"'^ '"J*" '° factories in need 

, ^ ^. ^ . o If c J- 1- •^' of power for their machinery, 

relates that m 1874 only four Swedish cities -ajt li- • ■ i- ji./? 

had constructed sewerage systems, while ten ^ f^^ f °"^ ^f- ^"** indicated the first 

yeare later not a single city possessed a de- definite forms of intercommunal coK)perat.on 

partment of street cleaning that could be "» Sweden made their appearance. Coal is 

called properly organized. Since then im- expensive over there. Few countries are 

mcnse progress has been made, as evidenced 25*'" '" ^^'" Power on the other hand, 

by the fact that during the last five years the J^"^ °"<= <="y ''^^f, *h« °^^" .a™?"^ *j»« 

death rate in the cities has been lower than ^"gff °"f proceeded to make itself indc- 

in the rural communities. -., -' PtnAtnt of the coal market and its towering 

The case of the little city of Oskarshamn. P"«J by purchasing a waterfdl withm easy 

now having about 7000 inhabitants, is cited T^''^ ^^"^ ^*'°" 'j^ f^^"""^ ^ ^"^ 

as peculiariy characteristic. ^^ the cities of Stockholm, Orebro, Gafle. 

■ JNora, Hedemora, Kopmg, and Hudiksvall. 

r^I^LJ^L '^jf-n '" if fin ^'v. ''"™!"^ °''' 'l^t Others that were poorer or less fortunately 

provided in 1859. Up till then citizens out at . ^ , 1 1 ^1 • . ^ r . m 

night had carried lanterns. The next forward situated pooled their interests for similar pur- 
step was the exchange of old-fashioned vegetable poses. The small communities of the proy- 
pil for kerosene in 1865. Two years later it was ince of filekinge on the southern coast have 

'^ItT.H^'^Tv,^^^^^"''''^ K^M^'^'' lamps were - i^^^ ^ands in this way with the large 

needed. Then offers to build gas works began q . . . ,. . r -ir 7 " ""'*•** 6^ 

to pour in from foreign capitalists who had ^canian municipalities of Malmo and Lund, 

been deprived of their home markets by the while the cities of Landskrona, Helsingborg 

spreading of the municipal ownership idea in and Halmstad on the west coast have become 

f^^Z^^Zr^s^^'clsfS ZZ l^l If g<^ stockholders and directing factor in 
proper thing and their place was taken by power ^"e great bouthern Swedish Power Corn- 
houses for the generating of electricity. Still pany, a semi-public corporation. 



THE TEMPER OF THE AMERICAN. 

Provincialism is worthy of the believer in a privileged class. The self- 
keenest study, and few realize that its made man is his ideal, and birth has no pre- 
relation to the national welfare makes a rogative. He believes a heritage of toil is 
comprehensive knowledge of its essential the most valuable legacy for son or daug^- 
character of the greatest importance. This ter, and a failure to accumulate a com- 
is true of all peoples, but especially of our petence is ascribed to shiftlessness. He is a 
own, for here the national state is in its thorough believer in the Canonist doctrine 
beginning, and the impress of the locality is that there is sufficient labor in every cam- 
still the most significant phase of our na- munity to support every inhabitant, and that 
tional political experience. To understand a failure to be employed is a personal fault, 
the American temper, we must go back to A tramp is, in his estimation, a reprehensible 
the indigenous American, who is predomi- being, 
nantly rural, — a resident of an agricultural « ^^ 

-^ . * ^ SUCCESS AND TOIL SYNONYMOUS. 

community. 

This American is pre-eminently opti- Thus does Mr. Joseph B. Ross outline the 
mistic. However dangerous or threatening indigenous American in the American Jour- 
present conditions may be, he is never dis- nal of Sociology for November. Caste dis- 
tressed, for he believes that finally every- tinctions are not recognized by this Ameri- 
thing will be adjusted. This is because he can philosopher, says the writer, and per- 
is right at heart, and this is universally rec- sonal worth is the only thing which receives 
ognized. He is attached to the soil and his commendation. Hence, with him, suc- 
believes in rural economy. Success and cess and toil are synonymous, and each is 
labor are convertible terms, — and he is no deemed the equivalent of the ethically right. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 235 

He measures ethics by an economic stand- favors his friend at the expense of jus- 

ard, and expects the toiler to accumulate tice. 

wealth. Because such a man is worthy, Religiously, he is passively orthodox, and 

goodness is identified with success. By rarely a zealot. While his interest is inane 

parity of reasOff evil is identified with fail- he defends the church firmly whenever it is 

ure. When evil befalls a good man, says attacked. Religion is to him an essential 

the writer, the matter is incomprehensible safeguard to the community, and he does 

to our indigenous one. Likewise is the sue- not tolerate independents. He is not pre- 

cess of an evil person an anomaly to disposed to pleasure. A few books, — the Bi- 

him. ble, sectarian literature and the pamphlet 

He is a firm believer in himself and in laws of the State, — may be observed in his 

the solidarity of his community. The sue- home. A visit to the county seat or market 

cessful man was always born on a .farm, town, where he gossips about political con- 

and was acquainted with the hardships of ditions, or crops, is his recreation. The chief 

rural life. His early straits developed the evils, he believes, are the theatre, the dance, 

sterling qualities which afterward led to and card games. Novel-reading is trifling 

success. This tends to make him narrow, and sometimes dangerous to the moral tone, 

The dependence of the community is upon he holds; but on visits to nearby towns he 

its substantial citizens, who must be upheld sometimes succumbs to his bibulous pro- 

and sustained; hence the strange face is not pensities. 

welcoiiied. The transient is bidden to leave With no faith in specialized powers he is 
the neighborhood with speed, and the strange a great believer in versatility. He admires 
family is not welcomed until time has the man who is equally skilful in all under- 
proved its worth and ability to accumulate takings. Ability cannot but win a prominent 
fortune. place in the public regard ; hence, the college 

A THOROUGH-GOING PARTISAN. professor Can teach any branch of learning, 

and the lawyer or physician direct agricul- 

His temper is dominantly political. The tural or commercial ventures, successfully, 

chief citizens of the community are chosen Public speakers are seers and sages. Their 

to the local offices. There is keen interest in utterances are accepted with little investiga-" 

the elections, and every man is a partisan, tion and little regard for original authority. 

He will oppose his best friend and support Platitudes are commended and verbosity is 

instead an unworthy member of his political apotheosized. In thought he is not capable 

faith through partisanship. His party plat- of abstraction. The concrete is his guiding 

form IS an ex cathedra utterance, and that of star. Beliefs and practices are embodied in 

the opposition anathema. Charges of cor- persons, and words of favored statesmen are 

ruption in office do not affect him deeply, read and pondered, and quoted as conclusive 

If the derelict is of an opposing political in any argument. 

affiliation he ascribes the happening to that These characteristics bear the imprint of 

fact. If a member of his own party is in- the frontier and were formed in an earlier 

volved, he is not inclined to condemn him. age. With changed conditions interest in 

His mind is not keenly alive to the sacred- the larger world has succeeded the vista of 

ness of public office. " The incumbent is the hamlet. But while environment has 

expected to exploit the public if it can be been outgrown, the American type has per- 

done without detection, and the American sisted. The tendency of American develop- 

admires the astuteness of the one who can ment is, however, the antithesis of this tem- 

thus improve his private fortune with the per, which is agricultural and rural, while 

greatest skill." the bent, to-day, is decidedly commercial 

He believes firmly in favoritism and priv- and urban. This conflict of urban tend- 

ilege, — the rule of the partisan tempers encies with rural thought must affect our 

every conception. He suggests to the mer- entire life, and so long as the thought of 

chant a reduction in the price of his pur- the people remains provincial the larger na- 

chases, is not above using personal influence tional life cannot be lived. That philosophic 

with a judge or jury to favor himself, and mould is too small for present needs, and 

when drawn for jury duty is susceptible to the creation of an enlarged view is one of 

the same approaches. He cannot under- the needs of the immediate future. Whether 

stand how a personal friend should permit a this is possible or not depends on the form 

judgment injurious to his interests, for he it may assume. 



m THE AMEklCAi^ RByiEiV OF kEyiEU'S. 

SERVIA'S ECONOMIC PROSPERITY. 

T^OTVVITHSTANDING all Its domes- 
■^^ tic troubles, the Russian Government 
has never ceased to stimulate the panslavlstic 
movement at home as well as abroad. Many 
special agents and newspaper correspondents 
arc frequently louring Germany, Austria- 
Hungary, Roumania, Macedonia, Servia, and 
Bulgaria, and even the United States, for the 
cause of the future panslavic state, which they 
expect will be established some day under the 
protection of the great White Czar. The 
well-known newspaper correspondent, Vasili 
Nemirovich-Danchenko, has lately visited 
Croatia and Servia, and in a series of letters 
to the Moscow daily, Russioye Slovo (the 
Rusiian Word), presents a very optimistic 
picture of the progress of the Slavs in those 
countries. With all the efEorts of the Aus- 
trian Government to put prohibitory tariffs 
on Servian imports, the Servian cities are 
growing rapidly, and with them Scrvia's 
pro^erity. 

are sh 
ping their oxen, via Salonica, to England : 
Alexandria, while Austria-Hungary is still com- 
pelled to import geese and ducks. Instead of 
paying high custom duties, a great part of the 

Cultry is now smuggled in by expert contra- 
adists. As to the main product of the Serv- 
ian fanners, — the hog, — Austria- Hungary will 
be compelled to import it, as the Hungarian 
hog never furnishes such lard as the Servian. 

Turning to Servia's financial prosperity, 
the correspondent points out that while the 
banks of Vienna and Budapest have been 
compelled to raise their discount rates to 8 
and 9 per cent., the banks of Belgrade charge 
the old-established rate of 6 per cent. 

While there are no great capitalists in Servia, 
the masses are prosperous, and there is no pov- 
erty in any part of the country. Tiie farmers 
are well fed and well clad. Only the old Serv- 
ian politicians are still looking for favors from 
Vienna; the new radical party is not afraid of 
the Austria-Hungarian minataur. In spite of 
the tariff war with Austria, Belgrade has grown 
wonderfully In the last five years. Splendid 
new buildings, imt>roved pavements, fine hotels, 
schools, and public institutions show the re- 
markable developmenl of the Servian capital 

Nemirovich-Danchenko was especially 
pleased to find that at the Grand Hotel, 
where formerly the German language pre- 
dominated, Russian is now spoken. Eleva- 
tors, electric lights and all other modem im- 
provements, — he thinks that even St. Peters- 
burg could learn a lesson from the capital of king peter of servia. 
this lilliputian country. (Wliose realm now enJovB gn-nt prosperltr.} 



LEADING AkTiCLES OP THE MONTH. 237 

The Russian writer believes that the Aus- And while the Croatians and Slovaks from 

trian diplomatists have made a great mistake Austria-Hungary are emigrating in great 

with their prohibitory tariff on Servian prod- numbers to America, the Servians remain 

ucts. Instead of buying sugar and glass from on their farms, raising the hog, pasturing 

Austria, the Servians have now established their oxen, and cultivating their vineyards 

their own sugar refineries and glass factories, and fruit gardens. 



THE WEAKNESS OF GERMANY'S COLONIAL SYSTEM. 

TpHE visit of the German Colonial Minis- planet had been alre^y parceled out. To- 

ter, Herr Demburg, to inspect German day German colonial possessions amount in 

possessions in Africa, signifies, according to extent to 2,600,000 square miles, with 13,- 

semi-official rumor, that the Emperor Wil- 000,000 souls, as against 29,000,000 square 

liam is about to make a final effort to con- miles owned by Great Britain, with 350,000,- 

solidate the imperial possessions oversea into 000 subjects. 

something of a businesslike organization The German colonies are not represented 
which shall justify, from an economic stand- in the Reichstag, and are somewhat arbitrar- 
point at Ilast, the persistency which charac- ily governed, since the Colonial Department 
terized him in founding his colonial power, at Berlin, recruited at will by the Chancel- 
It is well known that Bismarck was opposed lor, as yet exercises no serious action. Since 
to colonial expansion, on the ground that to a his success at the last elections the Kaiser 
country that was without a great myy a has availed himself of the good-will of the 
colonial empire could only be a source of majority to exploit more freely, and with 
weakness. less reference to the imperial tax-exchequer. 
Nevertheless, says Maurice Lair, writing the value of the imperial colonial posses- 
in Revue Bleue (Paris), Germany could not sions. 

for any length of time escape from what has The results hitherto provided by these pos- 

becn known as " Colonial fever." Nor was sessions would discourage any other man but 

she without her own especial reasons. William II. The German population, for 

, . , . ^ • example, is of little account ^nd less prom- 
Her population has increased at such a rate as . ^ t^ ,^^a «.u« ^«„o,,« ^t «.k- r'^^^^^ ^^i« 
to frighten economists. In 1834 it was 24,000,- '^^' I" 1906 the census of the German colo- 
000 souls; to-day it exceeds 60,000.000. Between nies showed that there were only 5276 Ger- 
the Germanic and the Anglo-Saxon races the mans in the imperial possessions in Africa, 
proportions have been reversed since the eight- ^nd 675 in the Pacific islands,— this, too, as 
eenth century; then there were 20,000,000 Ger- , ^^„u ^f 4-..r^,^«^r ^.^^^ ^f ^a^^ »^a ;« 
mans to 9,ai,ooo Anglo-Saxons ; to-day the ^^^ ^^""^^ ^f twenty years of effort, and in 
latter number 135,000,000, as against 75,000,000 a territory hve times greater than that ot 
of the former. For want of colonies, then, the Germany. The colonial army, amounting to 
prolific power of Germany has produced but a 18,000 men, is, of course, not included in 
loss of living forces, which, m the labor world, , rpfnmc- Km- nn thp othpr hunrl thp 
even threatens to entail serious civil conflicts. ^^«»^ returns, but, on the other hand, the 
Other countries, furthermore, rejoice in splen- missionaries, the officials, the police, the ex- 
did colonial possessions which are the creation cise, and all the families of these individuals 
of men of their own race: Great Britain, in ^^e included, so that the proportion of Ger- 

r^]ar:?r^'i^'teI:ToVe"ss^veirt man colomals resident is almost ridiculously 

Asia; the United States, ever expanding in its small. Germans are accustomed to ridicule 

own wonderful territory. Germany alone lags French colonies and their regiments of police 

behind, and is growing to fear that her prestige ^nd officials. Yet France has 20,000 of her 

mav fail if she does not organize a domam , .^. ^, « ^x nr «:^ t* 

be d th s«i ^^"^ exploiting the resources of 1 unis. It 

might be thought that German commercial 

It must be remembered that hitherto the enterprise had at least shown something in 

imperial government has counted for almost the way of hopeful signs of a future. It 

nothing in the acquisition of colonial terri- would appear to be far from so, since the 

tory. Most of the German colonies owe their Fatherland sent, in 1904, 35,000,000 of 

existence to private enterprise. The advent marks of merchandise to her dependencies, 

of the present Emperor, with his ideas of and received in return only 1 1 ,000,000 marks 

colonial expansion, happened for all prac- of importations. It is true, as pointed out by 

tical purposes too late, since almost all the Herr Demburg, that railway communica- 



238 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF RE^IEU^S. 

tions have not as yet been really established, sum over $100,000,000 has been spent on mili- 

There are at the present mowment over lOCX) tary enterprises. 

miles in the course of construction, and much Nevertheless, Germany has become so rich 

will depend for the future of the colonies on within the past twenty years, says M. Lair, 

the willingness of German financiers to lend that she can afford the initial expenditure, if, 

money for further development, a willing- —and this is the crucial point,— her colonies 

ness which always provides a barometer of are susceptible of being finally organized to 

hopefulness, but which in this case is not con- yield a profit. It is a hopeful sign that the 

cniVimiic working classes, which the Socialists are stir- 
spicuous. . ** . ' . . 1. . 1. n^ 

ring up against an imperialistic policy, profit 

In Germany the notion prevails that the colo- by the existence of these dependencies. They, 
nies cost more than they can possibly ever be ^j^j^ ^j^^ ^^^' middle-classes of the Father- 
worth. The colonial budget for 1907 amounts , j .1 .1 11 _^i' , _r ^.u^ i?^ 
to 156,000,000 marks, or nearly $39:cx)o,ooo; in l^"^* ^0"^;^^^^, ^^^ world-policy of the Em- 
the past decade they have cost $171,000,000 Peror as the logical outcome ot (jermany s 
without counting special credits, and of this prodigious economic prosperity. 



HE WORK OF THE '' POLISH MOTHER OF SCHOOLS." 

TpHE first report of its work has just been schools. Of 316 names of teachers sub- 
issued by the greatest educational in- mitted by the chief directory in the year for 
stitution in Poland, the Polish Mother of which the report is issued, to the authorities 
Schools (Polska Macierz Szkolna) of Rus- for approval, only 159 received approval, 
sian Poland. This report, which covers the Some of the administrative regulations with 
period from July i, 1906, to July i, .I907> regard to the Macierz are, as the law depart- 
shows the work of the Macierz to have been ment of the Macierz points out, directly con- 
surprisingly rich in results. It must be trary to the law; as, for instance, the pro- 
borne in mind that the Macierz commenced hibition of the opening of Macierz schools 
its work in the period of the greatest con- in places in which there are communal 
fusion in Russian Poland, the period of schools. 

frightful turbulence, of disorganization, of The statistics of the Macierz speak for 

unprecedented partisan strife, and of a uni- themselves. The total number of " circles " 

versal epidemic of violent politics. Such con- is 781, with a membership of 116,341. At 

ditions generally do not conduce to the de- the institutions of the Macierz that sent in 

velopment of cultural work. And yet the their statements for the period in question 

Polish Mother of Schools persevered and 63,000 persons attended studies, 14,401 chil- 

survived the storm. Nay, it had already dren were cared for in the asylums, and 400,- 

begun to reap an abundant harvest when 544 persons used the reading-rooms and 

Governor-General Skallon (in December libraries. The contributions of the public 

last) ordered the closing of the 1600 schools during this period for the purposes of the 

in the kingdom. circles and of the chief directory reached the 

Russian reaction soon showed its teeth, and sum of 810,673 rubles ($405,000) without 

commenced to attack the Macierz. But this reckoning the value of fixtures and real es- 

strong institution, standing on a legal basis, tate donated to various " circles." 
resolved to conquer all difficulties. At the This first report of the Polish Mother of 

outset the governors of six provinces of the Schools is an answer, observes the Warsaw 

kingdom questioned the legal right of the Gazata Codzienna (the Daily Gazette), to 

Macierz to extend its activity over the whole those pessimists who constantly assert that 

kingdom; later, the organization met with the Polish community shows no energy in 

the systematic restricting by the curator of pj-actical work. 

the Warsaw educational district of the right ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^j,.^!^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^_ 

of founding town and village schools. ^ry accounts have not been included in this re- 

Up to July I, 1907, the chief directory of port of the Macierz the budget of the Polish 

4.U- iV/To..;^,.^ o.>ni;^^ 4TI tliP Priiiratinnal an- Mother of Schools will be found to reach T,ooo,- 

the Macierz applied to the educational au ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^^^ according to 

thorities for permission tor the opening ot ^j^^ calculations of K. Kujawski, we possess in 

1247 schools, but obtained, the report com- "the kingdom" thirty-one intermediate private 

plains, licenses for the opening of only 681 schools (without reckoning the girls' boarding- 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 239 

schools), the maintenance of which costs at We cannot in this place enumerate all the 
least 1,000,000 rubles a year, we shall have the cultural arrangements in " the kingdom " to the 
sum of 2,000,000 rubles that our community at founding of which the Macierz has contributed. 
present expends for the maintenance of its pri- On its initiative there have arisen hundreds of 
vate schools. In view of our educational needs, institutions, — lower schools and intermediate 
this is an insufficient sum. But in view of the* schools, people's universities, courses for illiter- 
state of our community, which has been en- ates, people's homes, legal advice sections, peda- 
feebled in latter times by economic misfortunes, gogical museums, teachers' seminaries, etc. De- 
it is quite a considerable sum, testifying that the spite the short period of its activity, the Macierz 
capability for work and benevolence in our com- has accompHshed a great work. To-day nobody 
munity has by no means disappeared. will take away from the wide masses of Poland 
<i o i-i » • L fTT rr> -f Til either the knowledge of reading and writing 
St. Gr. in the Warsaw Tygodnik Illus- which they have acquired, thanks to the Macierz, 
trowany (the Illustrated Weekly) closes a p^ the popularizing information which they 
r ^1 ^ / ^u Ti/T • • '^u have gamed, be it m the readmg-rooms or at 
^nops.s of the report of the Macierz with j^e lectures. This has already become the prop- 
the following observation : erty of the people. 



I 



JAPAN'S FIRST WORLD'S FAIR. 

N spite of the alleged warlike ambitions of is the Inauguration as their adjuncts of numer- 
Japan, there is reason to believe that the ous conventions and conferences. Savants 
intention of the Tokio administration is to and ^ scientists, philosophers and religious 
bend all its energies to the encouragement of workers, educators and preachers, authors 
the arts of peace, and especially the promo- and journalists, come to world's fairs from 
tion of its economic interests in the Far East, all parts of the globe to discuss vital prob- 
The invitation lately issued by Japan, re- lems pertaining to their respective fields of 
questing the nations of Europe and America study. To such conferences and congresses 
to participate in the international exposition the world Is indebted not a little for the dis- 
to be held at Tokio in 191 2, is, undoubtedly, sipation of religious and racial prejudices ex- 
indicative of her peaceful intentions. Inas- isting among nations. As an instance. Vis- 
much as this new undertaking of Japan has count Kaneko points out that, since the 
already awakened so much interest in this world's parliament of religions held at the 
country as to find encouragement in Presi- Chicago fair, the west has not only ceased 
dent Roosevelt's recent message to Congress, to cherish absurd prejudices against Bud- 
it seems opportune to give the nature and dhism, but has begun to make an earnest effort 
scope of the exposition society as described by to study that great religious system, 
its president, Viscount Kaneko, in an article The third advantage of world's fairs the 
in a recent issue of the Taiyo (Tokio). writer finds in the fact that they improve dip- 

The official title of the coming exposition lomatic relationships among nations, 

of Japan will be " The Grand Exposition of The time has passed when international 

Japan." This name was intentionally pre- friendships are maintained or destroyed at the 

X J ^ ^1 . ' e pleasure of rulers or governments alone. To- 

ferred to the more pretentious name of {j.^ •, -^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^J^^ governments that are 

world s fair or international exposi- responsible for war and peace. Should the peo- 

tion," for Japan does not wish to appear too pie of one country assume a hostile attitude 

ambitious or too sanguine of success in her toward those of another country, the amicable 

r ^ j_.i« £ ^' ^ A J* relationship between the two states must neces- 

first undertaking of this nature. According g^.jiy ^e endangered, however desirous to 

to Viscount Kaneko, this exposition, like those maintain peace their rulers may be. It is, there- 
preceding it, will be held ( l ) to promote the fore, extremely necessary for the promotion of 

rnmmnn prnnnmiV infprp«jt«5 nf the nations oar- ^^^ world's permanent peace that the peoples of 
common economic interests or tne nations par ^jj countries be made to understand one an- 
ticipating m It, (2) to further the education o^her. No international exposition which does 
of the world, (3) to foster amicable relation- not take this important fact into consideration 
ship among nations, and (4) to furnish Japan can be regarded as faithful to its true mission, 
with an opportunity for a national festival. As to the fourth aim of the international 
Not only have world's fairs proved to be exposition, the Viscount says that a nation, 
of common economic benefit to all nations, as well as an individual, needs to be afforded 
but they have, as the Japanese writer points opportunities of amusement. An interna- 
Gut, become a powerful means of education, tional exposition is, in a measure, an occa- 
An important feature of modern expositions sion of grand national fete. 



240 THE, AMERICAN REI^IEW OF REI^IEIVS. 

COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

JT is known that the Lumiere system of be suited to the optical arrangement of any 
"*• color-photography depends for its sue- modern camera. 

cess upon the fact that the innumerable hues The Lumiere plate is introduced into the 
of nature may in reality be looked on as camera with the glass side toward the object- 
combinations of the three fundamental glass. We are now ready for color-photog- 
colors, — red, blue, and green. In addition, raphy. In practice it is found necessary to 
dependence is put upon the circumstance that make longer exposures than with the ordi- 
in order to get a composite effect, say pur- nary photographic process. There are two 
pie, it is not necessary that the two colors, reasons for this : First, we have given up the 
red and blue, be each made to cover the ultra-violet rays for the rays which express 
entire surface of the object. It is sufficient nature more truly, but which are chemically 
if the objects be thoroughly well sprinkled weaker; second, as the object is to affect the 
with innumerable fine red and blue dots, bromide of silver, the rays of light must now 
each color being evenly distributed. To se- pass through the starch coating, and so are 
cure the precise shade of purple desired ex- weakened. 

actly the right proportion of red and blue We will now suppose that a many-colored 
dots must be combined. The decision as to landscape has been properly focused on our 
such combination is not left to the photogra- plate. The red rays from a red object fall 
pher, but is automatically effected by nature upon the plate, pass through the glass, and 
herself. This becomes clear in the explana- fall upon the grains of starch. If the object 
tion of the process given by Dr. M. W. is a chimney, this chimney will be imaged on 
Meyer in a recent number of Ueber Land the side of the starch coating next the glass. 
und Meer. This image will contain within its limits 

To form the sensitive plate the glass is grains of all three fundamental colors. The 
first covered with a layer of very fine grains grains of any one color, or of any combina- 
of starch (potato flour). These grains are tion, would yield an image of the chimney, 
of excessive minuteness, — about 80,000,000 However, the red rays, imaging the chimney, 
being required to cover the surface of three fall some of them upon red grains of starch, 
and one-half by four and five-eighth inches, others upon grains of starch which are not 
These grains have first been saturated in a red. The former pass through and affect 
color dye, the colors being the three funda- the coating of bromide of silver; the latter 
mental ones. The glass plate is then cov- are arrested and lost. In the case of a pur- 
cred with a mixture of equal quantities of pie object, both red and blue rays succeed in 
the three colors. Such a plate will then ap- passing through the starch layer and work- 
pear colorless, — or should do so. We have ing upon the bromide of silver. And so on, 
now an approximately even mixture of those with the various colors and color combina- 
colors necessary to produce any natural hue. tions. 

Bromide of silver, so prepared as to be equal- It must still be confessed that we do not 
ly sensitive to all three colors, is now poured have any vestige of colored images on our 
over the layer of starch grains, and the sen- plate. However, the plate is now taken into 
sitive plate is done. a dark-room. This must be a genuine dark- 

Thc ordinary camera may be used. One room, as light of any color would have dis- 
attachment, and but one, is required. This astrous results. Any one of the usual de- 
is a " yellow plate," the object of whose use velopers can be used. Metallic silver is now 
is to correct the arrangement of the modern deposited wherever the bromide of silver has 
camera whereby the object-glass focuses the been affected by the light. The result of this 
ultra-violet rays upon the sensitive plate, is to produce a negative having the general 
The reason for this in ordinary photography appearance of that produced in the ordinary 
is thait such rays affect more decidedly the way. No colors yet. Now there is a par- 
photographic plate than those which repro- ticular chemical which is a solvent of metal- 
duce to the eye the colors of nature. But, lie silver but not of the bromide of silver. 
for the purposes of color-photography, the Our negative is now introduced into a bath 
spectral colors themselves are desired. The of this preparation. The metallic silver, 
" yellow plate " it is necessary shall be spe- covering precisely those places affected by 
cially adapted to the peculiar Lumiere sensi- the light transmitted through the starch coat- 
tivc plate. It is said, on the other hand, to ing, is now dissolved away, and the bromide 



lEAblhlG ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 



241 



of silver where the light did not succeed in 
getting through is left unaffected. The ef- 
fect of this removal of the silver is to dis- 
play the colors of the starch. Red grains 
appear picturing the form of the chimney. 
Red grains now also come to light showing 
the image of the purple object. But, asso- 
ciated with these red grains, are blue ones 
also appearing and displaying the form of 
the purple object. The eye will receive both 
a red and a blue image, the separate elements 
of which are so mingled and so minute that 
the two aire blended into one purple object, 
precisely as in nature. And so, with various 
objects of all colors and combinations of 
colprs. 



In bright daylight the plate is put into 
another bath where black silver is now de- 
posited upon precisely those points where the 
bromide of silver has so far remained intact. 
But such points are those which in nature 
were dark, and so sent no light of any color 
through the glass plate and starch coating to 
affect the layer of bromide of silver. The 
effect of this deposition of black silver is to 
darken the parts of our plate corresponding 
to the dark spots of the landscape. We have 
now, — not a negative, — but a dia positive 
whose colors and shadings correspond to 
those of nature. This ends the essential 
process, although the plate is passed through 
several other baths to perfect results. 



IS OUR WORLD TO BE DESTROYED BY COMETS? 



' A CAREFUL study of the habits of comets 
^* and their actual and possible relations 
to our own globe is contributed to a recent 
number of die HoUandscke Revue. After 
recalling the most famous historical prophe- 
cies as to the end of the world coming from 
a collision with a comet,- — and reminding us 
naively that none of them has come true, — 
the writer points out that at one time there 
actually ^vas danger that one of these erratic 
heavenly bodies would come into violent con- 
tact with our earth. On this point he says : 

Such a dangerous tramp of the heavens did 
indeed at one time exist, one which seemed to 
have for its veritable aim the destruction of our 
globe, the comet of Biela. This moved in a very 
small ellipse about the sun, returning every six 
and one-half years lo a spot very close to a 
point in the earth's path which this reaches in 
the latter part of November. At its arrival in 
our field of observation, however, it was not 
always in such position as to be visible to us ; 
so that it had been observed only in 1772 and 
1805 before becoming recognized as a comet. 
In 1826 it was discovered again by the Austrian 
Captain von Biela, whose name was then given 
to it. Von Biela proved at the time that it was 
the same comet as was seen in 1805. and fore- 
told its reappearance in 1832. This prediction 
soon aroused much anxiety, for the position of 
the path of this comet, — a position apparently so 
fratight with peril to our earth. — had become 
generally known even among the uninitiated. 
The fear became universal that the destruction 
of ihe world might be now at our very doors, 
and that the last day was at hand. This fear 
gained such hold upon the common mind that 
von Uttrow, the able director of the Observa- 
tory at Vienna, was moved to publish a pam- 
phlet proving this fear to be utterly baseless, 
since on November 30, 1832, the day when, as 
seen from our earth, the comet was expected to 



reach its crossing point with the earth's orbit, it 
would in reality be still many millions of miles 
removed from this. By this all minds were set 
at rest, and the comet appeared at its post with- 
out causing any harm. Von Litirow, however, 
at the same time predicted that on November 
30 of the years 1933 and 2115 this comet would 
really approach very close to the earth's path, 
and what then might happen no one could fore- 
tell. 

According to von Littrow's calculation, we 
would once more, and that in comparatively 
few years, be standing on the very brink of 
destruction. But this peril was also very 
soon averted, for, since its appearance in 1832, 
this same comet of Biela has been the cause 
of new surprises, both as to itself and as to 
what may happen to its fellow-wanderers. 

Far from attacking our globe, it has laid 
violent hands on itself, has committed hari-kari 
in fact: for when, in 1846, it became visible 
again, it had lorn itself into two parts, and, in- 



242 ' THB AMERICAN REl/IEW" OF REyiEWS. 

stead of the original comet, there appeared two are often so small that some can I'eturn after 
new and smaller ones, which followed each ^ comparatively short time, and their short- 
other at a distance of 40,000 miles. In 1852 Ji - ^u u u-i-^ l u 1 
these broken parts of this twin comet were al- Jl^ may increase the probability of.sudi col- 
ready 350,000 miles removed from each other, lision. 1 he shortest of these comet paths has 
and since then, notwithstanding the most dili- only a period of three and a half years, while 
gent search, nothing has ever again been seen the comet of Halley requires nearly seventy- 
of the comet of Biela. It was supposed at the ^i^ years to complete its course. This is the 
time that the two parts into which the original ^1 __^ ^e ,1 ^ « • j- 1 ^ • 'ui -^u 
comet had split itself no longer possessed suffi- «"!>' ^"^^^ *^ periodical comets visible with 
cient luminosity to enable us to observe them by ^^^ naked eye, and this will reach its shortest 
means of our present instruments. But in 1872, distance from the sun again on May 7, 1910, 
the year when the broken parts of Biela should thus in about two and a half years. The 
have come again into view there appeared in- ^^j^ question now is this: Is there any chance 
stead, exactly at the same place and period, the ,^ . n*- - \ \ % 
end of November, an extraordinarily strong whatever ot a collision with the earth on 

shower of stars. The comet of Biela had di's- the part of comets ? The probability of this, 

appeared from the stage of the universe and says the writer in the Dutch review, seems to 

had gone the way of all comets -a splendid be exceedingly small. 

conhrmation of the theory of bchiaparelli, pro- rj^. j c r ulm* 1 l 

pounded long before, that comets ultimately re- ^^^ degree ot such probability has been 

solve themselves into showers of falling stars, represented in the following manner: The 

so called. chance of such collision is as small as if some 

Although, now, so far as we know, no one in a balloon should fire at a globe two 

comets have ever come into collision with the feet in diameter (the sun), but should by 

earth, such collision has occurred on the part mistake, instead of that globe, hit a pepper- 

of comets with other planets. Moreover, it corn (the earth) which was sixty-five meters 

is supposed that comets very frequently distant from that globe, thus on the edge of a 

plunge into the sun without our being able circle having a surface of 13,000 square me- 

to perceive anything of the fact. The pos- ters. According to the law of probabilities, 

sibility of their collision with the earth is this writer maintains, the chance of the' col- 

therefore not excluded, since (an additional lision of a comet with the earth is only as 

cause for apprehension) the orbits of comets i to 400,000,000. 



WHAT MARS IS REALLY LIKE. 



AN analytical study by the eminent Aus- and this is the view of all observers of Mars,— 

trian astronomer, Johann Palisa, which ^^^f ^^^.^ P)^"^^^Jf ,^^P^b^^ 0/ sustaining plants 

*u T\ 1 I. D /D 1- \ ^"d animals. That its surface does actually 

appears in the Deutsche Revue (Berlin) ^^^^ vegetation is attested to us by the changes 

treats of the conditions which prevail upon in the coloring of numerous dark spots coinci- 

the planet Mars, giving special attention to dent with the change of seasons, and by the ap- 

the probable explanation of the so-called Pearance of previously invisible dark regions 

t /"Of* 11* TT *i 1* anQ lines* 

canals of bchiaparelli. He winds up his argu- . , 1 • -r 11.11 

ment with a summarv which begins thus: . ^"^ ."^^ ^^'^fs the significant and highly 

interesting question: If planets and animals 
If we sum up briefly what the telescope re- subsist upon Mars, is the planet also inhabited 
ycals to us on the surface of Mars we find that by intelligent beings. Mars people? 
that planet is a heavenly body similar to the Tj.u u iju 
earth. It has a solid crust, seasons like our ^^ "^ ^^^^ remarked by some astronomers 
globe, is surrounded by an atmosphere, which, that astronomy has other real problems to 
though its exact composition is unknown to us, deal with and should leave alone such con- 
surely contains aqueous vapor. We find that ^eits as these. In truth, the astronomer 
the region about the poles is covered with snow 4. u j u r? 1 1 / mi 1" 
in the winter season; that precipitation, there- ^^f abandon the held of tangible reality 
fore, is not lacking; the melting of the snow- and allow his hncy free play if he wishes 
masses furnishes us evidence of climatic condi- to enter into a study of this question, 
tions not dissimilar to those upon the earth. t„ .i,^ «.,«.*• j • 1 .• 

Upon our sphere we know by experience that ;„ the ffrc^nli^r k"^^^'^ T'/'^.r^^'^- '^ ""^^r 

wherever on anv stretch of land nrecinitation Vi *"^ , P. ^^' ^^ ^^^^ ^^^* *^^ existence of 

wnerever on any stretch ot land precipitation Mars-people is very well possible, all the requi- 

occurs, even though in spanng quantities; where ^jte familiar conditions befng given But a fur- 

the temperature rises if but occasionally, above ther point has been reached,-in the Mars canals 

the f reezmg point of water, vegetation springs the work of man has been positively descried. 

up, accompanied by fauna before long. We In fact, the uniformly regular, often perfectly 

may, therefore, assume ^ith great certainty,— straight, course of these structures, some of 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 243 

them pursuing a north to south direction, forms come to us and tell us that one of these two 
a conspicuous moment for that assertion, planets is inhabited by intelligent beings, and 
Whether these canals be in reality of the same ask us to guess which, we should certainly guess 
breadth throughout, or merely a chain of puncti- Mars and not the earth, since the earth offers, 
form structures, the general supposition is that so far as we can form a picture of it, nothing 
this regularity is not to be wholly ascribed to similar to the changes that take place upon 
blind nature. Opinion is almost unanimous that Mars, and does not by any sign betray our pres- 
the origin of these canals, as they appear to us, ence. But if we admit that Mars is inhabited, 
is connected with the flowing down of the polar the circumstance that it probably could accom- 
waters; and what has seemed a particularly modate organic life much earlier than the earth, 
striking phenomenon is, that were the canals would lead to the further conclusion that these 
formations of nature, acting alone, they could people have progressed beyond us in culture and 
not pass beyond the equator, but would have to in the sciences. Their greatest concern, how- 
halt before it. That they extend far beyond ever, must always be the wisest exploitation of 
the equator furnishes the most important argu- the existing water supply. 
ment for the view that not nature alone but Qur earth may once share the same fate 
mans agency also, has been at work here; not \/r„^^ ^u««. tu^ «* -n ^ j-i j- 
even the existence of the canals is as indicative ^. Mars,— that the water will steadily di- 
of the presence of man as this very circum- nunish. As may be familiar, the tempera- 
stance, ture of the ground is subject to fluctuations 

If Mars possesses water, the area covered by of the seasons: In summer it is higher, in 

it, in our estimation^ is so small that one may winter lower, but the amount of fluctuation 

reasonably conclude that there is a great dearth decreases at once upon descending any dis- 

of it upon that planet. And the rare appear- ^^^^^ • ^ ^ ^ ^ J 

ance of cloud formations strengthens this view, r ^ - ' . , "'^h'^" "^ "V/^ 

Now in order to utilize this important element ^^^ ^^^^"^^ ^^ <^^ascs entirely, and we strike 

of life to the best advantage, it must be con- there the average yearly temperature of the 

ducted wherever there is fertile soil. The in- locality. But from that point there is a 

habitants of Mars have, therefore, directed the continuous increase of one degree Centigrade 

water's course along stretches in which, as soon for every thirty meters as we proceed into 

as the fructifymg moisture appears vegetation ^^e interior. The earth has still, therefore, 

is developed. The agency of the inhabitants of ,,_^, i • u «.^ ^^ * -. • -^ j ^i_ l 

Mars has essentially contributed toward the ^^'^ ^}^\ temperatures in its depths; but 

regularity of construction which the canals unceasingly, even though slowly, the cooling 

present. The formations which look to us like goes on, and a period will some day be 

canals are not, of course, in their full extent reached when the temperature of the outer 

aqueducts; it may, indeed, be that but a very crust will sink below zero, and only the 

narrow strip of them irrigates the adjacent land, fj^e meters before referred to will, owing to 

In order to have the water flow beyond the .1 , l 1 • 1 ^wni^ 

equator the inhabitants of Mars may have con- ^"^ S"" ^ rays, show higher temperatures, 
structed peculiar elevating devices, since, as be- .While now the water that percolates into the ' 

fore observed, this phenomenon is hard to ex- earth is transformed into vapor by the heat of 

plain in any other way. the interior and returns to the surface, the 

Let us, in conclusion, repair to a point in the water which in descending will strike strata 

universe which is just as distant from Mars as with temperatures below zero, will freeze and 

the earth and as the earth from Mars ; I assume never again reach the surface. What, there- 

here that we know nothing of humanity upon fore, is perhaps in store for the earth in millions 

our sphere, and would observe both heavenly of years, that has already partially taken place 

bodies only through telescopes ; should an angel upon Mars, a planet solidified before our own 



THE PROBLEM OF THE ROOMER. 



I 



N every city of any considerable size the what the rooming-house resembles is an in- 

roomer is every seventh or eighth man teresting topic for discussion, 
or woman you meet. He may be a day Professor Albert B. Wolfe, of Oberlin 

laborer or a city editor, but he represents College, accordingly outlines the roomer's 

the ambition, hopefulness, individualism, en- problem in Charities and the Commons for 

ergy, and persistence of the younger pro- November 2. The growth of cities and the 

ductive ranks of mercantile and mechanic movements of population within the same 

employees. With 90,000 roomers in Boston, city explain the rooming-house districts in 

one for every 723 in Chicago, one for every our cities. The roomers have come to the 

463 in St. Louis, and before the earthquake city for employment, and the " landladies," 

one for every 233 persons in San Francisco, for the most part, widows thrown on their 



244 THE AMERICAN REl^/EtV OP REP^IEWS. 

own resources, who turn to the roomer as a Landladies cannot afford a parlor, and 
last resort. Old four-story family residences this is the basis of this drawback. The moral 
are rented, — in New York " brownstone results of such a situation, the writer be- 
fronts," in Boston ** swell fronts," in St. lieves, are a peculiar attitude of mind toward 
Louis old style Southern mansions, which marriage and family; temporary unions and 
have been vacated through business changes prostitution as substitutes; poignant loneli- 
or the fickleness of residential fashion. At ness; a blind, self-seeking individualism 
one time nearly all roomers were boarders, striking at altruistic impulses and moulding 
To-day the boarding-house has largely dis- existence too closely on lines of the competi- 
appeared. The effects of this transition are tive business world. They have no sub- 
deplorable, stitute for home life, no opportunity for real 

^, , . ., , t , recreation or cultural association, and are 

The reader must not fail to understand the i ^ j. • i • i u ^ ^u 

Aia ..« K * *u ' u^ A 4.U exposed to conditions which would try the 

dmerence between the rooming-house and the *^ , , . . ^ 

boarding-house. The boarder sleeps and eats "i^st Stable ifioral consciousness, 
in the same house; the roomer takes his meals The whole situation should be much 
at a restaurant. Twenty years ago two-fifths of more thoroughly studied than it has been 
the "boarders and lodgers" enumerated in the as yet. Public statistical bureaus should 
census of Boston were boarders. In 1895 less ga^he,. je^^ils of the rooming-house districts, 
than one-fifth (174 Per cent.) were boarders, p^yj^ j^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^LVOMStA. The 
Ihe percentage of lodgers increased from 00.4 , '^ , . • 1 1 
in 1885 to 82.6 in 1895. The further increase ^pomer must be given a social anchorage ; 
which has undoubtedly taken place since 1895 the furniture sharks that prey upon the land- 
has virtually wiped out the boarding-house, lady should receive attention. The connec- 
This is true not only of Boston but of several tion between lodging and' prostitution should 
other Massachusetts towns. Statistics are lack- ^g studied more carefully. A public parlor 
ing for -cities outside Massachusetts but the ^y^^^^^ ^e demanded, even if it be made a 
probabilities are that the rooming house is • v x • u i* 
everywhere displacing the old-time boarding- PT^''^^^^^^^? ^^^ ^ rooming-house license, 
house. The causes of this lie in the competition A "e boarding-house should be brought back, 
of the cafes and " dining rooms," the fact that and the cafe life resisted in every possible 
it takes less business ability to manage a room- way. Fundamentally, at the bottom of 
ing-house than a boarding-house, and most of these things are, of course, better education 
all, that the rooming and cafe habit of life offers ^j^j better wages 

much more freedom than did the boarding- t^ .1 ^ ^„' .^o„«„;„« i?i«««^, u 

house. In the latter one must be on time for „/^^ ^^e same magazine Eleanor H. 

meals and must pay whether he eats or not. Woods, of South Lnd House, Boston, writes 

Moreover, lax as were boarding-house conven- interestingly of the humanitarian efforts of 

tionalities, they afforded far more restraints certain movements in Boston for the social 

than can be found in the rooming-house. A betterment in its lodging districts. A room 

boarding-house without a public parlor would registry organized at South End House 

be an anomaly, while a rooming-house with one ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ assistance of patrons 

IS a rariiy. • • « * 1 1 • 

seeking rooms and to stimulate business 

With the passing of the boarding-house methods among the housekeepers has at- 
went the last vestige of " home " life, for tained a reasonable degree of success. A 
a boarding-house without a public parlor card catalogue of 150 houses is on file, con- 
would be an anomaly, while a rooming-house taining information as to location, price, 
with one is a rarity. The common table quality, etc. A charge of 10 cents is im- 
with its friendly, if aimless, prattle being posed for a list of available lodging-houses 
removed, the isolation of the roomer fol- and a postal to be used if a room is secured 
lowed, which is a real social problem. He by the applicant. Housekeepers are charged 
knows few people, and these not intimately, one-half a week's rent for a tenancy of three 
He rarely enters a family circle, and becomes weeks; otherwise, 10 per cent. The neigh- 
a more or less nomadic character,^-essential- borhoods are scrutinized carefully and dis- 
ly a floater. The absence of the public par- reputable people ejected. This registry 
lor is responsible for damming the well- serves as a source of information to patrons 
springs of healthy, social intercourse and for of the South End district, and labors for 
throwing the lodger upon his own resources, cleanliness and morality. 
A girl receives her visitors, — men and wom- This writer advances hopefully a sugges- 
en, — either in her room or in the street, — tion for " boarding club houses " for busi- 
the moral effect of which can easily be ness women, something on the plan of a pri- 
deduced. vate house accommodating twelve or fifteen. 



LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH. 245 

with two or three for household work. An would prove superior to the general run of 

experiment on this line worked successfully lodging-houses, and would obviate the loss 

in Boston, and for women no longer in the which women feel when "housed in cara- 

youngest ranks the writer believes such a vansaries where social responsibilities are 

household would prove a strong attraction, discouraged by the constant experience of 

and she advocates" a series of houses so or- being thrown with so many whom it is im- 

ganized, under one general management, possible to know, and yet in whose company 

Free from domestic restrictions, and with all the significant home functions are daily 

relative home surroundings, such houses practiced.'* 



CURIOUS LIFE CYCLES. 



A 



S a study of possibilities in the way of because the food supply is diminished for 

manifestations of vital phenomena, some reason, making it necessary for the ap- 

the course of events that takes place in a bids either to migrate or to die. Literally 

series of generations of aphids is highly sur- a case where the spur of adversity brings 

prising to any one not familiar with the out latent powers, 
vagaries of nature in the byways of life. The writer goes on to describe still more 

A contribution to the study of life his- curious phases of development observed in 

tories of these organisms is published by Dr. the more complicated life histories of migrat- 

A. Mordwilko in a recent number of the ing species of aphids that change their loca- 

Btologisches Ceniralblatt (Leipzig). tion at different seasons of the year, certain 

Among some of the more common forms generations spending the autumn and winter 

of aphids the adults die in autumn and only on a tree, perhaps, while succeeding genera- 

their eggs are left, hidden in the ground, or tions become emigrants and travel to some 

under the bark of trees, to maintain the life herbaceous plant to spend the summer, 
of the species over winter. Next summer Among these there is a wingless form of 

an aphid hatching from one of these eggs be- aphid that takes up its abode underground 

comes the starting point for a series of gen- on the roots of vines, where a continuous 

erations that develop without wings and are succession of generations develops until the 

unable to move far. All these live on the approach of winter. Then, when the tem-' 

same plant and fe^d upon it until the plant perature sinks to about lo degrees C, the in- 

begins to wither, as a result of their depreda- sects become torpid in response to the cold, 

tions, and there is a consequent scarcity of But during the summer, or in autumn, a new 

food. type of descendants appears, winged individ- 

Then the aphid shows its powers of ris- uals, that leave their underground retreat for 

ing to the emergency. A new set of eggs is the parts of the vine growing above ground, 

produced that hatches into aphids with wings, where they deposit two kinds of eggs, large 

an^ these insects fly away to a new, thrifty ones to develop into females, and small ones 

plant, where they settle down, and resume that will produce males. These insects die, 

the old order of things just as their ancestors and only the eggs retain their life over win- 

of some generations ago did a month or two ter. 
before. The following spring, a new order of 

As the economic result of this, the crops events is inaugurated. From the newly 
are seriously affected and the farmer suffers hatched insects there descends a race of ap- 
such an appreciable loss that it becomes a bids that attack the leaves of the vines and 
nlatter of economy for him to employ the cause the curious gall formations found on 
best measures at his command to combat the them. This continues until the last of sum- 
apparently insignificant enemy. mer, when the leaves begin to die, and then 

But the achievement of wings is especially the aphids wander back to the roots, where 
interesting as an instance of a provision of they may change directly into the character- 
nature • for meeting adverse conditions, istic type that preys on the root, although it 
Wings do not appear at any definite time in is impossible for the converse order of change, 
the history of the species, but are called forth of root type directly into gall type of aphid, 
as a response to external conditions, usually to take place. 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. 



EXPERTS DECLARE THEIR CONFIDENCE. 

p ERHAPS the first journalistic authority was responsible for several of the factors which 

"■' on financial matters is the Economist ^»^f^. ^^ precipitating the cataclysm of 1873) 

of London It is reassuring to have the opin- ra„Sr„TT1nd'stHer'°" "' ^"^"*^ ^"' 

ion of Its editor, rrancis W. Hirst, that our No crop failure (as in 1837). 

panic signified no general rottenness of con- No railroad-building beyond the country's im- 

duct,— nothing more than a defect in method, mediate needs (as in 1857 and in 1873). 

No wildcat banking (as in 1818, 1837, and 

How is it that in the United States alone a 1857). 

collapse of paper values (which in other coun- -No greenback endless chain or silver dilution 

tries would be regarded with comparative indif- of the currency (as in 1893) to draw gold out 

ference or possibly even welcomed as a sign of of the Treasury. 

returning sanity) should end in a general stop- No adverse balance of trade (as in 1818, 1837, 

page of work, a paralysis of distributing agen- 1857, 1873, and 1893). 

cies, a cash famine, and a general withdrawal No gold drain to Europe (like we had in all 

from men of ample wealth and credit of the those years) to meet debts of any kind, 

ordinary banking facilities? No shortage in revenues (as in 1893 and some 

other panic times). 

After reviewing the few sensational dis- No menace of any sort or from any quarter 

closures which brought on the general crash, (as there was in every one of those live panic 

Mr. Hirst says: "A more deplorable con- ^^^^s) to our country's monetary system. 

dition of things could hardly exist, or one from an English banker. 

more injurious to the great majority of gome solid comfort is extended to every- 

Amencan banks, which are clean and sound, b^^jy interested in American stocks and bonds 

If in every State there had been an official or by an article in the Nineteenth Century of 
semi-official bank with the State behind it,— with London. It is a personal opinion of peculiar 
the kind of relation to other banks in that State • ^ ^ u -^ x t txt r* 
which the Bank of England has to other Eng- interest because it comes from J W. Cross, 
lish banks, or the Bank of Germany has to those an English banker of ten years experience 
of Germany, or the Bank of Amsterdam to those in New York City, during the tumultuous 
of Holland,— the panic-stricken depositors, in- years of 1 86 1 -'7 1. Mr. Cross says: 
stead of carrying their currency to safe deposits '' 
or hiding it under their beds, would have re- It is just fifty years since I first became in- 
deposited it in the State bank, which would then terested in American securities. I have known 
have been able to afford ample and immediate no other class of investments which have given 
succor to all sound institutions. The rest, which more satisfactory results during these fifty years, 
were not sound or solvent,^ would have gone very taking the average prices they cost, the interest 
properly into the receivers' hands. they have returned, and the average prices at 

which they can be sold, even at the panic quota- 

AN OVER-EXPECTED PANIC. tions of to-day. 

«ixTi n' 1J1J1. <u I can say of Wall Street, after ten years' ex- 

When Bismarck declared that the perience there, that it is the most satisfactory 

enemy who fixes a day for his attack is never place that I know to do business in, notwith- 

dangerous,' he uttered a truth which is espe- standing all its harassing ups and downs and 

dally applicable to financial disturbances," \^^ hustling. . . .The chief reason why 

•^T *^*^ yj^j XT r^^ 'J x il lapses are more marked in New York is that 

says James W. Van Cleave, president ot the ^^^ York is by far the biggest market in the 

National Association of Manufacturers, in world for stock transactions. 

The Circle. Mr. Van Cleave can find no Let us never forget that while there has been 

signs that the depression of 1908 "will even f,^^^^* deal of "simulated prosperity'' in the 

^ I , I ^, 1 • 1: • 00 United States, owing to overborrowing, there 

remotely resemble those which came in 181 8, ^^s at the same time been an increase in the 

1837* l857» 1873* or 1893. productive power, and a development of real, 

efficient industrial activity, during the last ten 

Everybody who knows the causes of each of years especially, such as the world has never 

our panics, and who takes an intelligent survey seen before, 
of the present situation, will see that almost all 

those causes are missing now. To-day there is: THE COURAGE OF CORPORATIONS. 

No recent great war (as the war of 1812-15 r^* ^1 ^* ^u • j Ti. 

with England, which helped to bring the panic ^ ^''l^ ^^^ corporations their due. They 

of 1818, or the civil conflict of 1861-65, which have been among America s most courageous, 



LEADING FINANCIAL ARTICLES. ' U1 

most useful pioneers. Their cause is well strongly the wish that justice should be done 

defended by Major Henry L. Higginson in to these men and to their numerous sup- 

the Atlantic Monthly. porters, who have bought their bonds and 

Who have built all the mills, the dams, the s^^^^! ^"^ ^,^ve waited for returns,— too 

railroads, the tramways, the gas and electric often in vain, 
works, and who have dug the mines? The cor- 

porati6ns, made and managed by enterprising, the USE OF WALL STREET, 
able, thoughtful, patient men. Have they failed 

or succeeded? They have done both, in many. To set, on every important bond and share 

""irinTe struggle for existence, bargains and «^ ^^^F^> I P^^^^ "1°^^ accurate than the wisest 
railroad rates were made which seemed a hard- i^an m the world could estimate by himself, 
ship to the farmers, is it not fair to ask whence and to set this price in advance, giving stock- 
came these iron roadways and how the farmers and bond-holders ample warning of coming 
would have marketed their crops without them? • j .. • i u ..u ^ • *u \ c -.u^ 
And, moreover, is there a railroad in our broad industrial changes,— that is the work of the 
land that has not been forced to wade through nation s money barometer known as Wall 
dire distress, if not bankruptcy, — bankruptcy Street. An editorial in the New York Even- 

often repeated several times ? in^ Post has this to say on its value : 

I he wrecks of cattle companies in our West- 
em States are laughing-stocks because a laugh ^^n street has demonstrated again that it 
is the sole return which the owners have ever j^ ^he financial barometer of the nation. . . . 
had; yet the cowboys were paid their wages and when, during a long period, Wall Street is set 
the country ate the beef If the truth were foul, foul weather is certain to come, 
known, very many successful corporations have j^ j^ ^f ^^ ^vail to call Wall Street "hard 
been built on the ruins of others, and, because names." Whether we like the individuals con- 
the successors have reaped the harvest sown by ^ectcd with it or not, the thing they do, in 
the original men, they have prospered, but the their united capacity, is both useful and indis- 
return on the first and second capital taken to- pensable. They bring to bear upon trade and 
gether is not large. finance a collective judgment which is more 

After recounting the struggles of the Bell valuable than that of any one banker, mer- 

Tplenhonp Comnanv and the Steel Cornora- ^^^"^' manufacturer, or any one group of busi- 

1 elepnone ^^mpany and tne Meel ^.orpora ^^^^ ^^^ Hundreds of men, with 

tion, Major Higginson declares that most thousands of millions at stake, give their 

of our great railroads and industrial enter- nights and days to the closest scrutiny of the 

prises have had the same history ; and now to ^^^^st facts obtainable, and their inference, 

ij u u J u after comparing notes and checking off data, 

us older men who have seen money and hope ^„^j ^^ nearer the truth than that of observers 

and lite sunk in these colossal tasks arises less skilled. 



MAKING MONEY WORK. 



P 



EOPLE who have worked hard for their — a single share, if he so desires, and any broker 

money, and who now want to work will be glad to receive his order. 

♦U- ^^^^.r ;«.o*.u i^^ oil ;«. ,„;ii u^Cr^or o^^ .^o,r ^^^ "^"^t what is said here be interpreted as a 

the money itself for all it will bring, are pay- recommendation to purchase any particular se- 

ing serious attention to such articles as Mun- curity or as a guaranty of profit to the investor. 

sey's Magazine prints this month, under the The advice must be accepted exactly as it is 

title: "A Rare Opportunity for Making In- given,— in general terms. Securities are now 

» selling at bargain prices and offer a rare oppor- 

vestments. t^nity to both large and small capitalists. This 

For the small investor, with a few thousand stock or that stock may go down still lower, and 

or even a few hundred dollars, — so few that they this investment or that investment may result in 

must be made to earn every cent that can be loss. No man can tell whether the bottom prices 

squeezed out of them without undue risk, — the have been reached, or -when they will be reached. 

1907 panic has created a rare opportunity. Dividends, too, may be temporarily or even per- 

Of- course, it is useless to dodge the fact that manently reduced. Nevertheless, the chances are 

the purchaser of any common railroad stock, or many to one that any standard American^ stock 

of most preferred industrials, is taking a risk, or bond purchased now, and held as an invest- 

This article is helpful only tc those who realize ment, will prove a satisfactory and remunera- 

this fact, and who are looking for the least risk tive acquisition. 

and the utmost possible extra gain. rr^i ^^ r m 1 1 • 1 .1 1 

It is utter folly for a small investor to think The lists of railroad and industrial stocks 

of buying stocks on margin. His only safe and which Munsey's suggests as " standard " are 

pnid^t course is to purchase outright, paying in given on the next page, with the price and 

full for his securities, getting a certificate for „• 1 1 .^ .1,^ «„^^u«««^ ^«*^«^«.«j ,,« «.^ *.\y^ 

them, and putting it carefully away. He can y^^}^ ^^ *e purchaser corrected up to the 

take as few or as many shares as he can pay for, going to press of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



m 



THE AMERICAN kEyiEii^ OF kE^/^U^S. 



BAILROAD STOCKS. 

Price yield 

about. about. 

Atchison 73 8.''2 

Baltimore & Ohio 89 6.7 

Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul 115 6 

Chicago & Northwestern 150 4.6 

Delaware & Hudson 166 5.8 

Great Northern 1 23 5.6 

Illinois Central 131 5.3 

Louisville & Nashvillo 101 5.9 

New York Central 102 5.8 

New York, New Haven, & Hartford. .140 5.7 

Norfolk & Western 68 7.3 

Northern Pacific 124 5.6 

Pennsylvania 116 6 

Reading 109 3.6 

fcJouthem Pacific 76 7.8 

Union Pacific 126 7.9 

INDUSTKIAL STOCKS. 

American Car & Foundry (preferred) 90 7.7 

American Locomotive (preferred)... 91 7.6 

American Smelting (preferred) 95 7.3 

American Sugar (common) 113 6.1 

General Electric 124 6.4 

National lUscuit (preferred) lOG 6.6 

National Lead (preferred) 90 7.7 

United States Steel (common) 30 6.6 

United States Steel (preferred) 94 7.4 

Virginia-Carolina Chemical (pref. ).. 93 8.6 

Western Union Telegraph 59 8.4 

BONDS VS, STOCK. 

The surest possible way, after all, if you 
want an income that is absolutely sure, is to 
buy the right kind of bonds, — not stocks. 
An experience in proof is told by George 
Carey in The Outlook: 

A few years ago the stock of a great corpora- 
tion was offered to the public at a price remark- 
ably low, considering the fact that dividends 
were then being paid and rumors of their per- 
manency were being circulated. Here is the 
actual experience of one investor in that stock. 
She, — for this particular person was a dress- 
maker in a small town, who had saved a few 
hundred dollars, — did not know what the word 
stock signified. But she did see, thanks to the 
" tips " of well-meaning friends, that the pur- 
chase of this particular stock meant an income 
of about 9 per cent. 

Therefore, this woman, attracted b^r an ex- 
traordinary income, invested her savmgs in a 
mere possibility. The earning capacity of the 
stock was practically untested. Still, she bought 
in small amounts as it advanced in market price. 
Suddenly it began to decline, for, as the wise 
ones knew, its rise had been due to skillful 
manipulation. The woman, inspired still by 
well-meaning friends with " tips," continued to 
buy as the stock went down. When it had 
reached a point at which the income was about 
20 per cent, on the investment the directors de- 
creed a suspension of dividends for an indefinite 
period. Immediately the stock fell to something 
less than lo per cent, of its par value. The poor 
dressmaker's savings were wiped out. She 
could not even borrow money, offering her com- 
paratively worthless shares as collateral. No 
one wanted them. 

Had this woman bought the bonds of the same 
company she would have had an assured income 
of about 5 per cent, per annum, and principal 
unimpaired. She could not watch the markets 
and buy and sell as speculators do, risking all 
for great profit or utter ruin. What she needed 
was safety of principal and peace of mind. 



PAY FOR STOCKS AND KEEP THEN^. 

The folly of trying for quick " turns " irt 
the stock market, — selling out for the first 
small profit possible, — is strongly emphasized 
by no less a person than a stock broker him- 
self in The World To-Day, Of course, no- 
body should buy stocks anyhow who cannot 
take risks, but depends on the income. And 
here comes " A member of the Chicago Stock 
Exchange," who, against his own interest, 
advises the small purchaser of stocks to pay 
cash for them, take them away, and keep them 
a year or two: 

Is the present a favorable time for speculation 
in securities ? For what is termed a "long pull," 
yes. Manipulation, which has been so marked a 
feature of the speculative market for the past 
three years, still continues, and the financial 
strength of these operators is so great that the 
market may be moved up or down a considerable 
number of points, even at times directly contrary 
to the general situation. I therefore believe that 
in the uncertainty which exists as to financial 
matters attempts at so-called " quick turns " in 
the market are not advisable. 

One can, however, easily discover high-grade 
railroad and industrial stocks which, even 
should these companies be forced by a reaction 
in mercantile business to reduce their dividends, 
would still bring a good return on the prices at 
which to-day they may be bought. With a 
Presidential year ahead of us we can not expect 
much expansion, but it is generally conceded 
that the fundamental conditions of the country 
are such that we are not apt to have a protracted 
period of depression. 

With fair crops in 1908, and the election out 
of the way, the country should rouse again to 
activity in commercial and manufacturing lines, 
under which condition, coupled with a normal 
money situation, much higher prices for securi- 
ties will doubtless be seen. 

THE FIRST TO RISE IN PRICE. 

It is the high grade bonds and the preferred 
railroad stocks that will be the first to rise 
from panic prices, according to the scientific 
argument of Byron W. Holt, editor of 
Moody's Magazine, The boom in railroad 
common stocks and industrials will follow. 
Mr. Holt's opinion is based on the likelihood 
of a plentiful money supply during the first 
half of 1908. Also, this is " what ordinarily 
happens after a panic. First, the most secure 
securities rise; then the less secure securities 
rise; and finally, when earnings are best, the 
insecure securities rise." 

Now the " most secure " are evidently ( i ) 
Railroad bonds directly secured; (2) other 
bonds of sound railroad companies; (3) pre- 
ferred railroad stocks, whose dividend must 
be paid before any dividends on the common 
stock. 



L^ADlNd PI}^AUC1AL Ak IICLES. 



24d 



Not only will hoarded money be invested 
in good securities, but large amounts of money 
will be withdrawn from savings banks and 
put into these securities. By next June the 
rise in this class of securities may be pretty 
well over and the tide of investment will then 
turn to the less secure grades of securities, — 



the common stocks of railroads and the pre- 
ferred and, in some instances, the common 
stocks of the industrials. 

The following tables of prices and yields 
of bonds and preferred stocks will give in- 
vestors an idea of the great bargains now to 
be had in the " most secure " securities: 



HIGH QBADE BAILBOAD BONOS. 



Name of bonds. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa F£ guaranteed 48, 1905 

Atlantic Coast Line Ist 48, 1952 

Baltimore & Ohio preferred 3V^8, 1925 

Chesapeake & Ohio consolidated 5s, 1939 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Illinois Division, 3Mts, 1949 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas 1st 4s, 1990 

Norfolk & Western Consolidated 4s, 1996 

Reading general 4s, 1997 

Southern Pacific refunding 4s, 1955 , 

Union Pacific consolidated 48, 1946 

Wabash 1st 5s, 1939 



I 



GOOD BAILBOAD BONDS. 

1 



Name of bonds. 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 adjustable 4s, 1995 

Baltimore & Ohio general 4s, 1948 

Central Railroad of Georgia consolidated 5s, 1945 

Colorado & Southern 1st 4s. 1929 

Delaware & Hudson consolidated 4s, 1916 

lake Shore debenture 4s, 1928 

Northern Pacific general 3s, 2047 

Pennsylvania convertible 3Hs, 1912 

Pennsylvania convertible 3^s, 1915 

Union Pacific convertible 4s, 1927 



ligh price 
in 1906. 

104M« 

1021/ 
971 

llOV^ 

95V4 
103 

102'^ 

97% 
102 
119 



ligh price 
in 1906. 

97% 
105VJ 
114K. 

90«^j 
112T& 
101% 

78^ 
105% 
101 



Name of stock. 



raEFEBBED BAILBOAD STOCKS. 

Dividend 



rate. 
Per cent. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa F^ 5 

Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul 7 

Chicago & North Western 8 

Colorado & Southern 1st 4 

Great Northern 7 

Missouri, Kansas, & Texas 4 

Reading 1st 4 

Southern Pacific 7 

Union Pacific 4 



High price 

in 1906. 

106 

218 

240 

73% 
348 

76 

96 
120% 

99y4 



Low price 
m 1907. 

78H 
130 
126 

41 
107% 

53 

73 
100 

75 



Low price 
in 1907. 

89% • 
82 
85% 
101 
82% 
89% 
8G 
86% 
82 

78y4 
99% 



Low price 
in 1907. 
77 

88 





Late 
prices. 

90 

88 

91 
107% 

86 

94 

92% 

93 

88 

84T^ 
105^ 



Late 
prices. 
83 
96% 
98 
82% 
95 
88% 

^ 



Yield 
per cent. 
5.93 
5.56 
5.81 
7.73 
5.94 
7.05 
5.13 
6.58 
5.00 



Yield 
per cent. 
4.21 
4.80 
4:38 
4.41 
4.41 
4.33 
4.41 
4.38 
4.78 
5.11 
4.61 



Yield 
per cent. 
5.01 
4.22 
5.12 
5.64 
4.83 
5.04 
5.18 
5.77 
5.53 
5.70 



Margin 
of safety.* 

per cent. 
13.10 
21.78 
63.52 
18.50 
7.55 
24.33 
25.60 
27.49 
31.02 



• This means the ratio of the surplus earnings (after paying the preferred dividend) to the amount of 
the preferred stock. Thus the Missouri. Kansas & Texas has sufilcient earnings to pay its preferred dlvi- 
dendsix times more; the Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul three times more, etc. 



THE VALUE OF A BANKER. 



^^O to your banker as you go to your doc- 
tor or your lawyer, — before things 
happen. If you wait till after you invest, it 
may be too late. It is nothing to be ashamed 
of, that the average busy man or woman may 
lack the professional training to distinguish 
a legitimate opportunity from an unscru- 
pulously oflfered fraud. 

An anecdote to this eflfect is told by George 
Carey in The Outlook under the title " In- 
vesting Money ": 

In a small Western town there lives to-day a 
young widow whose husband, a physician, died 
a few years ago, leaving her a home and some 
$40,000 in life insurance. It so chanced that this 
young woman was wholly unfamiliar with fin- 
ancial matters. A friend of her husband, a man 



destined to become later a great financier and 
world-builder, called upon her. To him she 
confided her perplexities. Then this man, 
simply, as great men speak, made clear to her 
the essential principles of investment. Doubt- 
less he was all unconscious of laying down rules. 
Yet this is what he said : " Mrs. Blank, you must 
place your money where the safety of your prin- 
cipal is assured. That is the first consideration. 
You should also be able to exercise control over 
your principal,-.-that is, to convert it, or at least 
a part of it, into cash with readiness should oc- 
casion arise. Finally, we must find for you se- 
curities that will return the largest possible in- 
come consistent with the first two requirements, 
and that promise to increase in market value, 
under normal conditions." 

These principles are fundamental. They 
should be applied to the selection of any form 
of investment whatsoever. 



250 THE AMERICAN RE^IEIV OF REyiElVS. 

n.4.««#^»» .^T,^ ,^T«r^r..«^n v^rmn^rxTrr^T-FN ^c Hhs to Hialce 2i conncctioii, Hc should first 

BANKER AND INVESTOR INTRODUCED. ^^^^ ^j^ banker with the most minute care; 

T . . run then bring or send a good introduction; then 

It IS even more important tor the small cHnch the argument of good standing by paying 

investor than for the capitalist to get into for his purchases in certified checks or in cash, 

touch with the right kind of a banking-house. Under such circumstances he will be a welcome 

An introduction of some sort was helpful to ^^^3^^^"'"'^'^ customer in any good banking- 

the average stranger who came into Wall * ^ 

Street last winter, to choose among the many "^"^ banker or the tipster. 

stock and bond bargains. ^^ Sharp and bitter is apt to be the correction 
In a good many cases,, says an article ^f ^^^^^ ^^io spend their capital at the bid- 
in tht Worlds Work he made the mistake ^j^g ^^ ^^^ ^ut a responsible banker. An 
of sending his mdney by mail to some widely amazing case in proof is the actual record of 
advertised, clever, alluring brokerage house ^^e most brilliant and powerful of all adver- 
with no reputation except the one it gave it- ^-^^ ^jps^^j.^^ Thomas W. Lawson, of Bos- 
self by advertising m untrustworthy news- ^^n. In Si/ccm. Frank Fayant writes: 
papers and equally untrustworthy periodicals. 

But in the large majority of cases he made Lawson has traded in copper shares for thirty 

. ^ 1 5 1 \^ ^ \^ 4.«j u« years; he has bought and sold more copper 

no mistakes. He knew what he wanted: he ^i^^^^^ ^^an any other man in the world. He 

knew what he would pay : he found out the has bought and sold copper mines ; he has in- 
right place to go. In a very large proportion vestigated 2000 copper-mining propositions; he 
of cases he came himself, bringing his money has sold many millions of dollars of copper 
, . )i 7 o o shares to the public; and he has put the bulk of 
on nis person. ^ns own fortune into these shares. He is a 
Tri-t_ju -xt-ox ^ V. £ 1- recognized copper authority in Boston, the home 
If he had been in the Street before, he came ^j ^^^ industry. "If there is one thing 
with a letter of introduction from his banker, j know," says he, " it is copper." 
Without it he found the best and most satisfac- rj^ 1 . , r a i 
tory houses in Wall Street closed to him. For, ^ he actual price per share of Amalga- 
strange as it may seem, many houses demand mated, a stock largely dealt in by the outside 
such an introduction even from the man who public on Mr. Lawson's Say-so, rose from 
carries specie or bills with him to pay for what ^ ^ gj^^^e in 1904 to $121 in January, 
he buys. In times of panic, such as the first ^^^ ,, a a^ ^ r\ {z r»\! 
week or so in November, checks on out-of-town IQO?,— and dropped to $41 by October. But 

banks were not accepted in payment unless cer- " Mr. Lawson cried * Sell! ' all the way up, 

tified. Dozens of men came into town to make and, turning at the very top of the copper 

purchases and went back without them, merely ^^ ^^ied ^ Buy! ' all the way down. It is 

because they had failed to realize the necessities ^ 1 1 1 ^1 1 "^ i_ u 
of the case. ^probably the worst record any prophet lias 

Every small investor intending to buy stocks ever made." 

or bonds should see to it that these little pre- In justice Mr. Fayant explains that Mr. 

liminaries are observed If he has a connection Lawson was himself deceived, through expect- 

with a good banker, then he is all right. His . . . ^ \. • t 

checks need not be certified except in actual »"g » "^w invention to lovver the pncc of 

panic, when banks are under suspicion. But if copper. The invention didn't work. 



SIGNS OF THE TIMES. 

PXACTLY what is happening to Ameri- 
can business, now diat the panic has 

passed, is plainly pointed out by those national Pig iron production is at its lowest for 

news items which financiers always watch seven years past, excepting only one period at 

keenly as signs of the times. Just now, busi- the beginning of 1904. In December it sank 

ness men, and investors generally, find them nearly one- third below November, and nearly 

of peculiar importance. Below the latest of one-half below December, 1907. 

them are summarized and compared with for- Dec, 1907. Nov..i907. Dec.,i006. 

.J • • s^ A. £. T^L T Total tons for United 

mer periods, — pig iron output trom i he Iron states 1,234,279 i,828,i25 2,236,153 

Age; bank clearings and railroad gross earn- 
ing from the Financial Chronicle and the 

Wall Street Journal, and business failures As far as may be judged from the falling 

from Duns Review. Taken together, they off in bank clearings compared with last year, 

look as if the worst was over. the nation is cutting down its trade by about 



BANK CLEARINGS. 



LEAblJ^G PINAUCIAL articles. 



261 



one-fifth. New York City clearings, in the 
table below, appear to have shrunk much 
more than a fifth, but part or all of this 
shrinkage is accounted for by the slackness 
in speculation on the New York stock ex- 
changes, — not by any contraction in real 
industry. 

New York All other 

City. cities. 

Decrease from 1907 figures. Per cent. Per cent. 

Week ending January 4, 1908 37.2 19.9 

Week ending January 11, 1908 37.2 16.6 

Week ending January 18, 1908 19.7 18.4 

The situation becomes plainer if one 
glances at the latest detailed figures obtain- 
able, which follow. They show that so far 
from falling off one-fifth, or 20 per cent., 
Chicago and St. Louis show losses of less 
than 6 per cent, and 9 per cent., respectively. 
Only Boston and New Orleans lost as much 
as New York. 

Week ending January 18. Decrease. 

1908 1907 Per cent 

New York $1,468,736,052 $1,828,621,307 19.7 

Boston 149,463,388 199,656,201 25.1 

Philadelphia 107,249,313 124.457,769 13.8 

Baltimore 22;069,619 25,103,766 12.1 

Chicago 189,933,377 201.210,340 5.9 

St. Louis 54,137,823 59,410,667 8.9 

New Orleans 17,560,669 22,040,714 20.;^ 

Seven cities, 5 

days $2,008,610,241 $2,560,500,764 21.6 

Other cities, 6 
days 352,076,298 426,748,294 17.5 

7otal all cities 

5 days '.$2,360,686,539 $2,987,249,058 21.0 

All cities, 1 day 450.118,926 455.820,669 1.3 

(estimated.) 

Total all cities 

for week $2,810,805,465 $3,443,069,727 18.4 

RAILROAD EARNINGS. 

Railroad earnings are falling off very bad- 
ly. Although the " gross " figures below for 
December are only 4.37 per cent, behind 
those of a year before, the actual loss to the 
railroads in net income will be more than 
10 per cent, during December, since operat- 
ing expenses are eating up about 10 per cent, 
more of the gross earnings this year. 

Month of Per 

December, 1907. 1906. Decrease, cent. 

Gr'8 pam*gs. 
(50 roads). $67,856,800 $70,953,201 $3,096,401 4.37 

Even more depressing is the record for the 
first week of January. The first thirteen 
roads reporting earned 14 per cent, less than 
they did in the same period of 1907. The 
wise railroad management meets this slack- 
ening by cutting down expenses, laying off 
crews, and postponing improvements, until 
passengers and frei^t stir more actively. 



COMMERCIAL FAILURES. 

Commercial failures made 1907 a bad year, 
but there have been worse. Many more firms 
went under than during 1906, but not as 
many as in 1904, 1903, or in any one of the 
six years ending with 1898. The total 
amount of money lost, however, was less 
than in 1893 or 1906. Another cheerful fact 
is that the final sources of our wealth, — farm 
products, — are valued for 1907 at 10 per 
cent, more than in 1906. Most of the 1907 
trouble seems to have come from too much 
manufacturing; $106,000,000 was lost this 
way, as against only $45,000,000 during 
1906. 

COMMEBCIAL PAILURE.S FOR FIFTEEN TEARS. 

Year. No. Liabilities. Average. 

1907 11.725 $197,385,225 $10,184 

1906 10,682 119,201,616 11.160 

1905 11,520 102,676,172 8,912 

1904 12,199 144,202,311 11,820 

1903 1 2.069 155,444,185 12,879 

1902 11,615 117,476,769 10,114 

1901 11,002 113,092,376 10,279 

1900 10,774 138,495,673 12,864 

1890 9,.3.37 90,879,889 9,733 

1898 12.186 130,662,89» 10,722 

1897 13,351 154,332,071 11,669 

1896 15,088 226,036,134 14,992 

1895 .,13,197 173,196,060 18,124 

1894 13.885 172,992,856 12,458 

1893 15,242 346,779,889 22,761 

STARTING THE WHEELS SLOWLY. 

Although at last businessmen are able to 
borrow the money they need to run their 
wheels of manufacturing and trade, they are 
not starting up with a rush. Bradstreet's of 
January 1 1 says that " Industry is, as a 
whole, on short time." 

On January 18, the reports to this jour- 
nal show " improvement in collections. A 
survey of the entire situation, financial, com- 
mercial and industrial, ijidicates improvement 
along conservative lines, although it is prob- 
able that a relatively smaller volume of spring 
trade will be done." 

Many important cases are reported of re- 
sumption : the American Tin Plate Company 
mills at Newcastle, the Pittsburg Steel Com- 
pany plant at Glassport, a number of factories 
in Cincinnati, and some mills in Buffalo. In 
Chicago, the steel, wire, brass, wood, and 
leather working concerns generally have re- 
opened. 

These instances are significant. Collec- 
tions are better than in December. But, on 
the whole, " jobbers report trade quiet, and 
merchants disposed to reduce stocks rather 
than anticipate requirements." 



THE NEW BOOKS. 
NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. 



NEW VOLUUES OP HISTORY AND BIOORAPHY. 

A new history of the United States and its 
people is projected by the Harpers. Five vol- 
umes of the twenty-six which will complete 
the enterprise have already been issued. The 
series is entitled " The American Nation : A 
History, from Original Materials by Associated 
Scholars." The editor of the series. Prof. Al- 
bert Bushnell Hart, declares in the introduction 
to the first volume that the work is to treat 
" the people combined into a political organiza- 
tion, with a national tradition, a national pur- 
pose, and a national character." Each volume 
IS to be written by an expert for laymen, and 
to contain a portrait of some man especially 
eminent within the field covered. The titles of 
the volumes already issued will indicate the 
general viewpoint of the entire series. The 
first is " European Background of American 
History," and is written by Dr. Edward Potts 
Cheyney, of the chair of history in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. Professor Cheyney, as- 
suming that American civilization is a trans- 
planted growth, believes it necessary to a true 
understanding, of our national history to con- 
sider Europ^li conditions. " The Basis of 
American History " is the title of the second 
volume, by Dr. Livingston Farrand, professor 
of anthropology at Columbia. It consists of a 
review of the physical features of North Amer- 
ica as influencing the history of our people. 
Volume III. is entitled " Spain in America," 
and is by Dr. Edward Gaylord Bourne (history, 
Yale). It includes not only an account of the 
discovery and exploration of our continent by 
the Spaniards, but a full consideration of the 
entire Spanish colonial system. Volume IV., 
" England in America," is by President Lyon 
Gardiner Tyler, of William and Mary College. 
It treats of the early, formative period in our 
national history. Volume V. is by Dr, Charles 
McLean Andrews (history, Johns Hopkins), and 
is entitled "Colonial Self-Govern men t." 

"The New Harmony Movement" is the some- 
what ambiguous title given to a volume by 
George B. Lockwood (Appletons). In the in- 
terest of clearness we can assure the reader that 
the work has no reference to any new move- 
ment in the direction of sociological harmony, 
but is entirely concerned with the history of 
two important communities which had their 
seat at the village of New Harmony, Ind. The 
first of these was the settlement of the Rap- 
pi tes, early in the nineteenth century, which 
after ten years gave place to the society founded 
by Robert Owen. Both of these were exceed- 
ingly interesting social and industrial experi- 
ments. In connection with the Owen commu- 
nity especially there were educational features 
of unusual interest. It is claimed for the New 
Harmony community that it was a pioneer in 
the establishment of infant schools, kinder- 



gartens, trade schools, and industrial schools as 
a part of the free public-school system. 

A noteworthy contribution to American 
scholarship has just appeared in the posthumous 
history of "The Mongols" (Little, Brown & 
Co.), by Jeremiah Curtin, with a sympathetic 
introduction by President Roosevelt. The late 
Jeremiah Curtain, one of the most remarkable 
of modem linguists and a deep student of 
Asiatic as well as eastern European history, de- 



voted a great portion of the last years of his 
life to a study of the origin, development, his- 
tory, and disappearance of the Mongols as a 
world power. He had just completed his work 
when death terminated his career. In the work 
just issued, which is oneof two in which the sum 
of his studies on this subject will be published, he 
considers the campaigns and conquests of Jenghis 
Khan and his successors in China, Russia, AraUa, 
and Persia, bringing the narrative down to the 
first part of the fifteenth century. A second 
book, to be entitled " Russia Under the Mon- 
gols," will appear later. Resides his transla- 
tions of the great novels of Henrtk Sienkiewici, 
it will be remembered that Mr. Curtin was au- 
thor of a number of works with early historical, 
mythological, and folk-lore subjects, including; 
"The Myths and Folk-Lore of Ireland." "Hero 
Tales of Ireland." "Myths and Folk-Tales of 
the Russians. Western Slavs, and Magyars," 



THE NEiV BOOKS. 



" Creation Myths of Primitive America," and 

A new edition of Dr. Lewis H. Morgan's 
" Ancient Society " has been brought out in 
clear, readable type by Holt. 

Apropos of the centennial anniversary of Ful- 
ton's successful application of steam to naviga- 
tion and also of Ihe coming celebration of the 
tercentenary of Henry Hudson's discovery of 
the great river which bears his name, a little 
volume entitled "' Old Steamboat Days on the 
Hudson River," by David Lear Buckman, has 



(First 



e Hudson K 



r Bteamboat men.) 



been issued hy the Grafton Press, of New York. 
This volume is full of entertaining reminiscences 
and anecdotes relating to the development of 
steam navigation, wiih full descriptions of the 
various mechanical improvements that have been 
introduced in recent years. Although these im- 
provements have been noteworthy, it is some- 
what surprising to the reader who has never be- 
fore investigated the matter that boats of fifty 
years ago had records for speed that are only 
slightly surpassed by their successors of to-day. 
Steamboaling in those days was a far more 
exciting calling than it is to-day, and the ISO 
miles of river between New York and Albany 
had its full share of romance. 

A scholarly history of " The Navy of the 
American Revolution " has been prepared by 
Dr. Charles O. PauUin (Cleveland: The Bur- 
rows Brothers Company). In all other histories 
of our Revolutionary navy the narrative is prac- 
tically confined to the movements of the ships 
at sea and the details of the naval battles. In 
the present work Ihe point of view adopted ia 



that of admint si ration. It was truly a task 
worthy of modern historical scholarship to bring 
into our view the actual administrative machin- 
ery of the Revolutionary navy. To do this it 
was necessary to review and analyze the work 
of nava! eomraitlees, secretaries of marine, navy 
boards, and naval agents. In this volume Dr. 
PauUin has narrated not only the history of the 
continental navy, but has included in the scope 
of his history the separate navies of the indi- 
vidual States. 

The autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, in 
two volumes (New York: The Baker & Taylor 
Company), contains, besides the personal expe- 
riences of Major-General Howard, a full ac- 
count of many of the most important military 
movements of the Civil War, together with nar- 
ratives of a number of Indian campaigns in the 
West General Howard's personality has for 
manj' years been a familiar one in this country 
outside of military circles because of his wide 
and active interest in religious and philan- 
thropic movements. His autobiography em- 
braces much material bearing on these various 
lines of endeavor. 

" The Life and Correspondence of James Mc- 
Henry," by Dr. Bernard C. Steiner (Cleveland: 
The Burrows Brothers Company), gives the life 
record of a surgeon upon Washington's staff 
who in later years served as Secretary of War 
under both Washington and Adams. Dr. Mc- 
Henry was never characterized either by his con- 
temporaries or by more recent historians as one 
of the great men of the Revolutionary period, 
but he enjoyed an intimate personal acquaintance 
with Washington, Hamilton, Lafayette, and 



254 THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 

many other leading spirits of that era. His cor- very useful handbook on " International Com- 

respondence, most of which now sees the light mercial Policies" has been compiled by Prof, 

for the first time, contains many important refer- George M. Fisk, of the University of Illinois, 

ences to persons and events that have long since This volume covers the whole range of tariffs, 

become historic A striking feature of the book customs, reciprocity, trade promotion, and navi- 

is its frontispiece, which is a reproduction in gation. The material is arranged upon a wholly 

color of a miniature painting of George Wash- new plan, which has special reference to the 

ington now owned by the heirs of Dr. McHenry. needs of the student and the general reader. 

A biography of the second Napoleon, which MUSIC 
has been properly entitled " The King of Rome," 

comes to us from the Knickerbocker Press. It Two recently issued histories of music ap- 
is by Victor von Kubinyi, and is a historical proach the subject from different view-points, 
study of the brief career and historic back- The notes for a philosophical music left by the 
ground of the unfortunate child of the great late John K. Paine (Harvard), bringing the sub- 
Napoleon. The volume is made additionally in- ject down to Schubert, have been collected and 
teresting by a number of supplements, which in- edited by Albert A. Howard and brought out in 
elude a geneology of the house of Bonaparte, a volume (Ginn) entitled "The History of 
tracing the descent to the Hon. Charles J. Bona- Music to the Death of Schubert" It is much to 
parte, at present Attorney-General of the United be regretted that Professor Paine did not live 
States. A number of other portraits are added, to carry out his scholarly idea of what a history 

_ ._.,^ of music should be. Dr. Waldo Selden Pratt, 

SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. ^^^ occupies the chair of music and hymnology 

Principal Booker T. Washington, of Tuske- in the Hartford Theolo^cal Seminary, on the 
gee, has written an informing book on "The other hand, has made his "History of Music" 
Negro in Business" (Chicago: Hertel, Jenkins (G. Schirmer, New York) a handbook and 
& Co.). In his travels through the country Mr. guide for students. It contains helpful illustra- 
Washington has become acquainted with many tions, and is so arranged typographically as to 
colored men and women engaged in various make the information it contains very accessible, 
lines of business and illustrating in their careers , Three new numbers m the Musician's Library, 
the opportunities and possibilities open to that being issued by Oliver Ditson, are Twenty 
people in their various lines of endeavor. In Pjano Compositions by Franz Joseph Haydn, 
this book he enumerates many of these instances edited by Xaver Scharwenka ; Wagner Lyrics 
for the purpose of encouraging other men and jor Baritone and Bass, edited by Carl Arm- 
women of the race to win success in similar bruster, and The Piano Compositions of Jo- 
business channels. Some of the industrial com- hann Sebastian Bach, m two volumes, edited 
munities organized by negroes in the South are by Ebenezer Prout. . * 

described at length, and there is a helpful dis- Two little descriptive and interpretive volumes 

cussion of the general subject of industrial edu- o" music of recent issue are The Appreciation 

cation and of the negro's commercial and social of Music, being a course of study for schools, 

relations with the South bearing directly on his colleges, and the general reader, edited (Novello) 

business activity by Thomas Whitney Surette and Daniel Gregory 

Chancellor Jalnes Roscoe Day, of Syracuse Mason, and " Half-Hour Lessons in Music " (in 

University, in a volume entitled "The Raid on the Music Student s Library, issued by Ditson), 

Prosperity" (Appletons), attempts a defense of by Mrs. Hermann Kotzschmar , ^ , , „ 

the Standard Oil Company and other corpora- Volume HI. of the Music-Lover s Calendar, 

tions charged at the present time with unethical edited by Henri J. van den Berg, comes to us 

practices in their methods of conducting busi- ^\om Breitkopf and Hartel. This number is 

ness. Chancellor Day believes that the Govern- pleasantly illustrated with portraits and other il- 

ment at Washington has been guilty of acts lustrations. 

"unwarranted by our Constitution and in their A useful handbook for the opera and concert 

tendency destructive to our liberties and the goer is Lawrence Gilman s Stones of Sym- 

progress of our commerce." "A lawmaking, phonic Music (Harper), offering m book form 

court-controlling executive department, a gov- information which will conduce to the mtelli- 

ernment by commissions, a personal construe- f5"^ hearing of orchestral and other music. Mr. 

tion of the Constitution," he declares, "is not a ^^i son Young also has prepared a- suggestive 

republic" volume of The Wagner Stories (McQure, 

In the series of prize essays in economics Phillips), while Mr. S. H. Hamer has treated 
which owes its existence to the generosity of ^^e same subject from a more strictly miisical 
Messrs. Hart, Schaffner, and Marx, of Chicago, viewpoint in his little volume with co lored illus- 
one of the most timely monographs is that con- V?^*^"^' ^^^ ^^^'^ ^^ ^^« ^^"^ (^°^^' 
tributed by Dr. Albert N. Merritt on the subject ^ead;. ^pp^^^^cE rooks 
of " Federal Regulation of Railway Rates " reference books. 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). Dr. Merritt be- ^ The development of the work of reference to 
lieves that federal control of rates is necessary its highest form of usefulness is one of the char- 
in this country and presents a rational plan for acteristics of modern publishing. Many valu- 
such control. Another topic treated in this able text-books of reference are appearing con- 
series is " Ship Subsidies." Mr. Walter T. Dun- stantly from presses of this country and Europe, 
more, instructor in the Western Reserve Law Among the less pretentious works of this kind. 
School, has investigated the policy of subsidiz- but eminently useful in their character, are two 
ing merchant marines. A good bibliography ac- works of historical tabulation and a fine mono- 
companies Mr. Dunmore's essay. graph on the commercial plants of the world. 

In the "Citizen's Library" (Macmillan) a From Holt we have the "Atlas of European 



THE NEIV BOOKS. 255 

History,** compiled by Earle W. Dow, junior reau in the Department of Commerce and Labor 
professor of history in the University of Michi- at Washington, have rendered necessary a work 
gan. This excellent work gives a history, — for of this character. Mr. Van Dyne's treatise is 
the first time in English, we believe, — almost ex- strongly commended by Prof. John Bassett 
clusively by maps and charts, of the different Moore, of Columbia University, and by other 
peoples of Europe. The most authoritative of eminent law authorities. Mr. Van Dyne is the 
the larger special atlases. Dr. Dow tells us, were author of a work on " Citizenship of the United 
consulted in the preparation of this volume. A States " and an accepted authority on the sub- 
new edition of Mr. George Palmer Putnam's ject. 

"Tabular yiews of Universal History" (Put- , BOOKS OF varied interest. 

nams) consists of a series of chronological tables o-^^i r «^-i'i. m. ^ ^ j ^ 

presenting in parallel columns a record of the Two volumes of particu ar mterest to students 

noteworthy events in the world's history from ??,H°^,T^^^^- The Nature and Origin of 

the earliest times down to 1907. The new edi- }:'% ^,f ^' ^^^"^^ f ^""^^T^ a translation 

tion contains a number of Important features, by Stoddard Dewey from the French of Prof. 

"The World's Commercial Products" is the Fehx leDantec, who is a member of the faculty 

title given to a handsome illustrated, descriptive ^^ ^^f p Tr'^u"^ ' ^""^ Plant Breeding (Open 

account (391 pages in quarto) of the economic £°"^* Publishing Company), being comments on 

plants of the world and their commercial uses, ^be experiments of Nilsson and Burbank by Dr. 




The title would indicate that the world's com- f^> research made by Europeon savants during 

mercial products of a mineral and animal na- ^^^ P^*^^ decade has been summarized and 

ture will be treated in later volumes. graphically set forth by that poetic French as- 

The second volume of the Catholic Encyclo- tronomer Camille Flammarioi% in a large vol- 

pedia (New York: Robert Appleton & Co.), in- Vc^ n"^^^^'^ Mysterious Psychic Forces 

eluding articles in the first two letters of the (Small, Maynard & Co.). A number of dia- 

alphabet, tends to confirm the impression as to ^^^^^ ^"^ o^^er illustrations supplement the 

the scholarship and conservatism of its editors *^^** , , ,, «,. . » , ^^ . 

made by the first volume. It is a valuable work A pleasantly told literary journey by Kath- 

of reference for all matters of Catholic doc- ?"ne Lee Bates (professor of English at Wel- 

trine, discipline, and histcry, and although Pro- l$sley College) appears from the press of T. Y. 

testants will be inclined to take issue with some Crowell & Co., under the title from Gretna 

of its statements of fact, there is slight ground ^^een to Lands End. , , ^ 

for fault-finding with regard to the spirit in ^ Three brochures recently issued by Susanna 

which matters of controversy are treated. The f^^roft are : Ideals and Privileges of Woman, 

use of this work should tend to dissipate er- Growth in Silence, and Character as Ex- 

roneous opinions held by non-Catholics and to pressed m the Body. The last title gives the 

break down unwarranted prejudice. The work Jf^y"ote to the three, which are styled the 

has a value not only for Catholics, but for the Know Thyself ^series These brochures are 

general reader of whatever religious belief. published by the Physical Culture Extension So- 

A useful work which is in some danger of ^^^^. (Chicago). , ,, , . , - ^ 

being mistaken by the layman for a technical ^ Jhe really remarkable dramatic work of Ga- 

law treatise because of its sheep binding and briel dAnnunzio which created, a year or so 

legal title, "Commercial Precedents" (Hart- ago, such a commotion in Italy,— " The Daughter 

ford: American Publishing Company), is made of Jorio,"— has been translated from the Italian 

up of the replies and decisions printed from by Charlotte Porter and brought out by Little, 

time to time in the New York Journal of Com- Brown & Co. It is a tragedy of the country of 

merce and Commercial Bulletin under the editor- Abruzzi, that corner of Italy to which " ever 

ship of Mr. Charles Putzel, of the New York clings an elemental savor of the savage blood of 

bar, who is one of the tax commissioners for the ancient race." 

Greater New York. Mr. Putzel has accom- The poems of Robert Bruce, complete in three 

plished the difficult task of compiling a work on volumes,— und^r the titles " Leaves of Gold," 

this subject which is applicable to conditions in "Wanderers," and " Scottish Poems,"— have been 

all the States of the Union. It is an indispen- brought out by the Bryant Union Company in 

sable work of reference for every business man. New York. 

Every-day liw questions, such as could not from A collection of touching and impressive 

the nature of the case be conveniently submitted " Stories of Jewish Home Life," translated from 

to an attorney, are here answered clearly, fully, the German by S. H. Mosenthal, has been 

and authoritatively. brought out by the Jewish Publication Society. 

A new legal work of more than ordinary im- Mr. John L. Given's " Making a Newspaper " 
portahce is " A Treatise on the Law of Natural- (Holt) is a detailed account of the business, 
ization of the United States," by Frederick Van editorial, reportorial, and manufacturing organi- 
Dyne, American consul in Jamaica (Washing- zation oiF a large city daily. Mr. Given was re- 
ton: published by the author). Recent sweep- cently a member of the staff of the New York 
ing changes in our laws, which practically revo- Evening Sun, and has run the gamut of all he 
lutionize the methods of naturalization and place tells us. Some anecdotes and actual experiences 
the matter under the control of the central bu- add to the interest of the volume. 



266 



THE AMERICAN RE^IElV OF REyiEWS, 



OTHER BOOKS RECEIVED. 



Abnormal Christians. By Charles Roads. Jennings 
& Graham. 

Alarcon's El Sombrero de Ires Picos. Edited by 
Benjamin F. Bourland. Holt. 

American Jewish Year Book, 1907-1908. . Jewish 
Publication Society. 

American Liberal Education. By Andrew P. West. 
Scrlbners. 

American Scene, The. By Henry James. Harpers. 

Andrew Jackson. By William G. Brown. Houghton, 
Mimin & Co. 

Aristocracy of Health, The. By Mary F. Henderson. 
Harpers. 

Automobillst Abroad, The. By Francis Mlltoun. L. 
C. Page & Co. 

Bible for Young People, The. Century. 

Black Trail of Anthracite, The. By S. R. Smith, 
Kingston. Pa. 

British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. By G. L. Beer. 
Macmlllan. 

British State Telegraphs. By Hugo R. Meyer. Mac- 
mlllan. 

By- Ways of Virginia History. By R. H. Early. Ever- 
ett Waddey Company, Richmond, Va. 

Campaigning with Grant. By Gen. Horace Porter. 
Century. 

Captain Lettarblalr. By Marguerite Merington. 
Bobbs-Merrill. 

Carrier Crisis, The. By Augustine Gallagher. F. J. 
Heer, Columbus, Ohio. 

Cathedral Cities of France. By Herbert Marshall. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Causes of the Panic of 1893. By W. Jett Lauck. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Chemistry of Commerce, The. By Robert K. Duncan. 
Harpers. 

Christianity and Modem Culture. By Charles G. 
Shaw. Jennings & Graham. 

Chronological and Alphabetical Record of the En- 
gagements of the Civil War. By Charles R. Coop- 
er. Caxton Press, Milwaukee. 

Confessions of a Monopolist, The. By Frederic C. 
Howe. Public Publlsning Company, Chicago. 

Conflict and Victory. By William S. Cochrane. Jen- 
nings & Graham. 

Currency and Coin. By Richard B. Pullan, New 
York. 

Darwinism To-day. By Vernon L. Kellogg. Holt. 

Declaration of Independence, Its History. By John 
H. Hazel ton. Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Documentary History of Reconstruction. (2 vol- 
umes.) By Walter L. Fleming. Arthur H. Clark 
Company, Cleveland. 

English Patents of Monopoly. By William H. Price. 
Houghton, Mifflin. 

Englishwoman in the Philippines, An. By Mrs. 
Campbell Daimcey. Dutton. 

Enterprise and the Productive Process. By Freder- 
ick B. Hawley. Putnam. 

Factory Legislation in Pennsylvania. By J. Lynn 
Barnard. John C. Winston Co.. Philadelphia. 

Familiar Letters of James Lowell. (2 volumes.) 
Houghton, Mifflin. 

Fltz Randolph Traditions. By L. V. F. Randolph. 
New Jersey Historical Society. 

Florence and Northern Tuscany. By Edward Hut- 
ton. Macmlllan. 

Franklin Year Book, The. By Wallace Rice. A. C. 
McClurg & Co. 

French Syntax and Composition. By W. U. Vree- 
land and William Koren. Holt. 

Friendly Chat About Mind Reading, A. By Page A. 
Cochran, Essex Junction, Vt. 

From Poverty to Power. By James Allen. Science 
Press, Chicago. 

Gaining Health in the West. By George B. Price. 
Huebsch. 

Gettysburg and Lincoln. By Henry S. Burrage. Put- 
nam. 

Handy Book of Card Games. By Belle M. Walker. 
Crowell. 

Handy Book of Synonyms. Crowell. 

Herbart and Froebel : An Attempt at Synthesis. By 
Perdval Richard Cole. Teachers' College, Colum- 
bia University. 

Heritage of Life, The. By James Buckham. Jen- 
nings & Graham. 

History of Ancient Civilization. By Charles Seigno- 
bos. Scribner, 



Hlatorv of Modem England. (Vol. V.) By Herbert 
Paul. Macmlllan. 

Houses for Town or Country. By William Herbert 
Duffleld. 

Industrial Conflict, The. By Samuel G. Smith. Rev- 
ell. 

Industrial Education. By Harlow S. Person. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 

Introduction to the English Historians. By Charles 

A. Beard. Macmlllan. 

Labor and Capital. By Goldwhi Smith. Macmlllan. 

Law: Its Origin, Growth and Function. By J. C. 
Carter. I^tnam. 

Life of Chief Justice Ellis Lewis. By Burton A. 
Konkle. Campion & Co., Philadelphia. 

Limit of Wealth. By Alfred L. Hutchinson. Mac- 
mlllan. 

Lord Randolph Churchill. By Lord Rosebery, Har- 
pers. 

Maine's Ancient Law. (Fourth edition.^ Holt. 

Many-Sided Roosevelt, The. By George W. Douglas. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Nature's Own Gardens. By Maud U. Clatke. Dut- 
ton. 

New Creations In Plant Life. By W. S. Harwood. 

Macmlllan. 
New Method for Csesar, A. By Franklin H. Potter. 

B. H. Sanborn, Boston. 

One Hundred and One Desserts. By May E. South- 
worth. Paul Elder & Co. 

One Hundred and One Oyster Recipes. By May E. 
Southworth. Paul Elder &Co. ^ J 

Oxford and the Rhodes Scholarships. By B. F. 
Scholz and S. K. Hornbeck. Henry Frowde, New 
York. 

Paradoxes of Nature and Science. By W. Hampson. 
Dutton. 

Pathways to the Best. By Charles L. Goodell. D.D. 
Funk & Wagnalis. 

Peace Given as the World Giveth. By John Bigelow. 
Baker & Taylor Co. 

Personal Forces in Modem Literature. By Arthur 
Rlckett. Dutton. 

Personal Hygiene. By Walter L. Pyle. W. B. Saun- 
ders Companv, Philadelphia. 

Pestalozzian Movement in the United States. By 
Will S. Monroe. C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Physiology and Hygiene for Children. By Robert 
Eadie and Andrew Eadie. University Publishing 
Company, New York. 

Powers of the American People, Congress, President 
and Courts. By Masujl Mlyakawa. Wllkens-Sheiry 
Company, Washington. 

Practical Guide for Authors, A. By William S. 
Booth. Houghton, Mifflin. 

Progress in the Household. By Lucy M. Salmon. 
Houghton, Mifflin. 

Public Ownership and the lelophone In Great Brit- 
ain. By Hugo R. Meyer. Macmlllan. 

Quest of the Colonial, The. By Robert and Eliza- 
beth Shackleton. Century. 

Racial Integrity. By A. H. Shannon, Nashville. 
Tenn. 

Railroad Situation. By L. W. Serrell. Moody Cor- 
poration, New York. 

Re-birth of Religion. By Algernon S. Crapsey. John 
I^ne Company. 

San Francisco and Thereabout. By Charles Keeler. 
A. M. Robertson, San Francisco. 

Sixty Years with Plymouth Church. By Stephen M. 
Grlswold. Kevell. 

Spring Fortnight in France, A. By Josephine Tozier. 
Dodd. Mead & Co. 

Stars and Stripes and Other American Flags. By 
Peleg D. Harrison. Little. Brown & Co. 

Training of th<» Human I'lant, The. By Luther Bur- 
bank. Century. 

Wage-Earners' Budgets. By Louise B. More. Holt. 

White Hyacinths. By Elbert Hubbard, East Aurora, 

Wireless Telegraphy. By Thomas M. St. John, New 
York. 

Women of the Confederacy, The. By J. L. Under- 
wood. Neale Publishing Company. Washington. 

Worth of a Man, The. By John P. D. John. Jen- 
nings ft Graham. 

You and Some Others. By Agnes G. Foster. Paul 
Elder & Co. 

Young In Heart. The. By Arthur Stanwood Pier. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 



THE AMERICAN REVIEW OF REVIEWS. 



EDITED BY ALBERT SHAW. 

Contents for March, 4908. 



King Manuel II. of Portugal Froniispiece 

The Progress of the World— 

Ten Yean Since the Spanish War 259 

A Period of Great Progress 259 

Tlie United States as a Spanish Power 260 

The World's Good- Will. . 261 

Our Mission of Peace in ^uoa 261 

Porto Rico as Another Instance 262 

Progress in Santo Domingo 262 

Taft's Report on the Philippines 262 

Three Great Statesmen of the Decade 264 

Filipino Representatives at Washington 265 

Japan and America 266 

Value of Our Naval Power 267 

A Philippic from the President 268 

A Drastic Indictment. .' 269 

Bitterness Against the President 269 

Is Federal Patronage Used for Taft ? 271 

The Hughes Movement 271 

The New York Delesation 272 

Senator Knox in Evidence 272 

Other Political Notes 273 

Phases of the Great Game 274 

Business Questions 275 

The Progress of Our Fleet 276 

Canada and Japanese Immigration 277 

Britain's Economic Problems 276 

A Dutch South Africa 278 

The Interminable Problem of Morocco 279 

The Lisbon Tragedy 279 

Political Conditioos in Portugal 260 

The New Boy Kins Manuel ll 281 

Germany's Peaceful Intentions 281 

The North Sea Question 261 

Russo-Turkish Relations 262 

The Troubles of Persia 262 

Japan's Sincerity in the Emigration Matter. . . 283 
WiUi portraits, cartoons, and other illustrations. 

Record of Current Events 284 

With portraits. 

Some of the Recent Cartoons 269 

F. A. Vanderlipj Banker- Journalist... 293 

By Charles F. Speare. 
With p6rtralt. 

The Outlook for Business Recovery. 299 

By H. C. Watson, 

Mac Dowell, an American Genius.. . . 301 

By Lawrence Gilman. 
With portrait. 

In the Land of the Sheep Barons 305 

By Arthur Chapman. 
With illustrations. 



Encyclopedias, Past and Present.... 311 

By Louis Windmiiller. 
With portraits and other illustrations. 

Cosmopolitan Clubs in Universities.. 317 

By Louis Lochner. 
With illustrations. 

The Magnetic Work of the Carnegie 
Institution 321 

By Herbert T. Wade. 
With illustrations. 

Portugal in the Family of Nations... 325 

By Isabel Moore. 
With portraits. 

Nominating a President 331 

By Victor Rosewater. 

The Man Out of Work To-Day 336 

By Arthur P. Kellogg. 

Shall Bank Deposits Be Guaranteed? 340 

By Gen. A. B. Nettleton. 

Objections to Bank-Deposit Insurance 345 

By David Kinley. 

Leading Articles of the Month — 

The Railroads* Power in the Stale 346 

The Waste of Life in American Coal Mining. 349 

The Canadian Immigration Policy 350 

The Russian Reaction' in Full Swing 352 

The Country Banker 353 

Elbert H. Gary: Real Head of the Steel Trust. 354 

The Master Builder of Standi^ Oil 355 

Is There Need for an International Speech ?. . 357 

The Comedy in the Tragedy of the Jew 359 

Alcoholism in the French Arniy 360 

France Losing in the Race for Population. ... 361 

Making Rome a Seaport 362 

What Is to Be the Future of Tripoli ? 364 

The Russian Duse in the United States 365 

The People's Theater at St. Petersburg . 366 

Long- Distance Photography 367 

Portugal and Spain inthe Work of Civilization 369 

What Geniuses Elat and Drink 370 

Germany, China, and the United States 372 

Elducating Our Boys : The Cost 374 

With portraits and other illustrations. 

Leading Financial Articles — 

Bond or Mortgage ? 375 

Cautions for Bond Buyers 375 

Good Cheer for 1908 377 

Financial Warnings 378 



The New Books 

With portraits. 



380 



TERMS : $8.00 a year in advance ; 25 cents a number. Foreign postage $1.00 a year additional. Subscribers may 
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KING MANUEL 11. OF PORTUGAL, THE YOUNGEST KING IN EUROPE. 

Manuel, second son of the late King Carlos I. of Portugal. «a* born November t;;, 1S89. 
He ascended the throne on Febrnary 1 of the present year, immediately aflcr the assasaniation 
of his father and brother. He continues the dynasty of Brngan^a, which dates from the 
end of the fonrtcenlh century. His mother, Queen Maria Amalia. was a French princess, 
daughter of Philip, Duke of Orleans, Count of Paris. The young King is very popular and 
has begun his reign with evidences of a manly and progressive spirit. 



THE AMERICAN 

Review of Reviews 

Vol. XXXVII, NEW YORK, MARCH, I^US. No. 3 



THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 

Ten Y^ara ^^ ^^^ coming into the period Spain. The President signed these resolu- 
8in0e the of tCH-year anniversaries of the tions on the following day, and an ultimatum 
pan 8 ar. ^^^^^ ^f ^^j, g^grt war with to Spain was cabled to our Minister at 
Spain. The destruction of our battleship, the Madrid, Gen. Stewart L. Woodford. On 
Maine, in the harbor of Havana, occurred the same date the Spanish Cortes assembled 
on February 15, 1898. History moved very and the Queen Regent sent to it a message 
rapidly in the following days and weeks, that meant war. On the following day, 
Both countries concerned appointed courts April 21, the Spanish Government sent Min- 
of inquiry on the disaster, the Spanish cruiser ister Woodford his passports, and this was 
Vizcaya visited New York Harbor mean- regarded as the technical beginning of a state 
while, and our cruiser Montgomery went to of war. On the 22d President McKinley 
Havana. On March 7, 8, and 9 a special ap- announced the outbreak of war to the neutral 
propriation of $50,000,000 was proposed at powers, and Admiral Sampson's fleet sailed 
Washington, carried through both houses, from Key West, the blockade of Cuban ports 
and signed by the President: The War De- beginning immediately. On the 25th Dew- 
partment began to mobilize the army, and on ey*s fleet sailed from Hong Kong for the 
March 12 the battleship Oregon sailed from Philippines. The Spanish fleet at Manila 
San Francisco to make her memorable soli- was destroyed on May i. General Shafter*s 
tary voyage around the coasts of South army sailed for Santiago, Cuba, just before 
America to join the Atlantic squadron. We the middle of June. The battle of San Juan 
rightly considered her a wonderful engine of marked the opening of July, and Admiral 
naval warfare in those days, but the navy Cervera's fleet, in trying to escape from San- 
has quite grown away from her, and she is tiago, was destroyed by our navy on July 3. 
not included in the fleet of sixteen battleships Before the end of the year the treaty of 
now making the reverse journey and ad- peace had been signed by the United States 
vancing far up the western coast of South and Spain, resulting in our acquisition of 
America. Porto Rico and the Philippines, and in the 

recognition of the independence of Cuba un- 

8om9 Dates '^'^^ Spanish fleet sailed from der the auspices of the United States. 
^ Be Cadiz for the Canary Islands on 

March 14. On the same date ^ p^^^^ The period that has elapsed since 

American public opinion was further stirred of Great 1898 has been a very remarkable 

up by Senator Proctor's report